# UNIT 3 VOCABULARY: INTEGERS

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1 1º ESO Bilingüe Page 1 UNIT 3 VOCABULARY: INTEGERS 3.1. Some uses of negative numbers There are many situations in which you need to use negative numbers. POSITIONS A submarine which is sailing 700 m below sea level m The height of Mount Everest is 8700 m above sea level + 8,700 m The second floor of a subterranean garage -2 MONEY Peter earns ,000 Mary spends 200 in clothes Susan saves \$ 700 in his bank account \$ Yoshiro is 40,000 overdrawn - 40,000 TEMPERATURE The average summer temperature here is 35 ºC + 35 ºC The temperature in Siberia has risen 25 ºC below zero ºC The temperature goes up 5 ºC + 5 ºC The temperature goes down 3 ºC - 3 ºC YEARS Hypatia of Alexadria (Egypt) was a Greek philosopher and mathematician. Hypatia lived in Roman Egypt, and was tortured and murdered in AD 415 Aristotle was a very famous Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He was born in Stageira, Chalcidice, in 384 BC Exercise. Write an integer to represent each situation: Eleven degrees above zero A loss of 27 Christopher Columbus discovers America in AD 1492 Aristotle died in 322 BC The temperature drops 5ºC Five degrees above zero Earnings of 200 A submarine is 500 m below sea level The temperature goes up 9 ºC

2 1º ESO Bilingüe Page The integers set In Mathematics, the integer set is formed by the natural numbers, zero and negative numbers. It is represented by Z. Z = {..., -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,...} The integer set doesn't have a beginning or an ending and it has infinite elements The Number Line The number line is a line labelled with the integers in increasing order from left to right, that extends in both directions: TWO IMPORTANT THINGS: Negative numbers are on the left Positive numbers are on the right Exercise. Represent on a line the following numbers: -1, +3, +7, Absolute Value The absolute value of an integer is the number without the sign. It is represented as a and it is called absolute value of a. +5 = 5-3 = 3-7 = 7 +2 = 2 The absolute value represents how far a number is from zero: 1. Work out the absolute value of these numbers: a) -9 b) +5 c) -3 d) +7 e) 0 2. Find out the number that has an absolute value of 7 and is between 8 and -6.

3 1º ESO Bilingüe Page Order in the integer set For any two different places on the number line, the integer on the right is greater than the integer on the left. NUMBERS ON THE LEFT ARE SMALLER THAN NUMBERS ON THE RIGHT -4 < 2-7 < -2 Remember how to read the different symbols!!!! Symbol Is read Example Is read = Is equal to / equals -5 = -5 Minus five equals minus five Isn't equal to / doesn't equal -2 2 Minus two doesn't equal two < Is less than -4 < -2 Minus four is less than minus two Is less than or equal to Five is less than or equal to five Minus five is less than or equal to two > Is greater than 0 > -6 Zero is greater than minus six Is greater than or equal to Minus one is greater than or equal to minus one Minus one is greater than or equal to minus two 1. Write down the less than sign (<) or the greater than sign (>) where corresponds: a) b) 1-6 c) 0 +3 d) 8 +2 e) Sort these negative numbers, greatest first: -5, -1, -2, Arrange in ascending order: a) -12, +3, 0, -1, -5, 5, +7, -18, 4 b) 11, -7, -3, +1, -10, 8, +13, -15, 2 4. Arrange in descending order: a) -11, +7, 10, -1, -5, 15, -7, -15, 4 b) 11, -17, +3, -1, 0, 8, +13, -18, 2

4 1º ESO Bilingüe Page Opposite The opposite of an integer is another integer with the same absolute value but different sign. Op (+3) = -3 Op (-5) = +5 Op (-7) = +7 Op (+2) = Work out the opposite of the following numbers: a) Op (-4) = b) Op (+8) = c) Op (15) = d) Op (-301) = 2. Complete this chart. Number Absolute value Opposite One less than One more than Addition of integers When adding integers with the same sign, we add their absolute values, and give the result the same sign = = 9 (-2) + (-7) = (-3) = -8 When adding integers with opposite signs, we take their absolute values, subtract the smaller from the larger, and give the result the sign of the integer with the larger absolute value. 7 + (-2) = (-3) = = = Work out: a) -8 + (-3) = b) 7 + (-5) = c) = d) 7 + (+5) = e) 4 + (-10) = f) (+10) = g) -5 + (-5) = h) 10 + (-7) = 2. Work out the following sums with integers: a) (-3) = b) 9 + (-3) + (-12) = c) (-1) = d) 6 + (-4) + (-3) + 8 = 3. Fill in the gap: a) 6 + = 9 b) + (-4) = 1 c) 2 + = -3 d) 3 + = -4

5 1º ESO Bilingüe Page Subtraction of integers To subtract two integers we add the first number to the opposite of the second number. 5-2 = 5 + (-2) = (-3) = = (-7) = = = -8 + (-3) = Work out: a) -2-8 = b) 6-7 = c) 19 + (-20) = d) 10 - (+4) = e) 3 - (-9) = f) 16 - (-2) = 2. Write down the missing numbers: a) -5 - (-6) = -5 + = b) 3 - (-8) = 3 + = c) 12 - = = 4.3. Brackets rules TWO VERY IMPORTANT RULES YOU MUST REMEMBER! Rule 1: If there is a plus sign before a bracket, don't do anything: remove it by writing its terms as they are. + (-7) = -7 + (+2) = +2 +( ) = Rule 2: If there is a minus sign before a bracket, change positive signs within it to negative and negative signs to positive signs. - (-6) = (+5) = -5 -( ) = (+4) - (-7) + (-2) = Combined additions and subtractions The best way to solve combined additions and subtractions of integers is: First, remove brackets (have a look at the rules shown in the previous section): (-3) - (-7) + (+4) = After that, add up all positive integers and all negative integers. Look at the example: = Finally, subtract the smaller from the larger, and give the result the sign of the integer with the larger absolute value: = + 4 Exercises 1. Work out the following combined additions: a) (-3) + (-7) (+3) (-3) + (-5) = b) 5 + (-3) (-2) + (-5) (-3) =

6 1º ESO Bilingüe Page 6 c) (-5) + (-2) (-3) + (-7) (-2) = d) 4 (+4) (-4) + (-3) (-2) (-7) = e) (-3) - (-7) + (-2) - 4 = f) (-3) - (-5) (-8) = 2. Fill in the missing number: a) (-7) + 12 = 3 b) (-5) + 4 = 12 c) 8 + (-4) = -1 d) 3 + (-12) = -4 e) = 13 f) (-5) + (-7) = Multiplication and division of integers To multiply two or more integers we have to multiply the signs and then the absolute value of the numbers. RULE OF THE SIGNS PRODUCT/DIVISION Positive Negative - Negative Positive 2 (-5) = (-5) = 15 (-3) 7 (-1) 2 = 42 To divide integers the rules are the same than for the product: divide the signs and then the absolute value of the numbers. 10 : (-5) = -2 (-15) : (-3) = 5 7 : (-1) = : (-2) = 5 1. Work out the following multiplications and divisions: a) (-2) x (-7)= b) (-15) : (-3) = c) (-20) x (+1)= d) (-25) : (+5) = e) (+3) x (-10)= f) (-10) : (-1) = 2. Fill in the gaps with a number: a) (-2) x = -22 b) (-15) : = 15 c) x (-5) = 30 d) : (+5) = -10 e) (+6) x = -18 f) (-70) : = Order of Operations Do all operations in brackets first. Work out the exponents. Then do multiplications and divisions in the order they appear (from left to right). Finally, do additions and subtractions in the order they appear. Easy way to remember them! Brackets Exponents Divisions Multiplications Additions Subtractions BEDMAS

7 1º ESO Bilingüe Page 7 Find out the outcome: a) 32 + (-12) : 6 = b) (-8) 9 15 (-3) = c) (-4) 10 : : (-7) = d) 27 : (-3) 2 (-4) = e) (-18) : (-10) = f) 18 : ( ) = g) (-6) (4 (-2)) + (-8 + (-3) 2) = h) (-35) : (5 + 2) + (-4) 9 (7 2 5) = i) [(3 4) + (-2)] : (-3) 6 = j) [ ((-12) (-3)) 8 ] + 24: [ ((-2) + (-6)) : 2] = EXTRA: Word problems 1. One day the temperature: a) goes up from 4ºC to 12ºC. What is the rise in temperature in ºC? b) was 13 degrees and dropped 20 degrees. What is the temperature now? 2. A submarine... a) was situated 450 m below sea level. If it ascends 175 m. What is its new position? b) was situated 370 m below sea level. If it descends 150 m. What is its new position? 3. Talking about mountains... a) Mt Everest, the highest elevation in Asia, is m above sea level. The Dead Sea, the lowest elevation, is 409 m below sea level. What is the difference between these two elevations? b) The highest elevation in North America is Mt. McKinley, which is feet above sea level. The lowest elevation is Death Valley, which is 282 feet below sea level. What is the distance from the top of Mt. McKinley to the bottom of Death Valley? 4. You have: a) 270 euros in your bank account and you write a check for 125 euros. What is your balance? b) 300 euros in you bank account and you pay an expensive gift by credit card. If the gift costs 450 euros, what is your balance?

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