Life-cycle costing (LCC) as a contribution to sustainable construction: towards a common methodology. John Connaughton, Partner, Davis Langdon, UK

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1 Life-cycle costing (LCC) as a contribution to sustainable construction: towards a common methodology

2 AIMS Improve: competitiveness of the construction industry industry s s awareness of the influence on environmental goals of LCC performance of the supply chain the value offered to clients reliability of project information, predictive methods and risk assessment innovation in decision-making for procurement involving the supply chain

3 RESEARCH DOMAIN Countries UK France Germany Netherlands Sweden Finland Norway Ireland Spain Greece Czech Republic

4 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS LITERATURE REVIEW Extensive body of research exists (references since and still over 160 references) Economic evaluation methods, discounting, inflation & taxation Data (environmental, performance and cost) various data formats Manufacturers, Suppliers and Trade Associations Research Organisations, Test Houses and Certification Bodies National and EU Standards Research papers and reports, Component Life Manuals Occupiers Property Databases Risk/uncrtainty evaluation, methods and management Relationship between LCC and sustainability (LCA)

5 EU LCC DECISION FRAMEWORK MODEL

6 INTERVIEW RESULTS (1) LCC was used for internal assessments, client advice, for decision-making regarding investment, scale asset selection, research, advice to others, etc. No standards or formal methodologies exist (except of Norway s s NS 3454 and ISO Part 5) Economic evaluation - mainly NPV, infrequently payback (not much use of IBR, NS, etc.) Length of contract typically years, occasionally up to 120 years

7 INTERVIEW RESULTS (2) LCC carried out prior to any investment decisions, at design stage, at the beginning of FM contract Discount rate variation - from 0% to 10-12% 12% depending on public or private procurement (standard 3-6% 3 for public procurement) IT tools & models - Norway (LCProfit( LCProfit), otherwise developed in- house Sensitivity analysis infrequently (for discount rates, period of analysis) Risk risk registers; stochastic methods virtually not used (Norway only Monte Carlo Simulation) Barriers lack of knowledge among clients, no historical data to improve reliance, separate budgets for building and maintenance, unclear link with sustainability assessments

8 INTERVIEW RESULTS (3) LCA method (most popular) for sustainability assessments frequently driver for LCC, standard environmental indicators Methodology seemed complete, relationship of sustainability and LCC seen from individual professional involvement perspective varied Incompatible data formats and data classifications (the main barrier; no solution feasible), CEEC normalisation approach virtually unknown but welcomed Examples (archetypes, instances of LCC application, common uses, etc.) essential to provide a practical angle to the methodology

9 PURPOSE & SCOPE OF METHODOLOGY A Methodological Framework rather than a single prescriptive methodology Aim for a common & consistent application of LCC across EU, without replacing country-specific approaches Identifies key considerations at each stage in the LCC process Practical guidance on application of LCC in common scenarios Primarily aimed at public sector, but can also be used by private sector clients, advisors and contractors Guidance Note provides a client overview of the benefits of LCC and its application in the context of public sector procurement

10 CORE LCC PROCESS Defining the objective of the proposed LCC analysis Preliminary identification of parameters and analysis requirements Confirmation of project and facility requirements Assembly of cost and performance data Carry out analysis, iterating as required Interpreting and reporting results

11 LCC METHODOLOGY PROCESS MAP

12 LINKS WITH SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS STEP OUTCOME / ACHIEVEMENT 3 Identify the extent to which sustainability analysis relates to LCC Understanding of: Relationship between sustainability assessment and LCC Extent to which the outputs from a sustainability assessment will form inputs into the LCC process Extent to which the outputs of the LCC exercise will feed into a sustainability assessment LCC and LCA as criteria in broader evaluation of options LCC as a means of evaluating sustainability options LCC to evaluate financial aspects of sustainability impact LCA as a means of identifying options for subsequent LCC analysis

13 SUSTAINABILITY AND LCC

14 KEY ELEMENTS OF THE LCC GUIDANCE DOCUMENT Benefits of LCC application in construction o Particular focus on Public sector How LCC is commonly used Guidance on the methodology can be applied to common uses Interrelationship between LCC and sustainability analysis Intended readership: Public sector Procurers and public sector Owners/Occupiers Private sector Occupiers and commercial Investors/Developers Supply-side, including PPP contractors

15 CASE STUDIES (1) Project INSPIRE in the UK 2 office buildings (new-build and refurbishment) - application of LCC in private sector. Project Digi-house Finland Office building for a public client by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) - use of LCC for all stages of the facility s life cycle with strong focus on sustainable performance.

16 CASE STUDIES (2) College Maximilien Perret of Alfortville, France College developmentapplication of LCC to selected stages of the life cycle. Office accommodation for a public client in the Netherlands Designed and costed by the VROM Ministry - use of LCC for a selected 15 year period of the overall life cycle.

17 STUDY RECOMMENDATIONS The Commission should publish the Common LCC Methodology The Commission should actively promote use of the methodology and its associated processes and guidance in the construction industry Through its R&D programme, the Commission should encourage: o o o Further integration of LCC and LCA The development of EMAT guidelines The development of national guidelines consistent with the new Common LCC Methodology.

18 John Connaughton Partner Davis Langdon

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