The Great Material Debate Structural Steel Perspective

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1 The Great Material Debate Structural Steel Perspective Neb Erakovic, P.Eng. CH2M - Global Buildings 1

2 Presentation Outline Advantages of Steel Construction Sustainability Considerations Midrise Construction in Steel Advancing Technology Materials Working Together Concluding Remarks Advantages of Steel - General Durable - long life span Most recycled/reused material Reduced building weight High strength material - large spans capable to support heavy loads (yet utilizing small members) Large window areas, natural lighting, occupant comfort, reduced energy use Easy integration of MEP systems (cellular beams), low floor-to-floor heights, reduced building volume Superior quality/cost/speed 2

3 Advantages of Steel Design freedom - in some cases steel is the only choice (limitless opportunities) Important Considerations Most advanced and highly controlled (quality) material requires detailed and strict QC and QA procedures Highly engineered structures require precise and complete engineering, detailed design coordination and accurate fabrication (design and construction fixes are costly) Vibration sensitivity verification longer spans and taller buildings, and lighter structures (strength and deflections may not govern) Discussion re: EU approach to design for fire vs. passive protection in North America (fires are now different) Competitive industry need to evaluate bids in depth (assumptions and exclusions, VE, design assist and similar) 3

4 Sustainable Steel Sustainable Steel Structural steel is fabricated regionally in off-site facilities Off-site fabrication reduces number of on-site workers by 75% and construction time by 60% Over 80 million tons of steel recycled annually in North America Low Carbon footprint: 0.73 tons of CO 2 per ton of steel. Carbon footprint reduced by 47% since Buildings are easily deconstructed, enabling reuse and recycling of steel members LEED points: 6 of 14 in the MR category: recycled materials (2), regional content (2) and reuse (2) 4

5 Sustainable Steel MYTH vs. REALITY Structural steel is multi-used and >90% recycled to another steel product (other materials are typically single use) Steel can be recycled over centuries with no loss to quality (no other common construction materials can claim this) Wood advertised to be renewable building resource being renewable is not the same as being sustainable Wood construction stores carbon but only temporary, while shifting impact to future generations Wood construction products not being sustainably harvested in US >80% does not meet the industry standards Steel Midrise - Benefits Long-term consistent performance and durability Noncombustible material does not contribute to spread of fire especially during construction (lower insurance costs) Design and construction efficiencies structure is built in the shop to high standards/tolerances; save time and cost Superior strength/weight ratio Design flexibility to accommodate long spans and complex geometries, CH2M and greater usable area Resilient material Performs well in earthquakes and other extreme events; not affected by moisture/insects/time dependent effects Employs high quality control and assurance produced to meet global and national standards (not affected by regional variations) 5

6 Steel Mid-Rise Construction Typical Ontario construction includes 3 metal deck with concrete toping supported on steel beams spaced at ~3m Alternatively hollow core on conventional steel frame Proven record of performance (all aspects including structural performance, fire resistance etc.) Favorable cost (materials, crane, site overhead, financing) Advantageous speed and winter construction Flexible designs with small members (greater usable area) Inherent ability to accommodate future changes Alternatives Girder Slab System All typical advantages associated with steel framed buildings 8 to 10 total floor depth Underside of slab is finished ceiling Services run to underside of slab (free from obstructions) Ultra fast construction Meets AISC tolerances Non-combustible UL K912 rating Well suited to mid and high-rise apartments, hotels and residences 6

7 Alternatives Hambro Composite Floor All typical advantages associated with steel framed buildings Custom designed for each application (since 70s) Joist can span up to 43ft (13.1m) without shoring Simple integration of MEP services Fast and simple construction Complies with UL/ULC ratings STC 57 /IIC 30 acoustical rating Well suited to mid-rise affordable housing, hotels and residences Alternatives Long Span (Deep) Deck Various suppliers (Versa Deck, Canam, ) Integrates with any beam/column or load bearing wall framing method Clear span up to 36ft (11m) High-performance serviceability ratings for sound, vibration and fire resistance Can be panelized (needs crane for erection) Allows any floor covering or ceiling treatment (including an exposed fluted option) Well suited for residential applications 7

8 Advancing Technology Example BIM Pioneers in BIM (not by choice) Sophisticated trade Structure BUILT IN SHOP Precision is essential Issues on site minimal The BOW (CMHR) Wish Bone (CMHR) The Owl (ROM circa 2003) Advancing Technology Digital Reality 8

9 Advancing Technology Seismic Ductility Intelligent devices and designs elevate traditional industry closer to cars by introducing new technologies Active research field and development of devices (fork damper and scorpion, UofT) Specialized devices for enhanced seismic response ( shock absorbers ) Sophisticated design of connections and fuses for safer buildings ( crumble zones ) Advancing Technology Architectural Features BIM Steel AESS Castings 9

10 Advancing Technology Architectural Features BIM Steel/Glass AESS - Filigree Facades Advancing Technology Architectural Features BIM Steel/Glass AESS - Filigree Facades 10

11 Materials Working Together Case Study 1 AGO 11

12 Case Study 1 AGO Wood appearance Steel/concrete base Steel supports Steel connections Case Study 2 Ivey School 12

13 Case Study 2 Ivey School All Materials Working Together and Emphasizing Respective Strengths Case Study 3 CMHR 13

14 Case Study 3 CMHR Case Study 3 CMHR 14

15 Concluding Remarks Note: Following is opinion of the practicing engineer and may not be aligned with position of CISC and other governing bodies Wood and Concrete both rely on Steel Not in favor of Designing in Wood above 4 stories Aggressive marketing campaign to be tested Steep learning curve expected Time and extreme events will prove shortcomings Design flexibility/efficiency/capacity, cost, quality Steel is the winner Concluding Remarks Present project: MUNET Mexico City Steel Free Form over Concrete Base 15

16 Concluding Remarks Next project: EXPO 2020 Dubai Glass - Steel - Concrete Questions Thank You! 16

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