Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences

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1 Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences

2 Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? How does the balance of the major energy-related longchain fatty acids (LCFA) in dairy cows affect body condition and milk fat, as well as milk production? Palmitic acid (C16:0) Stearic acid (C18:0) Oleic acid (C18:1 cis 9) These LCFA are provided by normal dietary ingredients as well as fat supplements.

3 Absorption of Dietary Fatty Acids: Small Intestine Fatty acids (mostly saturated) emulsified by bile salts; micelles formed with lysolecithin. Fatty acids absorbed into intestinal cells; converted to triglycerides (TG) and packaged into TG-rich lipoproteins (TGLP), similar to very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). TGLP enter lymph and provide dietary fatty acids to heart, muscle, adipose, and mammary. Dietary fats bypass liver (mostly).

4 Metabolic Uses of Dietary LCFA Oxidation (to CO2 or ketone bodies) for energy Deposition in body fat (adipose TG) or intermediate TG pools (liver, muscle) Secretion in milk fat Metabolic fate depends on tissue and physiological state

5 Diagram of a Healthy, Well-Fed Cow Adipose Tissue NE, Epi NEFA NEFA NEFA Insulin Liver TG Feed intake TGLP CO 2 Propionate Mitochondria Mammary Gland Milk Fat TGLP VLDL Glucose TG TG Modified from Drackley, 1999

6 Diagram of a Cow in Negative Energy Balance Adipose Tissue NE, Epi NEFA NEFA NEFA Insulin TG Liver Feed intake Mammary Gland TGLP Milk Fat VLDL CO 2 Propionate Ketone Bodies Glucose Mitochondria TG Amino Acids, Glycerol TG Modified from Drackley, 1999

7 Metabolic Uses of Dietary LCFA: Summary In positive energy balance: Oxidation (to CO2 or ketone bodies) for energy Deposition in body fat (adipose TG) or intermediate TG pools (liver, muscle) Secretion in milk fat In negative energy balance: Oxidation (to CO2 or ketone bodies) for energy Secretion in milk fat

8 Oxidation of LCFA (from diet-derived TG or NEFA) Oxidation (to CO2 or ketone bodies) for energy Direct oxidation of LCFA supplies only 6 to 12% of cow s energy 600-kg cow, 30 kg/d milk: g/d at energy balance g/d in negative energy balance Less oxidation of LCFA for energy in cows than nonruminants Palmquist, 1994

9 Source of Milk Fatty Acids De novo synthesis in mammary gland C4 to C14 plus ~50% of C16 Acetate main precursor B-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) as primer Uptake of preformed fatty acids ~50% of C16 and all C18 and greater Absorbed from digestive tract, or Mobilized from body fat

10 Comparison of FA Composition (g/100 g FA) Fatty Acid or Group Milk Fat a Adipose b Blood TGLP-TG a C4:0 4.0 C6:0 - C12: C14: C16: C16: ND C18: C18:1 cis C18:1 trans C18: C18: ND C160:C Total C16 fatty acids Total C18 fatty acids TC16:TC a Drackley et al., 2007; b Douglas et al., 2007

11 Comparison of FA Composition (g/100 g FA) Fatty Acid or Group Milk Fat a Adipose b Blood TGLP-TG a C4:0 4.0 C6:0 - C12: C14: C16: C16: ND C18: C18:1 cis C18:1 trans C18: C18: ND C160:C Total C16 fatty acids Total C18 fatty acids TC16:TC a Drackley et al., 2007; b Douglas et al., 2007

12 Comparison of FA Composition (g/100 g FA) Fatty Acid or Group Milk Fat a Adipose b Blood TGLP-TG a C4:0 4.0 C6:0 - C12: C14: C16: C16: ND C18: C18:1 cis C18:1 trans C18: C18: ND C160:C Total C16 fatty acids Total C18 fatty acids TC16:TC a Drackley et al., 2007; b Douglas et al., 2007

13 Mammary and Adipose Metabolism of Stearic Acid C18:0 is taken up and extensively desaturated to oleic acid by mammary cells. Adipose tissue synthesizes only C16:0, then elongates to C18:0 and desaturates to oleic acid.

14 Comparison of FA Composition (g/100 g FA) Fatty Acid or Group Milk Fat a Adipose b Blood TGLP-TG a C4:0 4.0 C6:0 - C12: C14: C16: C16: ND C18: C18:1 cis C18:1 trans C18: C18: ND C160:C Total C16 fatty acids Total C18 fatty acids TC16:TC a Drackley et al., 2007; b Douglas et al., 2007

15 Comparison of FA Composition (g/100 g FA) Fatty Acid or Group Milk Fat a Adipose b Blood TGLP-TG a C4:0 4.0 C6:0 - C12: C14: C16: C16: ND C18: C18:1 cis C18:1 trans C18: C18: ND C160:C Total C16 fatty acids Total C18 fatty acids TC16:TC a Drackley et al., 2007; b Douglas et al., 2007

16 Differences in Absorbed vs. Adipose and Milk Fat FA Blood TG generally reflect FA profile of duodenal FA absorbed Blood TG higher in C18:0 than adipose or milk fat Adipose TG higher in C18:1 than milk fat Increasing C16:C18 from blood < adipose < milk fat

17 Does Profile of Dietary Fatty Acids Matter? C16 vs. C18 in Diet

18 Effect of LCFA on In Vitro Mammary Fat Synthesis Effect of Exogenous Fatty Acids on Secretion of Fatty Acids Synthesized De Novo 250% =C16:0 =C18:0 =C18:1 200% 150% 100% 50% Incorporation of Exogenous Fatty Acids Into Triglycerides C16:0 stimulated de novo synthesis and incorporation into TG, whereas other fatty acids were either neutral or inhibitory Only minor differences in the esterification efficiency into TAG of various fatty acids, except for C16:0, which was clearly a better substrate than the other fatty acids tested Courtesy A. Lock, figures redrawn from Hansen & Knudsen, 1987

19 Effects of Different Saturated Fatty Acids in the Diet on Milk Fat Secretion in Cows Treatments Unsupplemented Myristic Acid Palmitic Acid Stearic Acid S.E.M. Milk Yield, kg *** ±0.57 Milk Fat Yield, g ** 459* ±26.4 Milk Fat Content, % *** 4.17*** 3.61 ±0.183 *, **, ***, Significantly different (P <0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001, respectively) from the values obtained with the unsupplemented ration. Unsupplemented or 4.3% of DM as myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), or stearic (C18:0) acids Steele and Moore, J. Dairy Res. (1968), 35, 361

20 FA Concentrations in Milk Fat Reflected Supplemented FA Treatments Fatty Acids Unsupplemented Myristic Acid Palmitic Acid Stearic Acid S.E.M. 4:0 8: *** 5.6*** 6.9 ± : ** 0.5 ± : *** 1.2*** ± : *** 6.3* 9.2 ± : *** ± : *** 60.7*** 27.7*** ± : ** 3.5*** 1.2 ± : *** 4.3*** 18.7*** ± : *** 14.2*** 30.1*** ± :2 + 18: ** 1.7** 1.4*** ±0.38 *, **, ***, Significantly different (P <0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001, respectively) from the values obtained with the unsupplemented ration. Steele and Moore, 1968

21 Daily Yield of FA (g/d) also Reflected Dietary FA Treatments Fatty Acids Unsupplemented Myristic Acid Palmitic Acid Stearic Acid S.E.M. 4:0 8: *** ± : * 2.2 ± : * 4.2*** 5.2** ± : *** 29.1* 39.7 ± : *** ± : *** 280.7*** 119.5*** ± : * 16.2*** 5.2 ± : *** 19.9*** 80.7*** ± : *** 65.6*** 129.9*** ± :2 + 18: ** 7.9* 6.0*** ±1.29 *, **, ***, Significantly different (P <0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001, respectively) from the values obtained with the unsupplemented ration. Steele and Moore, 1968

22 How are Palmitic and Stearic Acids Used for Milk Fat Production? Control Sat FFA Total FA Infused into Abomasum, g/d C16: C18: C18:0+C18: Milk Fatty Acids, g/d > Control 99 C16: C18: C18:0+C18: Milk C16:0+C18:0+C18:1, % of infused 22.4% Drackley et al., 1992

23 How are Palmitic and Stearic Acids Used for Milk Fat Production? FA Infused FA Control C16:0 C18:0 Amount Infused into Duodenum, g/d C16: C18: Milk Fatty Acids, g/d > Control C16: C18: C18: C18:0+C18: Milk FA, % of infused C16: % --- C18: % C18:0+C18: Enjalbert et al., 2000

24 Effects of Increasing Palmitic Acid Supplementation Kg/d Milk Yield Milk Fat % DMI Palmitic Supplement Intake, kg/d Palmitic Supplement Intake, kg/d Increase in milk C16:0 content and yield linear Mosley et al., 2007

25 Effects of C16:0 Supplement (450 g/d) in a Commercial Herd During Heat Stress Treatment Variable Unsupplemented C16:0 S.E.M. Milk, kg/d Cows < 39.2 kg/d Cows > 39.2 kg/d Milk fat, % * Milk fat, kg/d BCS change, units/35 d , *, Significantly different (P <0.10, P < 0.05, respectively) from unsupplemented ration. Warntjes et al., 2008, Anim. Feed Sci., Tech. 140:241

26 Implications High palmitic acid supplements can modestly increase milk fat content and output. C16:0 seems to be transferred to milk fat with greater efficiency. By default, however, this means less fatty acids available for other functions in cow (oxidation for energy, restoration of body reserves)

27 Using Fatty Acid Balance to Evaluate Changes in Lipid Metabolism Over a Lactation Cycle

28 Using Fatty Acid Balance to Evaluate Changes in Lipid Metabolism Over a Lactation Cycle FAB = Fatty acid intake minus fatty acids secreted in milk fat May reflect differences in body fat mobilization Consider total C16 and total C18 fatty acids to negate effects of biohydrogenation of unsaturated FA

29 Data Utilized Individual cow data for complete lactation from Drackley et al. (1998); subsequent analysis by Gursoy (2004) Cows fed control diet or diet supplemented with fat wk 4 through 25: 10% whole raw soybeans + 2.5% (DM) liquid fat wk 26 through 43: no soybeans, 2.25% liquid fat

30 Data Utilized Milk fatty acids determined at wk 3 (before dietary treatments started), and wk 7, 15, 23, 31, and 39 Intake and production data for same weeks utilized Balances calculated as digestible fatty acid intake minus milk fatty acid output Drackley, 2013, unpublished

31 Assumptions Milk C16 arises from 50% de novo synthesis and 50% from blood lipids Digestibility of fat constant across lactation: 72% for control diet 71% for added fat diet Dietary fat highly biohydrogenated (verified in Christensen et al., 1998) Drackley, 2013, unpublished

32 DMI Was Not Affected by Fat Supplementation DMI (kg) Weeks relative to calving Control Fat Drackley, 2013, unpublished

33 Total Fatty Acid Intake was Increased by Fat Supplementation Total fatty acid intake (g/d) Diet, P < Diet x week, P < Weeks relative to calving Control Fat Drackley, 2013, unpublished

34 Milk Yield Was Not Affected by Fat Supplementation Milk (kg) Control Fat 0 Diet x week, P = Weeks relative to calving Drackley, 2013, unpublished

35 Cow BW Was Greater for Fat-Supplemented Group 700 BW (kg) Control Fat 500 Diet, P = Weeks relative to calving Drackley, 2013, unpublished

36 Dietary Fat Supplementation Tended to Increase Milk Fat Yield at Peak Production Milk fat (kg) Diet x week, P = Weeks relative to calving Control Fat Drackley, 2013, unpublished

37 Dietary Fat Supplementation and Milk Fat Content Milk fat (%) Control Fat 0 Diet x week, P = Weeks relative to calving Drackley, 2013, unpublished

38 Despite Lower C16 Intake, Total C16 Fatty Acid Yield in Milk was Greater for Control Cows Milk C16 (g/d) Diet, P = Weeks relative to calving Control Fat Drackley, 2013, unpublished

39 Total C18 Fatty Acid Yield in Milk Tended to be Increased by Fat Supplementation Milk C18 (g/d) Diet x week, P = Weeks relative to calving Control Fat Drackley, 2013, unpublished

40 Fat Supplementation Increased C16 Balance C16 balance (g/d) Diet, P < Diet x week, P < Weeks relative to calving Control Fat Drackley, 2013, unpublished

41 Fat Supplementation Increased C18 Balance C18 balance (g/d) Diet, P < Diet x week, P < Weeks relative to calving Control Fat Drackley, 2013, unpublished

42 Discussion Are control cows really negative throughout lactation? Absolute numbers are subject to errors of assumptions. Regardless, fat supplementation improved apparent fatty acid balances. Implies less mobilization/more storage of body fat (C18) or spared energy (C16). These data were obtained for cows with a normal ratio of absorbed C16:C18 fatty acids, which may be different than when pure fatty acid supplements are fed.

43 Implications In presence of normal duodenal fatty acid profile, milk C16 was not increased by dietary C16 in a mixed supplement; rather, C16 synthesis was inhibited. A balanced fat supplement may provide more benefit for energy and BCS than pure C16.

44 Take-Home Messages Lipid metabolism is a dynamic process across life cycle and lactation cycle. C16:0 in milk is a pivot point for mammary fat synthesis; a supplemental fat providing a normal profile of C16:C18 FA decreases de novo synthesis.

45 Take-Home Messages Supplemental C18 fatty acids increase output in milk and improve body C18 balance. High palmitic acid (C16:0) supplements may increase milk fat content and yield, at least in cows in positive energy balance and lower yielding. Selection of fat supplements should take into account the stage of lactation and differing metabolism of C16 vs. C18 FA.

46 Questions & Answers James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences The Fatty Acid Forum sponsored by

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