Construction of a carbon dioxide laser and preliminary test for reduction reaction with hydrogen

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Construction of a carbon dioxide laser and preliminary test for reduction reaction with hydrogen"

Transcription

1 Construction of a carbon dioxide laser and preliminary test for reduction reaction with hydrogen Item Type text; Thesis-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Turner, Michael Kent, Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author. Download date 25/11/ :05:26 Link to Item

2 CONSTRUCTION OF A CARBON DIOXIDE LASER AND PRELIMINARY TEST FOR REDUCTION REACTION WITH HYDROGEN by M ichael Kent T urner A Thesis. S ubm itted to th e F'acuXty o f th e DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t o f th e R equirem ents For th e Degree o f MASTER OF-SCIENCE In th e G raduate C ollege THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

3 STATEMENT BY AUTHOR T his th e s i s h as been subm itted in p a r t i a l f u lf illm e n t o f r e q uirem ents f o r an advanced degree a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f A rizona and i s d e p o site d in th e U n iv e rs ity L ib ra ry to be made a v a ila b le to borrow ers under r u le s o f th e L ibrary,, B rie f q u o ta tio n s from t h i s th e s i s a re allo w ab le w ith o u t s p e c ia l p e rm issio n, p ro v id e d.t h a t a c c u ra te acknowledgment o f source i s made. R equests f o r p erm issio n f o r extended q u o ta tio n from o r re p ro d u c tio n o f t h i s m an u scrip t in whole o r in p a r t may be g ra n te d by th e head o f th e m ajor departm ent o r th e Bean o f th e G raduate C ollege when in h is judgment th e proposed use o f th e m a te ria l i s in th e i n t e r e s t s o f sc h o la r sh ip, I n a l l o th e r in s ta n c e s, however, p erm issio n must be o b ta in e d from th e a u th o r. SIGNEDs APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR This th e s i s has been approved on th e d a te shown below; P ro fe s s o r o f Chem ical E n g in eerin g f

4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The re s e a rc h would have been ex ceed in g ly d i f f i c u l t w ith o u t th e a s s is ta n c e o f Thomas B reen, th e C ollege o f Mines M achin ist H is id e a s made c o n s tru c tio n o f many p a r ts o f th e la s e r e a s ie r and more e x a c t. His id e a s a ls o h elp ed g r e a tly in th e assem bly and o p e ra tio n o f th e la s e r. The power supply and a s s o c ia te d e l e c t r i c a l equipm ent were d esig n ed and b u i l t under th e guidance o f E a rl V ick ery, stu d e n t and e le c tr o n ic s te c h n ic ia n in th e C ollege o f Mines

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v LIST OF TABLES O O O O O O O OOOOO O O O O O O O O OOOO v n ABSTRACT o o o a o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o oo o o o VL *1X INTRODUCTION O O O O O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1 LITERATURE SURVEY" , *3 THEORETICAL DISCUSSION ,»,. 0 0» = 0 10 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION,,., = l 6 CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION. o RECOM''ENDATIONS o. 0 0 o 00.0 CONCLUSIONS 0 o o o o o o APPENDIX As POWER SUPPLY PARTS LIST APPENDIX Bs OPERATING PROCEDURE ^ APPENDIX Cs NOMENCLATURE LIST OF REFERENCES o o 0 o o o iv

6 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F igure 1, 2o o So 9o Graph o f Peak Gain v e rsu s Tube D iam eter Page G ain v e rsu s D ischarge C u rren t f o r V arious B u ffer Gases %n CO^. o o. o o. o o. o. o o o E f f e c t o f W all Tem perature on Optimum Gain Sketch o f G eneral L aser C o n stru c tio n e, Energy L evel Diagram Showing Vi b r a tio n a l L evels p f COg and N^ Power Supply Schem atic W iring Diagram......».. 18 Photograph o f I n t e r i o r o f Power Supply Photograph o f Power Supply C ab in et Sketch o f High V oltage C onnector U n it V o ltm eter Schem atic W iring Diagram Photograph o f Mounted l a s e r Tube Photograph o f End Arrangement o f L aser Tube ? P hotograph o f Rear o f M irro r Mount, 29 P hotograph o f F ro n t o f M irro r Mount Cutaway Sketch o f M irro r Mount and Vacuum S e a l Diagram o f Gas In p u t System D iagram o f Vacuum Pump and Sam pling A pparatus Layout Diagram o f CO A n aly sis Equipment v

7 V I LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Continued F ig u re Diagram o f COg A n aly sis Equipment o. 40 Page S chem atic W iring Diagram f o r Ammeter t o M easure C u rrent y

8 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I O p eratio n C o n d itio n s ^2 I I CO A n a ly sis Be s u i t s ^*3 I I I CO^ A n aly sis R e s u lts IV R eactio n C a lc u la tio n R e su lts v i i

9 ABSTRACT A carbon d io x id e -n itro g e n flow ing gas l a s e r w ith in t e r n a l m irro rs and a D.C. power supply was b u i l t and o p e ra te d 0 The l a s e r was desig n ed to make a p re lim in a ry check on i t s p o s s ib le use as a chem ical, r e a c t o r 0 The r e a c tio n stu d ie d in th e l a s e r was th e reductio n o f carbon d io x id e w ith hydrogen. The r e a c tio n y ie ld s were 7<>30» 8. 19, and 10,03 p e rc e n t c a r bon d io x id e c o n v erted. The in c re a s e in y ie ld was th e r e s u l t o f th e in c re a s e i n hydrogen c o n te n t in th e gas m ixture ad m itted to th e l a s e r. No q u a n tita tiv e d a ta oh hydrogen c o n c e n tra tio n were ta k e n. Changes in n itro g e n c o n te n t o f th e gas m ixture f o r th e l a s e r had no s ig n if ic a n t e f f e c t on th e co n v ersio n o f th e carbon d io x id e. These r e s u l t s in d ic a te t h a t a more d e ta ile d stu d y should be i n i t i a t e d. C onverting th e l a s e r to an e x te r n a l m irro r c o n s tru c tio n and b u ild in g an a c c u ra te method f o r m easuring th e gas flow r a te s w ill allo w more p re c is e d a ta to be ta k e n. Equipm ent w ith f i n e r and more p re c is e c o n tro l ad ju stm en t should be assem bled to e s ta b lis h th e in p u t gas component c o n c e n tra tio n s.

10 INTRODUCTION L a sers, a source o f in te n s e r a d ia n t energy, have a wide range o f p o s s ib le u s e s 0 Uses in th e a re a o f chem ical en g in eerin g m ight be a s an energy source f o r a chem ical r e a c tio n, as a photochem ical c a t a l y s t f o r prom otion o f a s p e c if ic r e a c tio n, f o r a n a ly s is i n In f ra r e d S p ectroscopy, o r f o r a c c u ra te measurement o f sm all d is ta n c e s i n equipmento Even though th e l a s e r i s n o t e f f i c i e n t in i t s use o f powe r, th e beam produced i s more p r e c is e ly c o n tro lle d th a n l i g h t from o th e r sourceso The ease o f c o n tro l o f th e l i g h t beam i s due to i t s in t e n s i t y, sm all s iz e, and because th e l i g h t ra y s a re p a r a l l e l 0 In o rd e r to in v e s tig a te some o f th e p o s sib le a p p lic a tio n s o f l a s e r s i n chem ical e n g in e e rin g, a s e r ie s o f re s e a rc h p r o je c ts was proposedo p r o je c ts. T his t h e s i s i s a r e p o r t on th e f i r s t o f th e se proposed The o b je c tiv e s o f t h i s work were f i r s t, th e c o n s tru c tio n o f a l a s e r w ith r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t, and second, a p re lim in a ry t e s t to see i f i t was p o s s ib le to produce a chem ical r e a c tio n w ith in th e l a s e r. I t was a ls o d e s ire d to c o n s tr u c t th e la s e r in such a way t h a t i t would be a v e r s a t i l e p ie c e o f equipm ent f o r re s e a rc h in o th e r a r e a s 0 The gas l a s e r was b u i l t from a d e sig n p e rm ittin g th e l a s e r c a v ity to be used as a re a c tio n v e sse lo The type o f l a s e r b u i l t f o r t h i s work was th e carbon d io x id e - n itro g e n gas l a s e r. T his u n it was b u i l t because o f th e la rg e number. o f chem ical r e a c tio n s t h a t could be s tu d ie d u sin g i t a s an energy so u rc e,. ' : 1 '

11 In a d d itio n few er c o n s tru c tio n problem s were a p p a re n t, because a la rg e amount o f in fo rm a tio n was a v a ila b le in th e l i t e r a t u r e 0 The re d u c tio n o f carbon d io x id e w ith hydrogen was stu d ie d i n th e p re lim in a ry t e s t o f th e l a s e r. T his re a c tio n was chosen, because th e r e s u l t s from a p re v io u s stu d y under s im ila r c o n d itio n s were a v a ila b le f o r com parison,

12 LITERATURE' SURVEY The l i t e r a t u r e c o n ta in s numerous a r t i c l e s on l a s e r s, t h e i r c o n s tr u c tio n, o p e ra tio n, u se and re s e a rc h in v o lv in g them. The a r t i c l e s r e f e r r e d to h ere a re th o se apropos to th e d e sig n and cons tr u c tio n o f th e l a s e r f o r t h i s re s e a rc h p r o je c t, A l i s t i n g o f a l l la s e r t r a n s itio n s known in 19&5 w r itte n by B en n ett ( l ) was used to guide th e l i t e r a t u r e s e a rc h. U sing t h i s a r t i c l e and o th e rs by C o llin s (7 ), Haun (1 2 ), Lengyel (1 5 ), and Townes (2 4 ), in fo rm a tio n was c o lle c te d about d if f e r e n t ty p e s o f la s e r s and t h e i r o p e ra tio n. The ty p e s o f l a s e r d isc u sse d by th e se a r t i c l e s were th e ru b y, g la s s, l iq u id, g a s, and s o lid s t a t e junctio n. An a r t i c l e by Vander S lu is, e t a l, (25) d e sc rib e d th e cons tr u c tio n o f a helium -neon v i s i b l e l i g h t l a s e r, w ith e x te r n a l m irr o r s u sin g a D,C, power su p p ly. Many o f th e d e sig n id e a s f o r th e c o n s tru c tio n o f th e power supply used h ere were found in t h i s a r t i c l e. A fte r th e d e c is io n was made to b u ild th e carbon d io x id e - n itro g e n l a s e r, th e l i t e r a t u r e was checked f o r a r t i c l e s p e rta in in g to t h i s s p e c if ic ty p e. The fo llo w in g a r t i c l e s were found and used; Cheo ( 3 ), a stu d y o f th e e f f e c t o f hydrogen on a carbon d io x id e l a s e r. B rid g es and P a te l ( 2), an in v e s tig a tio n o f th e b re w ste r window carbon d io x id e l a s e r, and Evans and Jen nings ( l i ), a re s e a rc h r e p o r t on th e m o lecu lar sp e c ie s p re s e n t in ra d io freq u en cy d i s ch arg es i n carbon d io x id e, carbon monoxide, and oxygen. In '" = ''3 \ V- -'-vw-- -

13 4 a d d itio n v a lu a b le in fo rm a tio n was a ls o o b ta in e d fronts C lark and Sm ith (5» 6), s tu d ie s on th e e f f e c ts o f gas a d d itiv e s, and e le c tr o n tem p eratu re and d e n s ity on l a s e r o p e ra tio n, M oeller and Rigden ( 17), an in v e s tig a tio n to determ ine maximum l a s e r e f f i c i e n cy, and M a r rio tt ( 16), a t h e o r e t i c a l a n a ly s is o f th e e f f e c t o f hydrogen on th e carbon d io x id e l a s e r 0 The a r t i c l e s c o n ta in in g p e r tin e n t th e o r e tic a l in fo rm atio n w ere; P a te l, T ien, and McFee (1 8 ), a re s e a rc h stu d y on th e co n tinuous wave high power carbon d io x id e - n itro g e n -h e liu m l a s e r and i t s p e c u l a r i t i e s, and P a te l (1 9 p 20, 2 1 ), s tu d ie s on th e carbon d io x id e -h e liu m and carbon d io x id e l a s e r system s and t h e i r o p eration,, S tu d ie s in v o lv in g th e r e la tio n s h ip betw een th e l a s e r tube d iam eter and th e g a in o f th e l a s e r have been done by D eutsch ( 9) and Chao and Cooper {4)V The maximum g a in in th e carbon d io x id e system s was found to d e crease w ith an in c re a s e i n th e l a s e r tube d iam eter 0 The r e la tio n s h ip found from e x p erim en tal d a ta i s shown in F ig u re 1 The changes i n g a in a re th o u g h t to be p a r t i a l l y due to th e changes i n c u rre n t d e n s ity, e le c tr o n te m p e ra tu re, gas flo w v e lo c i ty and gas c o o lin g e ffe c ts * The re s e a rc h was done w ith, c o n s ta n t c u rre n t flow, c o n s ta n t gas flo w r a t e, and c o n sta n t d isch a rg e le n g th (4) The optimum p a r t i a l p re s su re f o r carbon d io x id e i n th e la s e r i s a fu n c tio n o f th e tu b e diam entero For th e carbon d ip x id e -n itro g e n system th e e x p erim en tal r e s u l t s a re fo llo w ed c lo s e ly by E q u atio n ( l ) 0. (P0p t)(d ) = 4 to r r - c e n tim e te r s CD

14 Peak Gain db/m. f* No COo He Tube D iam eter (in c h e s) FIGURE 1. Graph o f Peak Gain v e rsu s Tube D iam eter (9 )

15 6 The e f f e c t s o f c u rre n t flow on th e carbon d io x id e -n itro g e n and carbon d io x id e-h y d ro g en system s a re shown in F ig u re 2 0 The graphs o f e x p erim en tal r e s u l t s show t h a t th e g a in f o r th e carbon d io x id e -n itro g e n system re a ch e s a peak and th e n g ra d u a lly d e crease s upon in c re a s e o f th e cu rre n t,, T his d ecrease in g a in i s th o u g h t to occur p a r t i a l l y because o f th e r e s u ltin g gas tem p eratu re in c re a s e ( 4 ) 0 As tem p eratu re o f th e l a s e r tu b e i s low ered i t in c re a s e s th e e f f ic ie n c y o f th e l a s e r as shown by th e g ra p h.in F ig u re 3» I t was e stim a te d th a t th e g a in in c re a s e d by a f a c to r o f 1 5 when th e la s e r tube tem p eratu re was low ered from + 40 C to - 60 C (9)» A pparently th e e l e c t r i c a l r e s is ta n c e o f th e gas i s low ered w ith an in c re a s e in tem peratureo e ffic ie n c y o T his cau ses th e c u rre n t flow to in c re a s e reducin g th e The e f f e c t o ccurs w ith b o th b u f f e r g a se s, helium and n itro g en o P e te rs and K uster (22) stu d ie d th e re d u c tio n o f carbon d io x id e w ith hydrogen in an e l e c t r i c d isch a rg e a t p re s s u re s above 10 mm Hg a b so lu te p re s su re w ith sm all am ounts.of n itro g e n p r e s e n t0 The co n v ersio n o f carbon d io x id e to carbon monoxide v a rie d from 5 p e rc e n t to 91 p e rc e n t depending on th e c o n d itio n s o f th e re a c tio n o The p h y s ic a l p r o p e r tie s o f carbon, d io x id e used f o r d esig n purp o ses were found in AoC.S, Monograph No. 72 by Quinn and Jones (2 3 )o The a sp e c ts o f th e chem ical a n a ly s is by gas chrom atography used were in J e f f e r y and K ipping (1 4 )0 In fo rm a tio n on th e methods f o r wet chem ical a n a ly s is o f c a r bon d io x id e and carbon monoxide was ta k e n from Dennis and N ichols ( 8) 0

16 7 +30 Optimum m ixture in 34 mm bore a m p lifie r PC02 = 1 mm Hg FIGURE 2. Gain v e rsu s D ischarge C u rrent f o r V arious B u ffe r Gases in C02 (4 ) ma

17 CO He mm Hg 22 mm Bore I o p t = 15 ma A m p lifier Wall Tem perature ( C) FIGURE 3* E f f e c t o f W all Tem perature on Optimum Gain (4 )

18 E ngelden (1D),0 Jacobs (1 3 ), and White (2 6 ) 0 These methods w ill d isc u sse d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r»

19 THEORETICAL DISCUSSION A gas l a s e r h as th e g e n e ra l f e a tu r e s o f c o n stru ctio n ;sh o w n i n F ig u re A ll l a s e r s have r e f l e c t o r s, an am p lify in g medium, and power supply* The gas and liq u id l a s e r s a ls o h a v e.a c o n ta in e r f o r th e am p lify in g medium, th e l a s e r tu b e, which i s connected to th e power su p p ly, m irro r mounts w ith ad ju stm en ts to a lig n th e m irro rs, and a supply system f o r th e am p lify in g medium* The c r y s ta l, l a s e r s. norm ally have th e end s u rfa c e s ground and s ilv e r e d to :c r e a t e th e r e f l e c t o r s, and bein g s o lid, do n o t re q u ire th e h an d lin g equipm ent n e cessa ry f o r a gas o r liq u id * A l a s e r o p e ra te s because th e m a jo rity o f th e m o le c u le s -in tth e o p tic a l c a v ity (re s o n a to r) a re a t a h ig h energy le v e l* r ih e - e le c tro n s o f each m olecule a re moved to a h ig h energy le v e l:b y :e x c ita - tio n w ith an e l e c t r i c a l d isc h a rg e, in te n s e l i g h t o r a - s tr o n g 'r a d io freq u en cy sig n al* The atoms o f th e am p lify in g medium w hen-inaan e x c ite d s ta t e n o rm ally re tu rn, to th e low energy le v e lr re le a s in g l i g h t o f v a ry in g wave length* In th e re s o n a to r o f t h e.la s e r th e atoms a re r a is e d to one p a r tic u la r energy le v e l and i n jr e tu r n in g ;to th e ground s ta t e re le a s e l i g h t energy o f one frequency*..this rone energy le v e l te n d s to predom inate because i t s l i f e i s.l o n g e r -than any o f th e o th e r energy le v e l s and th e number o f e x cited ^ atom saat t h i s le v e l te n d to in crease* The a c tiv e en erg y le v e ls i n th e carbon d io x id e -n itro g e n l a s e r a re shown in F ig u re 5o T his diagram g iv es th e -m o s t!lik e ly

20 Amplifying Medium R e fle c to r R e fle c to r Power Source FIGURE 4. Sketch o f G eneral L aser C o n stru ctio n

21 12 com bination o f energy le v e ls which w ill f i t th e observed o u tp u t from th e carbon d io x id e -n itro g e n la s e r* One th e o ry f o r th e method o f e x c ita tio n o f th e m olecules i s t h a t th e n itro g e n atoms a re r a is e d to th e high energy le v e l by im pact w ith e le c tro n s in th e d is c h a rg e 0 These e x c ite d n itro g e n atom s, because o f a r e l a t i v e l y long l i f e a t t h i s h ig h evergy le v e l, tr a n s f e r energy upon c o l l i s i o n to o th e r m olecules* The p o s s ib le c o llis io n s a re w ith a n o th er e x c ite d n itro g e n m olecule, an u n e x cited carbon d io x id e m olecule, an e x c ite d carbon d io x id e m olecule, o r w ith an u n e x cited n itro g e n m olecule * Each c o llis io n has a s s o c ia te d w ith i t a p o s s ib le en erg y r e le a s e o r t r a n s f e r. When th e energy has been tr a n s f e r r e d to a carbon d io x id e m olecule i t may be re le a s e d as shown by th e energy le v e l diagram in F ig u re 5» A nother p o s s ib le sequence o f s te p s to o b ta in a h ig h energy carbon d io x id e m olecule i s shown in th e fo llo w in g equatio n s* th e o ry i s r e s t r i c t e d to th e low p re ssu re l a s e r d isch a rg e (19)* T his The energy i s f i r s t tr a n s f e r r e d by c o llis io n s betw een e le c tr o n s in th e d isch a rg e and th e gas m olecules in th e am p lify in g medium* CO + (e + ILoEo) *= CO* e ( 2 ) a n d /o r CO + 0* + e (3 ) A fte r th e b reak up o f th e carbon d io x id e m olecule, i t i s p o s s ib le th a t CO + (e 4- ioe *) CO* 4- e m

22 AE = 18 cm 2000 la s e r dec a; cm Energy -1 cm cm ra d, decay cm ra d. dec a; cm*" ra d. dec a; cm Ground S ta te 0 FIGURE 5# Energy L evel Diagram Showing V ib ra tio n a l L evels o f COg and Ng (20)

23 14 an d /o r > CO* CO** + hv~ (5 ) The p ro c e ss i n E q u atio n s 4 and 5 in v o lv e s a v e ry sm all energy decay and produces v i s i b l e l i g h t o u tp u t from th e la s e r tube s id e s ( 19) o A fte r th e m olecules have broken up th e re a re s e v e ra l ways f o r them to recom bine and produce th e l a s e r a c tio n, CO('Zf) + 0 (3P) co2* (6) a n d /o r > C02 (00ol ) + h v - (? ) One p o s s ib le v a r ia tio n o f th e sequence i s, C02* > C02**( B) (8) and ' ; co2 **( b) > co2( ' z ^ + hv-. ( 9 ) E q u atio n s 8 and 9 in v o lv e a s h i f t i n e le c tr o n s t a t e s o f th e e x c ite d carbon d io x id e m olecule. I t i s p o s s ib le t h a t one, s e v e ra l o r a re in v o lv ed in th e o p e ra tio n o f th e l a s e r. a l l o f th e se p ro c e sses I t h as n o t been discov= e re d i f one i s co m p letely dom inant o r i f th e y a l l p a r tic ip a te e q u a lly 0 I t i s p o s s ib le t h a t o th e r u n d e tecte d p ro c e sse s a re in v o lv ed i n th e l a s e r o p e ra tio n.

24 D iffe re n c e s have been noted betw een th e flow ing and nonflow ing gas system s in th e carbon d io x id e l a s e r. A flow ing gas sy s tem o p e ra tin g a t th e same c o n d itio n s o f p re s s u re, gas com position and c u rre n t flow w ill have a h ig h e r en erg y g a in th a n th e nonflow ing gas system. One e x p la n a tio n i s t h a t th e carbon monoxide, known-to p o iso n th e carbon d io x id e l a s e r o p e ra tio n when mixed i n th e gas supp ly, in c re a s e s th e low er energy le v e l p o p u la tio n s a t th e expense o f th e high energy le v e l s. In th e nonflow ing system th e c o n c e n tra tio n s o f decom position p ro d u c ts w ill b u ild up, where in a flow ing system th e decom position p ro d u c ts w i l l be c a r r ie d o u t o f th e l a s e r. The carbon d io x id e la s e r h as s e v e ra l c o n s tru c tio n and opera tio n p aram eters which a f f e c t th e e f f ic ie n c y o f o p e ra tio n. The most n o tic e a b le a re th e l a s e r tube d ia m e ter, re s o n a to r d e sig n, p a r t i a l p re s su re o f g ases in th e l a s e r, c u rre n t flo w in th e d is c h a rg e, land th e tem p eratu re o f th e l a s e r tube and th e g a se s.

25 DESIGN AND. CONSTRUCTION The l i t e r a t u r e search re v e a le d t h a t gas o r liq u id l a s e r c o n s tru c tio n s were th e o n ly ty p e s t h a t would p ro v id e a r e a c tio n chamber in s id e th e l a s e r 0 The liq u id la s e r was e lim in a te d because o f th e p ric e f o r th e am p lify in g mediums and th e num ber,o f r e a c tio n s in which th e y would p a r t i c i p a t e. There are. many p o s s ib le gas am p lify in g mediums0 some o f which a re neon, helium, argon, n itro g e n, carbon d io x id e, and c a r bon monoxide. Some o f th e se g ases w i l l work a lo n e, o th e rs must be i n a m ixture w ith one o r two o th e r g ases in o rd e r to work i n th e l a s e r. The noble g a s e s, under most c o n d itio n s, do n o t r e a c t chemic a lly, T his f a c t e lim in a te d them f o r u se a s an am p lify in g medium. The am p lify in g system chosen was a m ixture o f carbon d io x id e and n itro g e n. T his system was s e le c te d because a la rg e amount o f in f o r m ation was a v a ila b le f o r d e sig n p u rp o ses; and, w ith th e use o f sm all amounts o f gas a d d itiv e s, i t would be p o s s ib le to stu d y a wide range o f r e a c tio n s. The carbon d io x id e l a s e r a ls o has a h ig h e r e f f ic ie n c y th a n m ost o th e r gas l a s e r s, making i t more v e r s a t i l e. In o rd e r to pump a gas l a s e r, a ra d io freq u ency o r e l e c t r i c d isc h a rg e i s u se d. T his l a s e r was desig n ed to u se an e l e c t r i c d is ch arg e, The power supply s iz e d from v a rio u s a r t i c l e s in th e l i t e r a tu r e, was l a t e r found to be in ad eq u ate f o r th e experim en t, 16

26 . 17 The main problem in th e c o n s tru c tio n o f th e power supply was fin d in g p a r ts which would n o t b re a k down under high v o lta g e and c u r r e n t 0 The power supply was b u i l t around fo u r o i l b u rn e r ig n itio n. tra n s fo rm e rs, w ired in p a r a l l e l. In t h i s arrangem ent th e y would supply 10,000 v o lts A.C. a t 92 ma, from a 110 v o l t A,C. so u rc e. A V ariac V a ria b le Auto T ransform er was connected to th e low v o lta g e sid e o f th e tra n sfo rm e rs allo w in g th e in p u t v o lta g e to be v a rie d betw een zero and 140 v o l t s A.G. T his d e sig n p e rm itte d more c o n tro l over th e o p e ra tin g c o n d itio n s o f th e l a s e r th a n a d e sig n w ith o u t a v a r ia b le v o lta g e. In o rd e r to o b ta in a d i r e c t c u rre n t o u tp u t from th e power su p p ly, a b rid g e r e c t i f i e r c u r c u it was b u i l t as shown i n th e w irin g diagram in F ig u re 6. S ilic o n r e c t i f i e r s w ith a peak re v e rse v o l t age o f 10,000 v o lts were u sed. These r e c t i f i e r s were a d eq u a te, sin c e in th e b rid g e c i r c u i t each r e c t i f i e r had to d e a l w ith only h a l f o f th e v o lta g e a c ro ss th e b rid g e. T his v o lta g e a t most would be about 7,800 v o l t s. I f no s ilic o n r e c t i f i e r s had been found, i t would have been n e c e ssa ry to u se vacuum tube d io d es r e s u ltin g in an expen siv e, bulk y system t h a t would g e n erate la rg e amounts o f h e a t. The s ilic o n r e c t i f i e r s, c a p a c ito rs, f i l t e r chokes, r e la y s, and o th e r item s were mounted on h ig h v o lta g e mica b o a rd. The mica board was th e n b o lte d to th e s id e s o f a r e la y ra c k. The b o l t s, on which th e mica b oards were mounted, h e ld th e boards about two in c h es o u t from th e s id e s o f th e r e la y ra c k allo w in g a i r c ir c u la t io n to c o o l th e e le c tr o n ic components and to p ro v id e e l e c t r i c in s u la tio n. The i n t e r i o r o f th e power supply i s shown in F ig u re 7

27 FIGURE 60 Power S upply Schem atic W iring D iagram Legend A V a ria b le A utotransform er 3^ Ready L ig h t Bg Power L ig h t C 1 mfd C ap acito rs D, S ilic o n R e c tif ie r s CR 210 D2 S ilic o n R e c tif ie r CR 212 F Fuses 1/2 amp H F i l t e r R eactors 12h M Time D elay R elay N Two Pole R elay R Ceramic R e s is to r 10Ok ohms S^ Key Sw itch Sg Door In te rlo c k Sw itch So. Connector In te rlo c k Sw itch T O il Burner I g n itib n Transform ers V V o lt M eter ( more d e ta ile d l i s t Appendix B)

28 10,000 v. D.C. 110 v. A.C FAN FIGURE 6, Power Supply Schem atic W iring Diagram 00

29 FIGURE 7* Photograph o f I n t e r i o r o f Power Supply

30 - '. V v.. V ' 20 A o n e -e ig h th in c h th ic k aluminum sh e e t was f i t t e d to th e back o f th e r e la y ra c k ; and th e v a r ia c fu se h o ld e rs, key sw itch, in d ic a to r l i g h t s and v o ltm e te r were mounted on i t. These item s were a rran g ed as shown in F ig u re 8 0 The e le c tr o n ic components in s id e th e r e la y ra c k were cooled by a sta n d a rd in stru m e n t f a n, mounted i n a h o le b n th e bottom o f th e rack s The r e la y ra c k was mounted on heavy c a s te r s f o r p o r t a b i l i t y. The power su p p ly, bein g th e most dangerous p a r t o f th e equipment o th e r th a n th e p o in t o f power o u tp u t from th e l a s e r, was equipped w ith s e v e ra l s a f e ty d e v ic e s. The c ap A citp rs in th e f i l t e r i n g c i r c u i t co u ld rem ain charged f o r days a f t e r th e power was sh u t o f f u n le ss d isch a rg e d by s h o rtin g th e te rm in a ls to g e th e r. T his r e ta in e d charge would produce a 1 0,0 0 0 v o l t p o t e n tia l a c ro ss th e o u tp u t le a d s a t a l l tim e s. In o rd e r to e lim in a te t h i s h a zard, a 12,000 v o l t peak re v e rse v o lta g e s ilic o n r e c t i f i e r (Dg, F igure 6 ) was w ired a c ro ss th e o u tp u t l i n e s, s h o rtin g o u t th e c a p a c ito rs when th e power supply was tu rn e d o f f. The door on th e c a b in e t and th e h ig h v o lta g e co n n ecto r b n th e sid e o f th e c a b in e t were b o th connected w ith :sn ap sw itc h e s, so th a t th e door had to be sh u t and locked and th e eonnee~ t o r had to be i n p o s itio n b e fo re th e power supply co u ld be o p e ra te d 0 A rem ovable h ig h v o lta g e co n n ecto r was b u i l t and i n s t a l l e d in? o rd e r to allo w th e equipm ent to be moved from one p lace to a n o th e r0 The sk etch in F ig u re 9 shows th e c o n s tru c tio n o f th e c o n n e c to r, which was made from p le x ig la s s. The key sw itch when tu rn e d on a p p lie d powde r to th e fa n and in d ic a to r l i g h t, A tim e d e la y r e la y h e ld th e

31 FIGURE 8. Photograph o f Power Supply C abinet 21

32 C abinet w all C abinet i n t e r i o r B o lt A cry lic P le x ig la s s 2 ) Female phone p lu g Snap sw itch Male phone plu g s Connected to la s e r tube 2 ] Female phone p lu g Connected to Power supply c i r c u i t B o lt FIGURE 9. Sketch o f High V oltage Connector U nit

33 23 power from th e main c i r c u i t f o r about tw enty seconds as a s a f e ty p re c a u tio n ; th en th e power supply was ready to u s e 0 The power supply could be u sed as e i t h e r an A C o r DoC0 supp ly by changing s e v e ra l w ire c o n n e c tio n s 0 In o rd e r to change from Do Co supply to AoCo th e w ires co n n ectin g th e tra n sfo rm e rs to th e r e c t i f i e r c i r c u i t were removed0 Then th e h ig h v o lta g e connecto r was w ired d i r e c t l y to th e tra n sfo rm e rs 0 r e c tif y in g system from th e c i r c u i t. T his arrangem ent e lim in a te d th e To change th e power supply from AoCo to DoCo th e above procedure was re v e rse d. In o rd e r to measure th e D,C«o u tp u t o f th e power su p p ly, a v o ltm e te r, V, b u i l t as shown in F ig u re 10, was i n s t a l l e d a s shown in th e w irin g diagram in F ig u re 6,. A ll p a r t s, ex cep t th e m eter i t s e l f were imbedded in a b lp e k o f (G en eral E l e c t r i c ) RTV p l a s t i c f o r in s u la tio n and s a f e ty p u rp o se s. The m eter c i r c u i t was connected a c ro ss th e in s id e te rm in a ls on th e h ig h v o lta g e c o n n e c to r. The p a n el m eter was te s te d and c a lib r a te d a t 5000 v o lts u sin g a Simpson Vo00M, The 500k ohm v a r ia b le r e s i s t o r shown in F ig u re 10 was a d ju s te d d u r in g c a lib r a t io n so t h a t th e p a n e l m eter gave th e same v o lta g e re a d in g a s th e VoOoM, A ll th e p a r ts o f th e power supply were w ired to g e th e r With 25,000 v o l t t e s t, m l t i s t r a n d in s u la te d w ire, : A ll co n n ectio n s In s id e th e c a b in e t were c o ate d w ith RTV ru b b e r in o rd e r to e lim in a te th e chances o f a rc in g betw een two coim onents. The 25,000 v o l t t e s t.. " w ire was a ls o u sed f o r th e power le a d s from th e l a s e r tube: to th e h ig h v o lta g e c o n n ecto r.

34 0 - lov m eter, Connected a cro ss Power Supply o u tp u t te rm in a ls 220k jx / FIGURE 10. V o ltm e te r Schem atic W iring Diagram

35 The l a s e r tu b e, shown in F ig u re 11, was made from o ne-inch 25 p re c is io n bore pyrex g la s s tu b in g. The tube was 2,3 m eters long in clu d in g th e te f lo n bellow s on each end. Neon sig n e le c tro d e s (120 ma) were mounted a t each end o f th e tube a t a d is ta n c e o f 0,9 m eter from th e m idpoint o f th e one-in ch g la s s tu b e. These e le c tro d e s were tr a n s f e r r e d from th e norm al s o f t g la s s found in neon sig n s to pyrex tu b in g f o r m ounting on th e main la s e r tu b e. E ig h ty -fiv e c e n tim e te rs from th e m idpoint o f th e l a s e r tu b e, high vacuum pyrex g la s s stopcocks were mounted on each end o f th e l a s e r tu b e. The e le c tro d e and v alv e arrangem ents a re shown i n F ig u re 12, The l a s e r tu b e was mounted on an e ig h t- f o o t p ie c e o f te n - in ch aluminum ch an n el, - The channel p ie c e was th e base o f th e mount to keep th e p a r ts o f th e la s e r from tw is tin g o u t o f p o s itio n once th e y were mounted. The tu b e r e s te d on fo u r su p p o rts a s shown in F ig u re 11, These were b o lte d on to th e b a se. The su p p o rts were made from 3 /^ - in ch aluminum b a r s to c k. The m irro rs and m irro r mounts were p o s itio n e d a t each end o f th e l a s e r tu b e. A ll th e tube su p p o rts and b o th m irro r mounts were in s u la te d from th e aluminum ch an n el by h ig h v o lta g e mica b o ard. The m irro rs f o r th e re s o n a to r, o r o p tic a l c a v ity o f th e l a s e r, were made by P e rk in - E lm er, w ith a chromium u n d e rla y e r. They were f i r s t su rfa c e golcl co ated The b o r o s ilic a te g la s s b la n k f o r each m irro r was two in c h es in d ia m e ter, 1 /2 - in ch th ic k and had a ra d iu s o f c u rv a tu re f o r th e f i r s t su rfa c e o f te n m e te rs. One o f th e m irro rs had an 1 /8 - inch h o le d r i l l e d in th e e x a c t c e n te r f o r th e l i g h t beam o u tp u t from th e l a s e r.

36 FIGURE tountod laser

37 FIGURE 12. Photograph o f End Arrangement o f Laser Tube

38 " -,.. 28 The m irro r m ounts,"as shown in F ig u res 13 and 14, were made o f aluminum, b ra s s and p l a s t i c The p a r t made o f p l a s t i c was th e h o riz o n ta l, base p ie c e which b o lte d to th e c h an n e l? main p a r t o f th e m irro r mount in a v e r t i c a l p o sitio n * I t h e ld th e The b ra s s p ie c e in th e m irro r mount (shown in F ig u re 15) was th e b a l l and stem, allo w in g th e m irro r to be moved f o r alig n m ent One o f th e m irro r mounts was b u i l t w ith a? / l 6 - in ch h o le through th e b ra s s stem, allo w in g f o r th e l a s e r beam o u tp u t The hollow b ra s s stem on t h i s mount was s e a le d w ith a sodium c h lo rid e window d u rin g operatio n o f th e la se ro The rem aining components o f th e m irro r mounts were made o f aluminum w ith th e e x ceptio n o f th e s t e e l m icrom eter h ead s. The te f lo n b ello w s on each end o f th e la s e r tu b e were n o t th e f i r s t type t r i e d. F i r s t, g la s s bellow s were p u t on th e tu b e, b u t th e y broke v e ry e a s ily because o f t h e i r b r i t t l e n e s s. The replacem ent te f l o n b ellow s were h e ld and seale d to th e m irro r and mount by asb esto s g a sk e ts a s shown i n Figure. 15, The a sb e sto s g a sk e ts were nece s s a ry b ecau se, w ith o u t them, th e b ello w s would have s lip p e d o f f th e c e n te r o f th e m irro r. The g a sk e t a ls o h e ld th e b ello w s up a - g a in s t th e m irro r i n o rd e r to s e a l a g a in s t vacuum le a k s. However, t h i s arrangem ent d id n o t s e a l w e ll enough. The g a sk e t, th e o u t sid e o f th e bello w s and p a r t o f th e m irro r mount were c o ate d w ith. G eneral E l e c t r i c s G ly p ta l 1201 enam el. T his se a le d th e system, a s long a s th e enam el was h o t allow ed to com p letely d ry o u t. The. two m irro rs had to be a lig n e d w ith in a few m inutes o f a degree i n o rd e r f o r th e l a s e r to o p e ra te p ro p e rly. The alignm ent o f

39 FIGURE 13* Photograph o f Rear o f Mirror Mount

40 9 _ I FIGURE 14 Photograph o f Front o f Mirror Mount V ) o

41 M icrom eter Heads i B rass 'Aluminum A sbestos G asket M irror T eflon Bellows G ly p ta l 1201 FIGURE 15. Cutaway S k etch o f M irro r Mount and Vacuum S e a l

42 th e m irro rs in v o lv ed th e rem oval o f th e l a s e r tube from th e supp o r ts and from betw een th e m irro rs. The m irro rs had been a lig n e d p r io r to th e tube m ounting d u rin g c o n s tru c tio n o f th e l a s e r. Unfortu n a te ly th e mounts tw is te d s l i g h t l y d u rin g th e m ounting o f th e l a s e r tu b e, so t h a t th e l a s e r tube had to be u n sealed and th e m irr o r s re a lig n e d. To a lig n th e m irro rs a s lid e p r o je c to r was mounted a t th e o u ts id e o f th e m irro r mount which h e ld th e m irro r w ith th e h o le in th e c e n te r. The p r o je c to r was p o s itio n e d so t h a t i t would p r o je c t l i g h t p a r a l l e l w ith th e channel and p e rp e n d ic u la r to th e m irro r m ounts, A s lid e was made from a w hite c a rd, and a f in e p in h o le was made in th e e x a c t c e n te r. With t h i s s lid e i n th e p ro je c t o r a f in e p o in t o f l i g h t was p ro je c te d back and f o r th betw een th e m irro rs. The d o t o f l i g h t could be moved h o r iz o n ta lly o r v e r t i c a l l y on th e o p p o site m irro r su rfa c e by a d ju s tin g th e m icrom eter heads on th e mount. When th e d o t o f l i g h t d id n o t g ra d u a lly become o f f cent e r w ith each su ccessiv e r e f l e c t i o n, i t was assumed th e m irro rs were a lig n e d. The gas f o r o p e ra tio n o f th e la s e r and any a d d itiv e gases were su p p lie d from sta n d a rd 220 cubic fo o t supply c y lin d e r s. The gases were re g u la te d a t 33 p s ig and fe d through c o n tro l v a lv e s to a m ixing chamber. In a d d itio n, each gas was re g u la te d by a needle v a lv e as i t flow ed in to th e m ixing cham ber. The m ix in g.chamber was made from a 3 /4 - in ch p ip e f i t t i n g w ith re d u c tio n f i t t i n g s on each arm reducin g to 1/4 - in ch copper tu b in g com pression f i t t i n g s. Two stan d a rd need le v a lv e s f o r p re ssu re c o n tr o l were p o s itio n e d betw een

43 th e m ixing chamber and th e l a s e r tube as shown, in F ig u re l 6 The copper tu b in g was connected to th e v a lv ed connectio n o f th e la s e r tube u sin g h ig h vacuum ru b b er hoseo A Welch S c ie n tif ic Co6, Duo S e a l Vacuum Pump, Model 1402, was used to produce a vacuum in th e l a s e r 0 The pump was connected t o th e l a s e r tu b e by h ig h vacuum h o se E ig h teen in ch es up stream from th e pump, a p y rex g la s s te e was i n s t a l l e d in th e lin e as shown i n F ig u re 17. At t h i s te e a V irtu e Mcleod Vacuum Gauge was connected b ehind a g la s s wool d u st f i l t e r. The sam pling a p p aratu s was p la ced betw een th e vacuum gauge te e and th e v a lv ed co n n ectio n f o r th e l a s e r tu b e. F ig u re 17. The sam pling a p p aratu s was arran g ed to allo w th e 287 m l. sam p le.c o n ta in e r to be by - p assed so t h a t i t c o u ld be removed f o r a n a ly s is o f i t s c o n te n ts.

44 LASER TUBE NITROGEN TO VACUUM PUMP Z ^ ^ yz^zzzz^2zxjzzzz: HYDROGEN FLOW CONTROL VALVES z 3 \ CARBON DIOXIDE E # VACUUM HOSE F77I TUBING I I GLASS FIGURE l 6. Diagram o f Gas In p u t System

45 VACUUM PUMP BY PASS VALVE '. ' I LASER TUBE SAMPLE CONTAINER McIEOD VACUUM GAUGE 28? ml GLASS VALVES GLASS VALVES VACUUM HOSE [ GLASS TUBE FIGURE 17. Diagram o f Vacuum Pump and Sam pling A pparatus Layout

46 CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION Many r e a c tio n s betw een carbon d io x id e and hydrogen a re p o ssib le o The type o f p ro d u ct depends on the: r e a c tio n c o n d itio n s and th e c a ta ly s t usedo Some p o s s ib le p ro d u c ts o th e r th a n carbon. monoxide and w ater a re m ethanol, carb o n, m ethane, and form ic a c id. The most p ro b ab le r e a c tio n u n der th e c o n d itio n s used in th e i n v e s t i g a tio n was C02 > H2 H20 + CO - 10,4 k c a l, (10) The a n a ly s is equipm ent was th u s s e t up to d e te c t th e se p ro d u c ts, A P e rk in - Elm er gas chrom atograph w ith a s i l i c a g e l column and helium c a r r i e r gas was u sed f o r th e i n i t i a l a n a ly s is. The a n aly s i s was c a r r ie d o u t a t th e fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s! an oven te n p e ra - tu r e o f 70%, a d e te c to r tem p eratu re o f 55 C» an i n j e c t o r tem peratu r e O f 70 C, a c a r r i e r gas flo w r a te o f ap p roxim ately 80 m l/m inute, and a d e te c to r c u rre n t o f 220 ma. The 287 ml sample b o t t l e, w ith th e gas sample under a vacuum, was f i r s t brought up to atm ospheric p re s s u re w ith h eliu m. Gas sam ples were removed from th e sample conta i n e r w ith a Icc g la s s s y rin g e, A 0,4Cc volume o f gas was th e n in je c te d in to th e chrom atograph f o r a n a ly s is. The e x a c t concen tratio n f o r carbon d io x id e o r carbon monoxide co u ld n o t be o b ta in e d from th e chrom atograph because carbon monoxide has alm ost th e same, ' O ' -

47 re sid e n c e tim e in th e s i l i c a g e l column a s n itro g e n. The two peaks o v e rla p g making i t d i f f i c u l t to g e t a c c u ra te q u a n tita tiv e inform a tio n from th e a n a ly s is, A wet chem ical a n a ly s is was used to o b ta in e x a c t v a lu e s f o r th e amount o f carbon d io x id e o r carbon monoxide in th e sam ple, The wet chem ical a n a ly s is u sed f o r th e carbon monoxide d e te rm in a tio n was th e io d in e p en to x id e procedure (13)» The a p p aratu s used was s e t up a s shown in F ig u re 18, The a n a ly s is procedure fo r carbon monoxide in v o lv ed moving th e gas in th e c o n ta in e r, 28? ml volum e, through th e equipm ent w ith n itro g e n c a r r i e r g a s, The sample flow ed through a tube c o n ta in in g io d in e p ento x id e suspended on a s b e s to s, which was m ain tain ed a t 100 C by an o i l b a th. The carbon monoxide p re s e n t r e a c te d a s fo llo w s, 5C0 -t- i 2o5 *> 5C0a + i 2 (11) The f r e e io d in e was c a r r ie d by th e n itro g e n and bubbled th ro u g h a 0,189.N KI s o lu tio n where i t was ab so rb ed. A fte r 1 /2 hour th e XI s o lu tio n was removed and t i t r a t e d w ith 0, m olar ^ a2s20^o The fo llo w in g re a c tio n was in v o lv ed in th e t i t r a t i o n, I 2 + 2Na2S203 > 2NaI + Na2S^06 (1 2) S ta rc h was used as th e en d p o in t in d ic a to r.

48 FLOW CONTROL VALVE 28? ml SAMP IE BOTTLE VALVES VENTED TO ATMOSPHERE 5 p sig grams I po ON ASBESTOS OIL BATH N KI SOLN 100 C FIGURE 18. Diagram o f CO A n a ly sis Equipm ent

49 The a n a ly s is f o r carbon d io x id e was made in th e a p p aratu s shown in F ig u re 19, The gas sample from th e 287 ml sample c o n ta in e r was c a r r ie d through th e equipm ent w ith n itro g e n g a s. The sample and c a r r i e r were bubbled through 15 ml o f 0, m olar barium hydroxide s o lu tio n w ith th e r e s u ltin g r e a c tio n,! 2BaQH +. C02 BagCO^ + HgO (1 3) The g ases were bubbled through th e s o lu tio n f o r 1 /2 hour to a ssu re conversio n o f th e sam ple. The s o lu tio n was th e n t i t r a t e d w ith 0, m olar o x a lic a c id u sin g p h e n o lth a le in as an in d ic a to r. The s o lu tio n was t i t r a t e d to determ ine th e amount o f u n re a c te d barium h y d ro x id e The t i t r a t i o n in v o lv ed th e fo llo w in g re a c tio n, H2C BaOH > 2H20 + Ba2C2 4 (1*0 The saap le o f gas to be analyzed was c a r r ie d through th e a n a ly s is equipm ent by n itro g e n gas from th e supply ta n k f o r th e l a s e r. The n itro g e n ta n k was d isco n n ected a t th e m ixing chamber and co n n ect- ed to a ru b b er vacuum h o se. The 287 ml sample c o n ta in e r was connected to th e o th e r end o f th e ru b b er hose and to th e abso rb in g apparatu s f o r th e a n a ly s is. The c a r r i e r gas flow r a te was s e t a t about 20 ml p e r m inute, u sin g a soap bubble flo w m eter c o n s tru c te d from a p ip e tte and u sin g a liq u id soap. The p re ssu re re g u la to r on th e n itro g e n ta n k was s e t a t 5 p s ig.

50 VENTED TO ATMOSPHERE FLOW CONTROL VALVE VALVES 28? ml. SAMPLE BOTTLE 5 p sig molar BaOH FIGURE 19. Diagram o f CO2 A n a ly sis Equipm ent -Pr O

51 . 41 The r e s u l t s o f th e ru n s on th e l a s e r are l i s t e d in T a b le s'h I9 H I, and IV The power supply was o p e ra tin g a t 10,000 v o l t s d u rin g a l l ru n s w ith th e l a s e r. The range o f th e o p e ra tin g c o n d itio n s shown i n Table I was n o t wide because o f th e lim ita tio n s o f th e equip ment and th e lim ite d scope o f th e re s e a rc h. The d iffe r e n c e s in conversio n f o r ru n s number I, I I, andz III were found to be s ig n if ic a n t by use o f th e s t a t i s t i c a l t - t e s t w ith a 99o5 p e r c e n t confid en ce le v e l. The d iffe re n c e betw een th e conversio n o f ru n H I and ru n IV was d e f i n i t e l y n o t s ig n if ic a n t because th e average v a lu e s were th e same. The co n v ersio n shown by P e te rs and K uster (2 2 ) ranged, between 5 p e r c e n t and 91 p e r c e n t o f th e i n i t i a l carbon d io x id e.d e pending on th e gas p re s s u re, d isc h a rg e v o lta g e, th e r e a c to r tem perat u r e, and th e in p u t gas c o n c e n tra tio n s, An ex cess o f hydrogen:used i n some p a r ts o f t h e i r re s e a rc h gave th e h ig h e s t c o n v ersio n o f :carbon d io x id e to carbon monoxide. In t h i s in v e s tig a tio n an e x cess o f h y - drogen co u ld n o t be u sed because t h a t would d e a c tiv a te th e la s e r by d e p o p u latin g th e upper energy l e v e l s. I t ap p ears t h a t i f th e.h y drogen c o n c e n tra tio n co u ld be in c re a s e d w ith o u t p o iso n in g th e l a s e r a c tio n, th e n th e c o n v ersio n o f carbon d io x id e to carbon monoxide would be in c re a s e d correspondinglyo

52 42 TABLE I.... O p eratio n C o n d itio n s Run $2 v a lv e Eg v a lv e CO2 v a lv e Tube p r e s s 0 number in open ^ open ^ open mm Eg ; I 1.0 3oO o 0 I I '-:3 ;o I I I H

53 43 TABIE I I CO A n alysis R e su lts Run ml Gmolez CO number ^ a2^2 3 xlo I A B C I I. A 2.85 :2.4 7 B i51 C o51 I l l ' A B =94 C IF A B c

54 -TAME I H '- XOg -A nalysis R e su lts Run number ml Gmole COg H2C2 4 x l( P. Average gmole xlo5 I D E F I I D E 9.8 : 3. : ^ I I I D 10=0-2=^5 2=975 E 9.9 3, 0 H D 10=2 : 2 =-86 2=86 E 10=2 ; 2=86

55 4 5 TABIE H R eactio n C a lc u la tio n R e su lts Run P e rc e n t CO2 Average p e rc e n t number co n v erted conversio n I A B 7.35 C 7.35 I I A B 8.23 C 8.23 I I I A B C IV A B 10.0 C 10.1

56 RECOMMENDATIONS O p eratio n o f th e l a s e r and. a u x ilia r y a p p aratu s b ro u g h t many o f th e eq u ip m en t's lim ita tio n s in to view. The fo llo w in g p a ra graphs cover th e problem s t h a t were found and some o f th e p o s sib le ways to c o r r e c t them 0 The power su p p ly, i f used j u s t on D.C,, was o f reaso n ab le c o s t f o r i t s s iz e and c a p a b i l i t i e s» However, i f used j u s t as an AoCo so u rce, i t would have been b e t t e r to g e t stan d a rd neon sig n transfo rm erso These tra n sfo rm e rs would n o t have caused a s many problem s in in s u la tin g and grounding th e equipm ent and would have been l e s s expensiveo The way th e equipm ent was s e t up, th e re was no way to.m easu re th e amount o f e l e c t r i c c u rre n t flow ing through th e l a s e r tube 0 S ince th e e f f ic ie n c y o f th e l a s e r o p e ra tio n i s p a r t l y dependent-on th e c u rre n t flo w, th e re should be a method f o r c o n tr o llin g and measu rin g th e c u rren to An- ammeter, such as shown in F ig u re 20, w ill m easure th e c u rre n t i f p la ced in s e r ie s on th e o u tp u t l in e o f th e power su p p ly, A number o f 1 kw ceram ic r e s i s t o r s connected to-.a m u ltip o s itio n sw itch, so t h a t th e r e s is ta n c e in th e lin e can:be in c re a se d o r d e crease d, w i l l allo w c o n tro l o f th e c u r r e n t,. Thetmet e r s should a ls o be s e t up so t h a t when o p e ra tin g th e power supply " on A,Q, o r D.C,, b o th th e v o lta g e drop a c ro ss th e l a s e r tube and- th e c u rre n t flow ing th ro u g h i t w ill be m easured. I f th e c u rre n t and th e v o lta g e a re b o th known, th e n th e power in p u t to th e l a s e r can :b e: found, ' 46

57 IOOjl tl 100 ma 0-10 ma ma 0 - Ima = 10k n. FIGURE 20. Schem atic W iring Diagram f o r Ammeter to Measure C u rre n t

58 48 An a c c u ra te and r e l i a b l e method f o r m easuring th e power o u tp u t o f th e l a s e r should be developed, type in stru m e n t w i l l work i f m o d ified. A th erm o p ile o r s im ila r With th e la s e r o p e ra tin g as i t should j, th e m easuring in stru m e n t w ill be burned o u t i f p u t d i r e c t l y in to th e l i g h t beam f o r any le n g th o f tim e, The o u tp u t "from th e la s e r must be s p l i t o r a p u lse must be fe d in to th e m easuring in stru m e n t. In o rd e r to s p l i t th e beam and fin d th e power o u tp u t th e e x a c t f r a c tio n s p l i t o f f must be known. With a sm all p u ls e, th e e x a c t tim e span o f th e p u lse w ill be re q u ire d in o rd e r to f in d th e power o u tp u t o f th e l a s e r. There a re a d d itio n a l methods f o r m easuring th e power o u tp u t, b u t th e d i f f i c u l t y w ith th e use o f most o f them r e s u l t s n o t from th e t o t a l power bein g m easured b u t.fro m th e h ig h c o n c e n tra tio n o f energy in a sm all a re a, A b e t t e r sam pling device should be b u i l t. The one u s e d iin t h i s work tended to le a k and to contam inate th e sample w ith a i r. The a n a ly sis, methods must be sim ple and work o n -stream w ith a c o n tin uous a n a ly s is, C ontinuous a n a ly s is w i l l allo w any c h an g e:o f"th e chem ical re a c tio n w ith tim e o f l a s e r o p e ra tio n to be s tu d ie d,.'the o n -stream a n a ly s is equipm ent, in o rd e r to be used h e re, should n o t be extrem ely s e n s itiv e to p re s su re changes. The equipm ent m ust. a lso o p e ra te a c c u ra te ly a t low p re ssu re and in th e p resen ce o f an e l e c t r i c a lly charged atm osphere, One such p ie c e o f equipm ent i s th e.in f r a re d sp ectro p h o to m eter u sin g th e fe e d gas as re fe re n c e, The flow r a te s o f th e v a rio u s component gases must be measu red w ith b e t t e r accu racy in a more d e ta ile d stu d y o f t h i s r e a c tio n.

w ith In fla m m a to r y B o w e l D ise a se. G a s tro in te s tin a l C lin ic, 2-8 -2, K a s h iw a z a, A g e o C ity, S a ita m a 3 6 2 -

w ith In fla m m a to r y B o w e l D ise a se. G a s tro in te s tin a l C lin ic, 2-8 -2, K a s h iw a z a, A g e o C ity, S a ita m a 3 6 2 - E ffic a c y o f S e le c tiv e M y e lo id L in e a g e L e u c o c y te D e p le tio n in P y o d e r m a G a n g re n o su m a n d P so r ia sis A sso c ia te d w ith In fla m m a to r y B o w e l D

More information

B a rn e y W a r f. U r b a n S tu d ie s, V o l. 3 2, N o. 2, 1 9 9 5 3 6 1 ±3 7 8

B a rn e y W a r f. U r b a n S tu d ie s, V o l. 3 2, N o. 2, 1 9 9 5 3 6 1 ±3 7 8 U r b a n S tu d ie s, V o l. 3 2, N o. 2, 1 9 9 5 3 6 1 ±3 7 8 T e le c o m m u n ic a t io n s a n d th e C h a n g in g G e o g r a p h ie s o f K n o w le d g e T r a n s m is s io n in th e L a te

More information

EM EA. D is trib u te d D e n ia l O f S e rv ic e

EM EA. D is trib u te d D e n ia l O f S e rv ic e EM EA S e c u rity D e p lo y m e n t F o ru m D e n ia l o f S e rv ic e U p d a te P e te r P ro v a rt C o n s u ltin g S E p p ro v a rt@ c is c o.c o m 1 A g e n d a T h re a t U p d a te IO S Es

More information

A n d r e w S P o m e r a n tz, M D

A n d r e w S P o m e r a n tz, M D T e le h e a lth in V A : B r in g in g h e a lth c a r e to th e u n d e r s e r v e d in c lin ic a n d h o m e A n d r e w S P o m e r a n tz, M D N a tio n a l M e n ta l H e a lth D ir e c to r f

More information

W h a t is m e tro e th e rn e t

W h a t is m e tro e th e rn e t 110 tv c h a n n e ls to 10 0 0 0 0 u s e rs U lf V in n e ra s C is c o S y s te m s 2 0 0 2, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d. 1 W h a t is m e tro e th e rn e t O b je c tiv

More information

J a re k G a w o r, J o e B e s te r, M a th e m a tic s & C o m p u te r. C o m p u ta tio n In s titu te,

J a re k G a w o r, J o e B e s te r, M a th e m a tic s & C o m p u te r. C o m p u ta tio n In s titu te, 1 4 th IE E E In te r n a tio n a l S y m p o s iu m o n H ig h P e r fo r m a n c e D is tr ib u te d C o m p u tin g (H P D C -1 4 ), R e s e a rc h T ria n g le P a rk, N C, 2 4-2 7 J u ly 2 0 0 5.

More information

AN EVALUATION OF SHORT TERM TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR PERSONS DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL 1978-1981. P. A. V a le s, Ph.D.

AN EVALUATION OF SHORT TERM TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR PERSONS DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL 1978-1981. P. A. V a le s, Ph.D. AN EVALUATION OF SHORT TERM TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR PERSONS DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL 1978-1981 P. A. V a le s, Ph.D. SYNOPSIS Two in d ep en d en t tre a tm e n t g ro u p s, p a r t ic ip

More information

/* ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/* ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Pr o g r a m v a r e fo r tr a fik k b e r e g n in g e r b a s e r t p å b a s is k u r v e m e to d e n n M a tr ix * x M a tr ix E s ta lp h a B e ta ; n M a tr ix * z M a tr ix ; g e n M a tr ix X

More information

B rn m e d s rlig e b e h o v... 3 k o n o m i... 6. S s k e n d e tils k u d o g k o n o m is k frip la d s... 7 F o r ld re b e ta lin g...

B rn m e d s rlig e b e h o v... 3 k o n o m i... 6. S s k e n d e tils k u d o g k o n o m is k frip la d s... 7 F o r ld re b e ta lin g... V e lf rd s s e k re ta ria te t S a g s n r. 1 4 3 4 1 5 B re v id. 9 9 3 9 7 4 R e f. S O T H D ir. tlf. 4 6 3 1 4 0 0 9 s o fie t@ ro s k ild e.d k G o d k e n d e ls e s k rite rie r fo r p riv a tin

More information

CIS CO S Y S T E M S. G u ille rm o A g u irre, Cis c o Ch ile. 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d.

CIS CO S Y S T E M S. G u ille rm o A g u irre, Cis c o Ch ile. 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d. CIS CO S Y S T E M S A c c e s s T e c h n o lo g y T e le c o m /IT Co n n e c tiv ity W o rk s h o p G u ille rm o A g u irre, Cis c o Ch ile g m o.a g u irre @ c is c o.c o m S e s s io n N u m b e

More information

T ra d in g A c tiv ity o f F o re ig n In s titu tio n a l In v e s to rs a n d V o la tility

T ra d in g A c tiv ity o f F o re ig n In s titu tio n a l In v e s to rs a n d V o la tility T ra d in g A c tiv ity o f F o re ig n In s titu tio n a l In v e s to rs a n d V o la tility V. Ravi Ans human Indian Ins titute of Manag ement B ang alore Rajes h Chakrabarti Indian S chool of Bus ines

More information

M P L S /V P N S e c u rity. 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d.

M P L S /V P N S e c u rity. 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d. M P L S /V P N S e c u rity M ic h a e l B e h rin g e r < m b e h rin g @ c is c o.c o m > M b e h rin g - M P L S S e c u rity 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d. 1 W h

More information

Erfa rin g fra b y g g in g a v

Erfa rin g fra b y g g in g a v Erfa rin g fra b y g g in g a v m u ltim e d ia s y s te m e r Eirik M a u s e irik.m a u s @ n r.n o N R o g Im e d ia N o rs k R e g n e s e n tra l fo rs k n in g s in s titu tt in n e n a n v e n d

More information

i n g S e c u r it y 3 1B# ; u r w e b a p p li c a tio n s f r o m ha c ke r s w ith t his å ] í d : L : g u id e Scanned by CamScanner

i n g S e c u r it y 3 1B# ; u r w e b a p p li c a tio n s f r o m ha c ke r s w ith t his å ] í d : L : g u id e Scanned by CamScanner í d : r ' " B o m m 1 E x p e r i e n c e L : i i n g S e c u r it y. 1-1B# ; u r w e b a p p li c a tio n s f r o m ha c ke r s w ith t his g u id e å ] - ew i c h P e t e r M u la e n PACKT ' TAÞ$Æo

More information

Combinación de bandas óptima para la discriminación de sabanas colombianas, usando imagen Landsat ETM+ZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCB

Combinación de bandas óptima para la discriminación de sabanas colombianas, usando imagen Landsat ETM+ZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCB Combinación de bandas óptima para la discriminación de sabanas colombianas, usando imagen Landsat ETM+ZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCB O p t i m a l L a n d s a t E T M + b a n d 's c o m b i n a t i o n f o

More information

UFPA Brazil. d e R e d e s Ó p tic a s e s e u s Im p a c to s n o F u tu r o d a In te r n e t

UFPA Brazil. d e R e d e s Ó p tic a s e s e u s Im p a c to s n o F u tu r o d a In te r n e t A v a n ç o s n o P la n o d e C o n tr o le d e R e d e s Ó p tic a s e s e u s Im p a c to s n o F u tu r o d a In te r n e t A n to n io A b e lé m a b e le m @ u fp a.b r Agenda In tr o d u ç ã o C

More information

SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E-

SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E- SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E- EG Z IA B H ER e d it o r s N ) LICA TIO N S A N D M ETH O D S t DVD N CLUDED C o n t e n Ls Pr e fa c e x v G l o b a l N a v i g a t i o n Sa t e llit e S y s t e

More information

S y ste m s. T h e D atabase. D atabase m anagem e n t sy ste m

S y ste m s. T h e D atabase. D atabase m anagem e n t sy ste m 1 C h apte r 1 1 A D atabase M anagem e n t S y ste m s 1 D atabase M anagem e n t S y ste m s D atabase m anagem e n t sy ste m (D B M S ) S to re larg e co lle ctio n s o f d ata O rg anize th e d ata

More information

C + + a G iriş 2. K o n tro l y a p ıla rı if/e ls e b re a k co n tin u e g o to sw itc h D ö n g ü le r w h ile d o -w h ile fo r

C + + a G iriş 2. K o n tro l y a p ıla rı if/e ls e b re a k co n tin u e g o to sw itc h D ö n g ü le r w h ile d o -w h ile fo r C + + a G iriş 2 K o n tro l y a p ıla rı if/e ls e b re a k co n tin u e g o to sw itc h D ö n g ü le r w h ile d o -w h ile fo r F o n k s iy o n la r N e d ir? N a s ıl k u lla n ılır? P ro to tip v

More information

Frederikshavn kommunale skolevæsen

Frederikshavn kommunale skolevæsen Frederikshavn kommunale skolevæsen Skoleåret 1969-70 V e d K: Hillers-Andersen k. s k o l e d i r e k t ø r o g Aage Christensen f u l d m æ g t i g ( Fr e d e rik sh av n E k sp r e s- T ry k k e rie

More information

E S T A D O D O C E A R Á P R E F E I T U R A M U N I C I P A L D E C R U Z C Â M A R A M U N I C I P A L D E C R U Z

E S T A D O D O C E A R Á P R E F E I T U R A M U N I C I P A L D E C R U Z C Â M A R A M U N I C I P A L D E C R U Z C O N C U R S O P Ú B L I C O E D I T A L N º 0 0 1 / 2 0 1 2 D i s p õ e s o b r e C o n c u r s o P ú b l i c o p a r a p r o v i m e n t o c a r g o s e v a g a s d a P r e f e i t u r a M u n i c i

More information

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans in Union Contracts

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans in Union Contracts Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans in Union Contracts Bulletin N o. 1187 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR James P. Mitchell, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner Health, Insurance,

More information

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ).

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ). PROCEDIMIENTO DE RECUPERACION Y COPIAS DE SEGURIDAD DEL CORTAFUEGOS LINUX P ar a p od e r re c u p e ra r nu e s t r o c o rt a f u e go s an t e un d es a s t r e ( r ot u r a d e l di s c o o d e l a

More information

I n la n d N a v ig a t io n a co n t r ib u t io n t o eco n o m y su st a i n a b i l i t y

I n la n d N a v ig a t io n a co n t r ib u t io n t o eco n o m y su st a i n a b i l i t y I n la n d N a v ig a t io n a co n t r ib u t io n t o eco n o m y su st a i n a b i l i t y and KB rl iak s iol mi a, hme t a ro cp hm a5 a 2k p0r0o 9f i,e ls hv oa nr t ds eu rmv oedye l o nf dae cr

More information

How To Read A Book

How To Read A Book DECOMPOSING MODERNITY Im ages o f Human E x is te n c e in th e w r itin g s o f E rn e s t B e c k e r B y S te p h e n W illiam M a rtin A TH ESIS in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Masters

More information

GlasCraft Air Motor Repair Kits

GlasCraft Air Motor Repair Kits Parts GlasCraft ir Motor Repair Kits 30393B ENG For replacing wear items used on GlasCraft air motors. For professional use only. Not for use in explosive atmospheres. Models M-325, M-500-02, GC2267, GC2273

More information

Critical Review MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION: A REVIEW

Critical Review MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION: A REVIEW Coi Nb I^HIpRESSj Environm ental Toxicology and Chem istry, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 1219-1234, 2004 P rinted in ihc USA 0730-7 2 6 8 /0 4 $12.00 +.00 Critical Review MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS

More information

M Mobile Based Clinical Decision Support System Bhudeb Chakravarti & Dr. Suman Bhusan Bhattacharyya Provider & Public Health Group, VBU-HL P S aty am C om puter S ervices L im ited Bhudeb_ C hak ravarti@

More information

Up c om i n g Events

Up c om i n g Events BCASA NEWSLETTER B o s to n C h a p te r o f th e A m e ric a n Sta tis tic a l A s s o c ia tio n Serving Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont Vo lu m e 2 9, N o. 3, J a n u

More information

Farmers attitudes toward and evaluation and use of insurance for income protection on Montana wheat farms by Gordon E Rodewald

Farmers attitudes toward and evaluation and use of insurance for income protection on Montana wheat farms by Gordon E Rodewald Farmers attitudes toward and evaluation and use of insurance for income protection on Montana wheat farms by Gordon E Rodewald A THESIS Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements

More information

T c k D E GR EN S. R a p p o r t M o d u le Aa n g e m a a k t o p 19 /09 /2007 o m 09 :29 u u r BJB 06 013-0009 0 M /V. ja a r.

T c k D E GR EN S. R a p p o r t M o d u le Aa n g e m a a k t o p 19 /09 /2007 o m 09 :29 u u r BJB 06 013-0009 0 M /V. ja a r. D a t a b a n k m r in g R a p p o r t M Aa n g e m a a k t o p 19 /09 /2007 o m 09 :29 u u r I d e n t if ic a t ie v a n d e m S e c t o r BJB V o lg n r. 06 013-0009 0 V o o r z ie n in g N ie u w la

More information

P R E F E I T U R A M U N I C I P A L D E J A R D I M

P R E F E I T U R A M U N I C I P A L D E J A R D I M D E P A R T A M E N T O D E C O M P R A S E L I C I T A O A U T O R I Z A O P A R A R E A L I Z A O D E C E R T A M E L I C I T A T с R I O M O D A L I D A D E P R E G O P R E S E N C I A L N 034/ 2 0

More information

A CMOS Programmable Analog Memory-Cell Array Using Floating-Gate Circuits

A CMOS Programmable Analog Memory-Cell Array Using Floating-Gate Circuits 4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS II: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 48, NO. 1, JANUARY 2001 A CMOS Programmable Analog Memory-Cell Array Using Floating-Gate Circuits R eid R. H arrison,

More information

H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew. S te p h a n M a rt in. S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct

H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew. S te p h a n M a rt in. S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew S te p h a n M a rt in S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct OPEN XCHANGE Architecture Overview A ge nda D es ig n G o als A rc h i te ct u re O ve rv i ew S c a l a b ili

More information

UNDERSTANDING FLOW PROCESSING WITHIN THE CISCO ACE M ODULE Application de liv e r y pr odu cts can distr ib u te tr af f ic to applications and w e b se r v ice s u sing v ar y ing le v e ls of application

More information

L a h ip e r t e n s ió n a r t e r ia l s e d e f in e c o m o u n n iv e l d e p r e s ió n a r t e r ia l s is t ó lic a ( P A S ) m a y o r o

L a h ip e r t e n s ió n a r t e r ia l s e d e f in e c o m o u n n iv e l d e p r e s ió n a r t e r ia l s is t ó lic a ( P A S ) m a y o r o V e r s i ó n P á g i n a 1 G U I A D E M A N E J O D E H I P E R T E N S I O N E S C E N C I A L 1. D E F I N I C I O N. L a h ip e r t e n s ió n a r t e r ia l s e d e f in e c o m o u n n iv e l d

More information

W Regional Cooperation in the Field of A u tom otiv e E ngineering in S ty ria Dr. Peter Riedler 2 9.1 1.2 0 1 1 i e n GmbH Graz B u s ines s S trategy S ty ria 2 0 2 0 H is tory 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 1 9 9

More information

Application Note: Cisco A S A - Ce r t if ica t e T o S S L V P N Con n e ct ion P r of il e Overview: T h i s a p p l i ca ti o n n o te e x p l a i n s h o w to co n f i g u r e th e A S A to a cco m

More information

A Unified Approach to Statistical Estimation and Model Parameterisation in Mass Calibration

A Unified Approach to Statistical Estimation and Model Parameterisation in Mass Calibration A Unified Approach to Statistical Estimation and Model Parameterisation in Mass Calibration by Thom as S. Leahy B.Sc. i» A Thesis presented to Dublin City University For the Degree of D octor of Philosophy

More information

Operational Risk Register. Legal Dem ocratic & Regulatory

Operational Risk Register. Legal Dem ocratic & Regulatory Risk Risk F in a n c e & G o v e rn a n c e > > L e g a l D e m o c ra tic & R e g u la to ry - S te v e B a k e r L D R _ F 0 1 - L a c k o f re s o u rc e s to b e a b le to s p e n d th e a p p ro p

More information

C e r t ifie d Se c u r e W e b

C e r t ifie d Se c u r e W e b C r t ifi d S c u r W b Z r t ifizi r t Sic h r h it im W b 1 D l gat s N ic o las M ay n c o u r t, C EO, D r am lab T c h n o lo gi s A G M ar c -A n d r é B c k, C o n su lt an t, D r am lab T c h n

More information

Put the human back in Human Resources.

Put the human back in Human Resources. Put the human back in Human Resources A Co m p l et e Hu m a n Ca p i t a l Ma n a g em en t So l u t i o n t h a t em p o w er s HR p r o f essi o n a l s t o m eet t h ei r co r p o r a t e o b j ect

More information

C o m p u te r M o d e lin g o f M o le c u la r E le c tro n ic S tru c tu re

C o m p u te r M o d e lin g o f M o le c u la r E le c tro n ic S tru c tu re C o m p u te r M o d e lin g o f M o le c u la r E le c tro n ic S tru c tu re P e te r P u la y D e p a rtm e n t o f C h e m is try a n d B io c h e m is try, U n iv e rs ity o f A rk a n s a s, F a

More information

B R T S y s te m in S e o u l a n d In te g r a te d e -T ic k e tin g S y s te m

B R T S y s te m in S e o u l a n d In te g r a te d e -T ic k e tin g S y s te m Symposium on Public Transportation in Indian Cities with Special focus on Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) System New Delhi 20-21 Jan 2010 B R T S y s te m in S e o u l a n d In te g r a te d e -T ic k e tin g

More information

Unit 16 : Software Development Standards O b jec t ive T o p r o v id e a gu ide on ho w t o ac h iev e so f t wa r e p r o cess improvement through the use of software and systems engineering standards.

More information

C o a t i a n P u b l i c D e b tm a n a g e m e n t a n d C h a l l e n g e s o f M a k e t D e v e l o p m e n t Z a g e bo 8 t h A p i l 2 0 1 1 h t t pdd w w wp i j fp h D p u b l i c2 d e b td S t

More information

Victims Compensation Claim Status of All Pending Claims and Claims Decided Within the Last Three Years

Victims Compensation Claim Status of All Pending Claims and Claims Decided Within the Last Three Years Claim#:021914-174 Initials: J.T. Last4SSN: 6996 DOB: 5/3/1970 Crime Date: 4/30/2013 Status: Claim is currently under review. Decision expected within 7 days Claim#:041715-334 Initials: M.S. Last4SSN: 2957

More information

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change CLASS TEST GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change MARKS: 45 TIME: hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use non-programmable calculators. 3. You may

More information

Der Bologna- P roz es s u nd d i e S t aat s ex am Stefan Bienefeld i na Service-St el l e B o l o g n a d er H R K Sem in a r D er B o l o g n a P ro z es s U m s et z u n g u n d M it g es t a l t u

More information

Data Center end users for 40G/100G and market dy nami c s for 40G/100G on S M F Adam Carter Ci s c o 1 W Now that 40GbE is part of the IEEE 802.3ba there will be a wid er array of applic ation s that will

More information

An E mpir ical Analysis of Stock and B ond M ar ket Liquidity

An E mpir ical Analysis of Stock and B ond M ar ket Liquidity A p r il 2 2, 2 0 0 2 An E mpir ical Analysis of Stock and B ond M ar ket Liquidity Ta r u n Ch o r d ia, A s a n i S a r ka r, a n d A va n id h a r S u b r a h m a n ya m Go iz u e t a B u s in e s s

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers Key Questions & Exercises Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers 1. The atomic weight of carbon is 12.0107 u, so a mole of carbon has a mass of 12.0107 g. Why doesn t a mole of

More information

Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature

Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide Andrew Nixon February 2002 Campus Sustainability Assessment Review Project Telephone: (616) 387-5626

More information

Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation, the ISO 25000 Series

Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation, the ISO 25000 Series Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation, the ISO 25000 Series PSM Technical Working Group February 2004 Dave Zubrow Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense Background

More information

Cloud Computing Strategic View

Cloud Computing Strategic View Donald Bell IBM Academic Initiative April 2010 bellds@us.ibm.com Cloud Computing Strategic View Strategy & Enterprise Initiatives Topics Cloud Computing IBM Academic Skills Cloud (Pilot) 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qb2hjpaqy-k&fmt=18',686,580);

More information

Creating a best fit between Business Strategy and Web Services Capabilities using Problem Frames Modeling approach

Creating a best fit between Business Strategy and Web Services Capabilities using Problem Frames Modeling approach Creating a best fit between Business Strategy and Web Services Capabilities using Problem Frames Modeling approach Anju Jha 1, Karl Cox 2 & Keith T. Phalp 3 1 School of Computer Science and Engineering

More information

DESIGNING A HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROSECUTION CLINIC:

DESIGNING A HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROSECUTION CLINIC: FILE:C:\WP51\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM DESIGNING A HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROSECUTION CLINIC: Making Bedfellows of Academics, Activists and Prosecutors to Teach Students According to Clinical

More information

Beverlin Allen, PhD, RN, MSN, ARNP

Beverlin Allen, PhD, RN, MSN, ARNP Pressure Ulcers & Nutritional Deficits in Elderly Long-Term Care Patients: Effects of a Comprehensive Nutritional Protocol on Pressure Ulcer Healing, Length of Hospital Stay & Health Care Charges Beverlin

More information

Engenharia de Software

Engenharia de Software Engenharia de Software Gerenciamento de Projeto Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 4 Slide 1 Gerenciamento de Projeto Organização, planejamento e agendamento de projetos de

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Why? Chemists are concerned with mass relationships in chemical reactions, usually run on a macroscopic scale (grams, kilograms, etc.). To deal with

More information

THE UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO CRIMINAL CLINIC: IT'S ALL IN THE MIX

THE UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO CRIMINAL CLINIC: IT'S ALL IN THE MIX FILE:N:\DTP\MISS\LEAD.RAW Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM THE UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO CRIMINAL CLINIC: IT'S ALL IN THE MIX Jean Montoya * Although many legal educators would place the birth of clinical legal

More information

az 1995. évi L X V. tv. 28. -á ra figyelem m el 20. sz á m ú UTASÍTÁSA B u d a p e s t, 1 9 6 7. é v i jú liu s hó 2 8 -á n.

az 1995. évi L X V. tv. 28. -á ra figyelem m el 20. sz á m ú UTASÍTÁSA B u d a p e s t, 1 9 6 7. é v i jú liu s hó 2 8 -á n. BELÜGYMINISZTÉRIUM SZOLGÁLATI HASZNÁLATRA! 1 0-2 4 /2 0 /1 9 6 7. A M I N Ő S Í T É S M E G S Z Ű N T az 1995. évi L X V. tv. 28. -á ra figyelem m el A MAGYAR NÉPKÖZTÁRSASÁG BELÜGYMINISZTERHELYETTESÉNEK

More information

A Practical Usage of Innovative Web Design Methodology: The Relational Modeling Methodology

A Practical Usage of Innovative Web Design Methodology: The Relational Modeling Methodology Abstract The web platform has transformed itself in the few years since its inception in 1993 from an instrument used merely to establish on-line presence to a platform that can support all facets of organizational

More information

All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units!

All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units! CHEM 10113, Quiz 2 September 7, 2011 Name (please print) All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units! IA Periodic Table of the Elements VIIIA (1) (18) 1 2 1 H IIA

More information

40 20 L in z. 1 7. O k tober 2 0 0 7

40 20 L in z. 1 7. O k tober 2 0 0 7 Neurochirurgische Abteilung T heoretische Neurochirurgie M ag a. Sabine Spiegl-Kreinecker Tel: + 43 (0)50 554/62-26092 E -mail: sabine.spiegl-kreinecker@ gespag.at 1 7. O k tober 2 0 0 7 A n d e n V e

More information

Collaboration in Public H e alth be tw e e n U niv e rs ity of H e id e lbe rg and U niv e rs ity of D ar e s S alaam How t h e c oop e r a t i on e m e r g e d Informal c ont ac t s from e arly 1 9

More information

Purpose of presentation

Purpose of presentation ECONOMIC REGULATION Purpose of presentation To provide the Status Quo on Economic Regulation To indicate the ideal situation WHERE DOES THE MANDATE COME FROM? Constitution Water Services Act Section 10

More information

G S e r v i c i o C i s c o S m a r t C a r e u ي a d e l L a b o r a t o r i o d e D e m o s t r a c i n R ل p i d a V e r s i n d e l S e r v i c i o C i s c o S m a r t C a r e : 1 4 ع l t i m a A c

More information

First A S E M R e c to rs C o n f e re n c e : A sia E u ro p e H ig h e r E d u c a tio n L e a d e rsh ip D ia l o g u e Fre ie U n iv e rsitä t, B e rl in O c to b e r 2 7-2 9 2 0 0 8 G p A G e e a

More information

G ri d m on i tori n g w i th N A G I O S (*) (*) Work in collaboration with P. Lo Re, G. S av a and G. T ortone WP3-I CHEP 2000, N F N 10.02.2000 M e e t i n g, N a p l e s, 29.1 1.20 0 2 R o b e r 1

More information

ACE-1/onearm #show service-policy client-vips

ACE-1/onearm #show service-policy client-vips M A C E E x a m Basic Load Balancing Using O ne A r m M ode w it h S ou r ce N A T on t h e C isco A p p licat ion C ont r ol E ngine Goal Configure b a s ic l oa d b a l a nc ing (L a y er 3 ) w h ere

More information

The Business Case for D om aink ey s I d ent ified M ail Andy Spillane V ic e P r es ident, Y ah o o! M February 13, 2006 ail 1 Fighting Spam & Email Abuse R eq uir es a M ulti-fac eted Appr o ac h DomainKeys

More information

m Future of learning Zehn J a hr e N et A c a d ei n E r f o l g s p r o g r a m Cisco E x p o 2 0 0 7 2 6. J u n i 2 0 0 7, M e sse W ie n C. D or n in g e r, b m u k k 1/ 12 P r e n t t z d e r p u t

More information

How to Subnet a Network How to use this paper Absolute Beginner: Read all Sections 1-4 N eed a q uick rev iew : Read Sections 2-4 J ust need a little h elp : Read Section 4 P a r t I : F o r t h e I P

More information

SCHOOL PESTICIDE SAFETY AN D IN TEG R ATED PEST M AN AG EM EN T Statutes put into law by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture & Forestry to ensure the safety and well-being of children and school personnel

More information

Enterprise Data Center A c h itec tu re Consorzio Operativo Gruppo MPS Case S t u d y : P r o g et t o D i sast er R ec o v er y Milano, 7 Febbraio 2006 1 Il G r u p p o M P S L a B a n c a M o n t e d

More information

Positioning 40 and 100 GbE in data center inter-sw itch l ink ap p l ications and 40GbE PM D recom m endations Adam Carter, Cisco Al essan dro B arb ieri, Cisco 1 m Data Center inter-s w itc h l ink ap

More information

ComWIN Control Desk Management

ComWIN Control Desk Management ComWIN Control Desk Management ComW IN visualises, controls and automates E x tre m e s itu a tio n s su ch as car a c c id e n ts o r te c h n ic a l fa u lts a re ju s t as m u ch p a rt o f th e jo

More information

Understanding, Modelling and Improving the Software Process. Ian Sommerville 1995 Software Engineering, 5th edition. Chapter 31 Slide 1

Understanding, Modelling and Improving the Software Process. Ian Sommerville 1995 Software Engineering, 5th edition. Chapter 31 Slide 1 Process Improvement Understanding, Modelling and Improving the Software Process Ian Sommerville 1995 Software Engineering, 5th edition. Chapter 31 Slide 1 Process improvement Understanding existing processes

More information

re:think creativity ICT and tourism: gaming and creative technologies & applications

re:think creativity ICT and tourism: gaming and creative technologies & applications re:think creativity ICT and tourism: gaming and creative technologies & applications Presented by: Dr. N ik o s V o g ia t zis Corallia co-founder & chief Development & Operations officer gi-cluster Governance

More information

1. Oblast rozvoj spolků a SU UK 1.1. Zvyšování kvalifikace Školení Zapojení do projektů Poradenství 1.2. Financování 1.2.1.

1. Oblast rozvoj spolků a SU UK 1.1. Zvyšování kvalifikace Školení Zapojení do projektů Poradenství 1.2. Financování 1.2.1. 1. O b l a s t r o z v o j s p o l k a S U U K 1. 1. Z v y š o v á n í k v a l i f i k a c e Š k o l e n í o S t u d e n t s k á u n i e U n i v e r z i t y K a r l o v y ( d á l e j e n S U U K ) z í

More information

SEARCH WARRANTS IN AN ERA OF DIGITAL EVIDENCE

SEARCH WARRANTS IN AN ERA OF DIGITAL EVIDENCE FILE:C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\MYBRIE~1\KERRRAW.BK! 12/13/05 Tue 12:52PM Dec SEARCH WARRANTS IN AN ERA OF DIGITAL EVIDENCE Orin S. Kerr * ABSTRACT This Article contends that the legal rules regulating the search

More information

FORT WAYNE COMMUNITY SCHOOLS 12 00 SOUTH CLINTON STREET FORT WAYNE, IN 468 02 6:02 p.m. Ma r c h 2 3, 2 015 OFFICIAL P ROCEED ING S Ro l l Ca l l e a r d o f h o o l u e e o f t h e r t y m m u t y h o

More information

BENEFITS OF AN INTEGRATED (PROSECUTION & DEFENSE) CRIMINAL LAW CLINIC

BENEFITS OF AN INTEGRATED (PROSECUTION & DEFENSE) CRIMINAL LAW CLINIC FILE:C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\MYBRIE~1\LINDAS.WP 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM Jan BENEFITS OF AN INTEGRATED (PROSECUTION & DEFENSE) CRIMINAL LAW CLINIC Linda F. Smith * This article describes the University of Utah's

More information

Public Health is Like..

Public Health is Like.. Public Health is Like.. A box of chocolates. you never know what your gonna get, Forrest Gump. So... Build the evidence-base for public health practice Building the Evidence- Base Science is contributing

More information

How to Successfully Integrate with ERP and Expense Management Systems

How to Successfully Integrate with ERP and Expense Management Systems Treasury and Trade Solutions Citi Commercial Cards Innovation, Efficiency, Simplicity. 2015 Commercial Cards Conference May 18-20, 2015 How to Successfully Integrate with ERP and Expense Management Systems

More information

Management of the Belgian coast: Opinions and solutions

Management of the Belgian coast: Opinions and solutions 24363 Jo u rn a l o f C o a sta l C onservation 7: 129-144, 2001 'O EUCC: O palus Press Uppsala. P rinted in Sweden Vlaams Instituut voor dezae F la n d ers M a rin e In stitu te Management of the Belgian

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes.

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. 1 PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. Metal Nonmetal Scheme (based on physical properties) Metals - most elements are metals - elements on left

More information

3rd Annual Eclipse Global Enterprise Survey Research Findings. Public Version

3rd Annual Eclipse Global Enterprise Survey Research Findings. Public Version 3rd Annual Eclipse Global Enterprise Survey Research Findings Public Version Evans Data Corporation 740 Front St., Suite 240 Santa Cruz, CA 95060 800-831-3080 www.evansdata.com September, 2007 Background

More information

1 D e r 1. S c h u l t a g M a l e a u s. S c h re i b e d e i n e n N a m e n u n t e r e i n K i n d. 1 2 D a s b i n i c h M a l e d i c h s e l b e r. 2 3 F re u n d e M a l e d i c h u n d d e i n

More information

Workload Management Services. Data Management Services. Networking. Information Service. Fabric Management

Workload Management Services. Data Management Services. Networking. Information Service. Fabric Management The EU D a t a G r i d D a t a M a n a g em en t (EDG release 1.4.x) T h e Eu ro p ean Dat agri d P ro j ec t T eam http://www.e u - d a ta g r i d.o r g DataGrid is a p ro j e c t f u n de d b y th e

More information

S c h ools a n d W e b 2.0: a c ritic a l pe rspe c tiv e

S c h ools a n d W e b 2.0: a c ritic a l pe rspe c tiv e S c h ools a n d W e b 2.0: a c ritic a l pe rspe c tiv e Lon don K n ow le dge L ab In stituto de la Educació n U n iv e rsidad de Lon dre s, R e in o U n ido Resumen: E ste a rtíc u lo ofre c e u n a

More information

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <soapenv:envelope xmlns:soapenv="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"

<?xml version=1.0 encoding=utf-8?> <soapenv:envelope xmlns:soapenv=http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/ Applicazioni Java W S con Ax is sistema di tr ac c iab il ità ag r o al imen tar e Ing. Mario G.C.A. Cimino M.G.C.A.Cimino, Applicazioni Java-W S con Ax is, D ipar t ime nt o d i I ng e g ne r ia d e ll

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F.

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr Ho Bi Ce u Ac I Fl Fr Mo i Md Co P Pa Tc Uut Rh K N Dy Cl N Am b At Md H Y Bh Cm H Bi s Mo Uus Lu P F Cu Ar Ag Mg K Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of cience ducation

More information

M ethodology & Taiwan s P erfor m ance

M ethodology & Taiwan s P erfor m ance T im es H igher - QS W orld University R ank ings M ethodology & Taiwan s P erfor m ance B e n S o w te r H e a d o f R e s e a rc h QS T aiwan 11 A pril 2008 S peak er I ntroduction r a d u a te d in

More information

O s OAM Requirements for 40/100 GE Eth ernet AI S? Gary Nicholl C is co S ys t e m I E E E 8 0 2. 3 b a T as k F orce M arch 1 8, 2 0 0 8 rlan d o, F L 1 O O O O Background E t h e r n e t i s r a p i

More information

BUSINESS INSURANCE. S u m m a ry o f C o v e r December 2013 Edition. An Insurance Package for Businesses. Why Choose InterCounty s Insurance Package?

BUSINESS INSURANCE. S u m m a ry o f C o v e r December 2013 Edition. An Insurance Package for Businesses. Why Choose InterCounty s Insurance Package? BUSINESS INSURANCE S u m m a ry o f C o v e r December 2013 Edition An Insurance ackage for Businesses. Why Choose InterCounty s Insurance ackage? InterCounty s Business Insurance ackage offers you generous

More information

Excel Invoice Format. SupplierWebsite - Excel Invoice Upload. Data Element Definition UCLA Supplier website (Rev. July 9, 2013)

Excel Invoice Format. SupplierWebsite - Excel Invoice Upload. Data Element Definition UCLA Supplier website (Rev. July 9, 2013) Excel Invoice Format Excel Column Name Cell Format Notes Campus* Supplier Number* Invoice Number* Order Number* Invoice Date* Total Invoice Amount* Total Sales Tax Amount* Discount Amount Discount Percent

More information