Unit: Dar al Islam. Day #1

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1 Unit: Dar al Islam Day #1 Pre reading: Read How Islam Won, and Lost, the Lead in Science 1. Why was it important for medieval Muslims to study astronomy? 2. How did the Muslims use the texts of Greek thinkers? Why would these be useful? 3. List ways that medieval Muslims used science to bolster their religious understanding. 4. Why did Muslims stop emphasizing scientific study? Explain. And read pps in your textbook. Define and explain the significance of: Kaba Quran Caliph Umma Jihad Diwan Explain three reasons that Islam spread rapidly. Aim: How and why did Islam spread in the 7 th century? Chronology on board 570-birth of Mohammed 622- Mecca to Medina; marks the origins of Islam and the Islamic calendar 632- Muslim control of Arabia around Mecca and Medina Four caliphs; Muslims conquer Syria, parts of Persia and Egypt; Sunni-Shiite divide Umaayad Caliphate; spread to Spain, No. Africa to the Indus River Valley. Lecture: I. Syncretism and the origin of Islam a. Arab tribes had emphasized generosity; had lost those values; Islam restores. b. Allah was the chief god among Arab polytheists; became only god. c. Mecca had been center of religious activity for Arabs; maintained by Islam d. Traders flocked to Mecca; the pilgrimage.

2 II. Characteristics of Dar al Islam: Map growth of empire in 632 ce, 656 ce and 750 ce. Show map at: a. Between 632 ce and 750 ce, Islam spread because of weak neighbors, good army, religious fervor, and because many did not oppose Islam (was a message of equality and tolerance). Extended from Morocco to China. United by Arabic language. Like Latin. b. Political characteristics: Islam was born connected to the state. Abbasids allowed for local autonomy as long as taxes were collected. The ulema, local Islamic leaders, created Sharia-law that would govern social, economic and family behavior. c. Cultural characteristics: include translation of Persian and Greek texts into Arabic (onto paper from China). Developed rationalism in philosophy; nonrepresentational art-especially in architecture; idea of contagion in medicine; algebra in math; extensive geographic knowledge because of trade in Africa and the Indian Ocean. Cities: Baghdad (richest city in the world btw 762 and 1258 CE) and Cordoba (Great intellectual center with 400,000 manuscripts; Islam had learned of paper from China) d. Economic characteristics: Expanded agriculture greatly with irrigation; grew wheat barley and rice; used free peasants to grow food; manufacturing centered around carpet production in Persia and iron work in Damascus; trade was extensive between with Byzantines, Africa, and Asia.; improvements in banks allowed checks to be cashed throughout empire. Built on trade. Each camel carried 600 pounds; caravans might include 5,000 camels. Like Rome s roads and sea. Because of Islam s spread, the markets of the Mediterranean were connected with the markets of the Indian Ocean. e. Social characteristics: was highly diverse ethnically, but at times there were conflicts between Arabs and non-arabs; had a strong egalitarian push even between people of different classes; slaves-used mainly as domestics and manual labor in mines or ships- complicated the egalitarian message; slaves could not be Muslim; what to do with converts?; Islam advanced women s right with spiritual equality, ban on infanticide, and allowing women to own property; but also social segregation and polygamy. f. Historians speculate that during the reign of Harun al-rashid ( ) Baghdad was the largest city in the world, with a possible population of between 700,000 and 1,000,000 inhabitants - a cosmopolitan mix of migrants that included Arabs, Persians, Jews and Indians, among others. Watch: PBS Islam: Empire of Faith (from Hejira to conquest of Mecca) (27:00-41:00)

3 Hw: Read pps in History of World Societies 1. How did Ali and Mu awiya came to have differences? 2. There are two main branches of Islam: Shiites and Sunnis. What is the source of their division? 3. The Abbasids Caliphate continued from CE. Write a paragraph that describes the Abbasid world. 4. Define: emir, sharia, qadis, diwan, and vizier. Day #2 Aim: What were the cultural achievements of the Abbasid Caliphate? 1. Review homework Show clip of learning in Baghdad (12 minutes) from Islam by PBS Group jigsaw activity on learning in the Islamic empire (economy, math, arts, medicine, astronomy and science). Have student work in a group of four. Each group gets four articles; each person reads one article and takes notes. They should share with members from their group to answer the question: What were the most significant cultural contributions of Islamic civilization in the Middle Ages? 3. Have each student write a one-page essay for Wikipedia that answers the question: What were the most significant cultural contributions of Islamic civilization in the Middle Ages? HW: Read pages in the textbook. 1. Describe the class system in the Umayyad period. 2. What was the importance of marriage in the Umayyad period? 3. Between CE, the Islamic world experienced a commercial revolution. What constituted that revolution? 4. How did a common Muslim culture facilitate the travels of Ibn Battuta? Day #3 Computer module: How did Islam spread through trade? Imagine, if you will, that you get to travel to West Africa several times over several different centuries. You will travel to West Africa in the period of the Soninke Empire in Ghana ( ce), the Mali Empire ( ce), and the Songhai Empire ( ). You will be traveling to one of the wealthiest places on the globe and one of the world s intellectual capitals. Lucky you! In this journey, I want you to figure out how and why Islam spread across the Saharan Desert, and into West Africa. I also want you to determine what role Islam played in the life of West Africa. Please answer the questions below in your notebook.

4 1. Visit: The Trans-Saharan Gold Trade a. Who was involved in trans-saharan gold trade? What was traded? b. Click on the map. Locate Timbuktu. Where was the gold? The salt? How did the traders connect to the Mediterranean? c. How did Muslim merchants influence the development of trade in West Africa? d. Why did the rulers of Mali not spread Islam? 2. Now visit: Timbuktu The Geographical Importance of Timbuktu The Islamic Legacy of Timbuktu (start with paragraph #17) a. What was so important about the geographical location of Timbuktu? b. How did Timbuktu become a center of learning? In your visit to Timbuktu in the 12 th century, what evidence of scholarship did you see? c. On your return visit to Timbuktu in 1324, you meet Mansa Musa. Why did he travel to Mecca? What was extraordinary about his trip? How did he change Timbuktu when he returned 3. Visit the Songhai Empire in the 15 th century a. How and why did the leaders of the Songhai spread Islam further in West Africa? HW: Finish answering questions for West Africa field trip. Class #5 Aim: Why does the Abbasid Caliphate fall? Compare and contrast the spread of Christianity with the spread of Islam. 1. Review spread of Islam to West Africa 2. Lecture Reasons for the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate a. fragmentation around 850 ce with independent dynasties in Spain and Egypt; the empire was sold to local governors one piece at a time. b. Seljuk Turks move from Central Asia into Middle East-by1055 they controlled Baghdad;

5 c. in 1099, crusaders from Western Europe began to attach Middle Eastern cities; d. around 1200, religious dogmatism stifles intellectual creativity-sufism as effect and cause; e. in 1258 Mongols sack Baghdad and kill majority of the population. 3. Long-term effects of Abbassids: a. Growth of Islam (post-abbasid): the gunpowder empires: the Ottomans, the Safavids, and the Mughals. Compare and Contrast the Spread of Christianity with the Spread of Islam Similarities between the spread of Islam and Christianity Some syncretism: Christianity in Romeson of God, saints, Christmas; Islam with Arabic culture- Mecca, the Kaba, charity. Missionaries: in Christianity Paul and others; in Islam often trade brought religious conversion Christianity and Islam survive the end of states that support them. Christianity spreads to Germanic tribes. Turks and Mongols spread Islam Spreads common language and culture Endorse sensual restraint Differences between the spread of Christianity and Islam Islam starts as a religion that is one with state; Christianity starts opposed to the state. Christian theology opposes worldly goods; Islam allows for trade and wealth as long as there is charity and fairness. Islam in its early years fosters scientific investigation; Christianity in its early years does not. The Roman Christian states ban other religions; the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates allow for religious tolerance, but tax non-muslims. HW: Read pages in your textbook 1. Explain how the Abbasid Caliphate fragmented between ce. 2. Both the Turks and Mongols invade the Abbasid Caliphate. A. Explain how each impacts the Abbasids. B. Explain how each becomes Muslim. Class #6: Computer module: Did the Mongols conquer Islam or did Islam conquer the Mongols?

6 1. Review homework 2. Go to computer lab Instructions: Read the three articles below very carefully. You may need to re-read them before you write. I would suggest that you take careful notes in your notebook. (about 20 minutes) Write a one-paragraph response in your notebook that wrestles with the question: Did the Mongols conquer Islam or did Islam conquer the Mongols? Use evidence and examples from the three readings. (about 20 minutes) Please turn in the essay before the end of class. The Mongols Invade The Mongols and the Mamluks The Mongols and Islam HW: Homework: For those of you who want a higher grade on your Rome essay or your map, please revise. Look at the comments. If you need help, come see me or Carey next week. Second, read: The Il-Khanate 1. What factors contributed to the Abbasids losing to the Mongols? 2. Why was the Mongol force not able to defeat the Islamic Mamluk army in Egypt and Syria? Muslim Egypt: Egypt in the Middle Ages 1. Who were Mamluks and what the Mamluk system in Egypt in 12 th century Egypt? How did the Mamluks come to power in Egypt? Class #7 Lecture and discussion: Why did the Mongols defeat the Abbasids? Great Khan Mongke sent his brother Hulegu to destroy Baghdad. Upset that Muslims looked up to the caliph instead of the Great Khan. Problems with Abbasids: they had neglected their army; the Shiite minority welcomed the Mongols; Mongols got support from non-muslim population; Baghdad destroyed in Led to the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals.

7 Destroyed irrigation in Mespotamia, also cultural achievements. Brought more Turkish influence; brought gunpowder. Who were the Mamluks? Mamluks were slaves from Central Asia and brought to Egypy; they were converted to Islam and trained militarily; joined a household or battalion. Mamluk children could not become Mamluks, but they ingherited some of father s wealth and prestige in Egyptian society. The purpose was to create a loyal corps to the sultan. After defeating Mongols in 1260, Mamluks seized power in Egypt and ruled until Created great architecture in Cairo. Got wealthy off of Red Sea trade. Why were the Mongols able to defeat the Mamluks? attacked and defeated Mongols in Syria. The Mamluk state focused on military training, not cultural advancement. Mamluks has horseshoes and the Mongols did not. Made a difference in rocky Syria. The Gunpowder empires. Why? What to know about the Ottoman Empire: started in 14 th century by Osman; conquered Constantinople in 1453 under Mehmet II; almost took Vienna in 1529: Ottoman political system: sultan at top; civil law; devshrme-took slave boys from Eastern Europe; brightest 10% became janissaries; Islamic faith, Turkish language; nobles did not have hereditary land, granted by sultan; concubines. What to know about the Safavids: in 1501 Tehriz declared himself shah and declared shia sect to be the religion. What to know about Mughals: in 1504, Babur created kingdom in Kabul; leader is badshah. Quiz prep 1. In groups, create a study review sheet and begin to drill each other. TEST on DAR AL ISLAM Definitions: Please define in one sentence. Five pillars of Islam Caliph Koran Sunni

8 Shiite Sharia Dar Al-Islam Mansa Musa Sakk Dhimmis Umayyad Caliphate Abbassid Caliphate Timbuktu Ibn Battuta Sankore Mosque gunpowder empires Mamluks Chronology: Provide the date for the event below and put in the proper order on the timeline. Mohammed s death The Umayyad Caliphate The Abbassid Caliphate The Mongol takeover of Baghdad The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople Map: Draw the borders of Islamic territory by 632 ce and 750 ce. Short answer 1. Name three reasons for the Muslims military success in the 7 th and 8 th centuries. 2. Trade played an important economic role in the Abbasid Caliphate. Name one item that was traded between the Abbasids and the each of the following: Byzantines, China, India, and West Africa. 4. Name three reasons for the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate 5. Explain what is meant by the Golden Age of West Africa. 6. How did Islam spread in West Africa between the 800 s and the 1300 s? 7. Name two ways that the Mongols conquered Islam in the 13 th century, and two ways in which Islam conquered the Mongols. Short Essay 1. Discuss the cultural achievements of the Abbasid Caliphate in math science, medicine, and art. Discuss why culture and learning blossomed in this period, and at least one achievement in each of the fields above. 2. Compare and contrast the spread of Christianity with the spread of Islam. Discuss at least four similarities and differences and use specific examples to support your arguments.

9 HW: Current events Name: Test on Islam Definitions: Please define and explain the significance of the following. Five pillars of Islam Mansa Musa Abbassid Caliphate Timbuktu Ibn Battuta Short answer 1. Name three reasons for the Muslims military success in the 7 th and 8 th centuries. 2. Name three reasons for the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate 3. Was Muslim activity capitalist? State two arguments to support or refute this.

10 4. Explain what is meant by the Golden Age of West Africa. 5. Name two ways that the Mongols conquered Islam in the 13 th century, and two ways in which Islam conquered the Mongols. Short Essay: Write your short essays on a separate piece of paper. 3. Discuss the cultural achievements of the Abbasid Caliphate in math science, medicine, and art. Discuss why culture and learning blossomed in this period, and at least one achievement in each of the fields above. 4. Compare and contrast the spread of Christianity with the spread of Islam. Discuss at least four similarities and differences and use specific examples to support your arguments.

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