# Magnetism. Magnetism. Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Domains. Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Domains. Creating and Destroying a Magnet

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1 Magnetism Magnetism Opposite poles attract and likes repel Opposite poles attract and likes repel Like electric force, but magnetic poles always come in pairs (North, South) Like electric force, but magnetic poles always come in pairs (North, South) If you break a magnet in half, you get two magnets! Does this still hold at the atomic level? If you break a magnet in half, you get two magnets! Does this still hold at the atomic level? DEMO - Lodestone Yes. Individual atoms act like little bar magnets. All magnetic phenomena due to motions of charged particles (usually electrons) Electricity and magnetism different aspects of same phenomenon - electromagnetism You can never have a North magnetic pole without a South pole! Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Domains Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Domains All magnets are surrounded by a field All magnets are surrounded by a field Induces other magnetized objects to line up along it Induces other magnetized objects to line up along it Which charged particles are moving in a bar magnet? A compass is a magnet that is free to pivot in a field. Which charged particles are moving in a bar magnet? The electrons. They spin like tops. A compass is a magnet that is free to pivot in a field. Clusters of spins can align with one another Called magnetic domains Domains in unmagnetized iron cancel one another Creating and Destroying a Magnet Creating and Destroying a Magnet How can we create a magnet from unmagnetized iron? How can we create a magnet from unmagnetized iron? Align domains => put in strong magnetic field How can we weaken the field strength of a magnet? 1

2 Creating and Destroying a Magnet Inducing Magnetic Fields How can we create a magnet from unmagnetized iron? Align domains => put in strong magnetic field How can we weaken the field strength of a magnet? Heat it Random thermal motion will cause the domains to disalign Can a magnet pick up a penny? an aluminum can? a piece of glass? DEMO - Electromagnet Inducing Magnetic Fields Inducing Magnetic Fields Can a magnet pick up a penny? a piece of glass? Unmagnetized Aluminum Can a magnet pick up a penny? a piece of glass? Unmagnetized Aluminum Strong fields can align electron spins to create a temporary magnetic field (paramagnetic materials) Paramagnetic Aluminum Strong fields can align electron spins to create a temporary magnetic field in opposition to the imposed magnetic field (diamagnetic materials) N diamagnetic water S DEMO - Electromagnet DEMO - Electromagnet Electric Currents and Magnetic Fields Electric Currents and Magnetic Fields Moving charge creates a magnetic field => so will a current in a wire First detected by the deflection of compasses Pattern of concentric circles What happens if the direction of the current is reversed? Moving charge creates a magnetic field => so will a current in a wire First detected by the deflection of compasses Pattern of concentric circles What happens if the direction of the current is reversed? Compass directions will also reverse DEMO - fields around a wire 2

3 The Electromagnet We can make a magnet that we can turn off and on. Most of us have magnets on our refrigerator door, why do they stick there? A: Because refrigerators are large magnets. B: Because the door is paramagnetic. C: Because the door is superconducting. D: Because the door is diamagnetic. Which of the following materials would a strong magnet not be able to pick up? A: An aluminum can B: Another magnet C: A piece of glass D: A nail What is a galvanometer? A: A really strong magnet B: A meter that measures electric current C: A meter that measures voltage D: A meter that measures magnetic field strength Magnetic Forces on Charges and Currents A charged particle moving in a magnetic field will feel a deflecting force Creates its own field A stationary charge feels no such force Direction is perpendicular to magnetic field lines and to velocity of the charges Unlike other forces which act along a line between them Basic principle behind electric meters and motors Magnetic Forces on Charges and Currents A wire carrying current will deflect a magnetized needle creating a simple electric meter (galvanometer) DEMO - The Electric Motor 3

4 Metal Detectors The Electric Generator The current in a loop will vary depending on what is inside it DEMO Induced currents Earth's Magnetic Field Protects us from high energy cosmic rays Earth's Magnetic Field Fast moving charged particles are deflected away or towards the poles What produces the Earth's magnetic field? Protects us from high energy cosmic rays What produces the Earth's magnetic field? Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) Fast moving charged particles are deflected away or towards the poles Rotation of the Earth! Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) 4

5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Jupiter spins more than twice as fast as the Earth, what could we predict based on this about its magnetic fields? A: They should be stronger than Earth s B: They should be weaker than Earth s C: They should be the same as Earth s D: It doesn t depend on rotation. Electromagnetic Induction If we think of the Earth as a giant magnet, its north (-seeking) pole is nearest to: Current-carrying wire => magnetic field Moving magnet => current in a wire A: Northern Canada within the arctic circle The greater the number of loops, the greater the induced voltage Why doesn't this violate conservation of energy? B: At the edge of the antartica south of Australia C: Just west of Hawaii in the tropics D: Albuquerque, NM in the southwest US Electromagnetic Induction Current-carrying wire => magnetic field Moving magnet => current in a wire Transformers Used to step voltage up or down The greater the number of loops, the greater the induced voltage Why doesn't this violate conservation of energy? The voltage produces a current turning the coil into an electromagnet which produces a field that acts to repel the incoming magnet. Since more work has to be done to move the magnet in the coil, conservation of energy is saved! DEMO -Solenoid and Jumping Rings 5

6 Transformers Used to step voltage up or down Faraday's Law and EM Waves Change in the magnetic field strength in coils generates a current A magnet at rest in a coil will not induce a current More generally A changing magnetic field induces an electric field A changing electric field induces a magnetic field In combination this produces the phenomenon of EM waves! Electromagnetic waves oscillating electric and magnetic fields that continually regenerate one another via EM induction. When a bar magnet is broken in two pieces, each half is: A: no longer magnetic. B: stronger than the original magnet. C: the same strength at the original magnet D: half as strong as the original magnet When a bar magnet is thrust inside a copper coil, the coil tends to: A: repel the magnet B: attract the magnet C: have no effect 6

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