3) Transpiration creates a force that pulls water upward in. xylem. 2) Water and minerals transported upward form roots to shoots in.

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1 3) Transpiration creates a force that pulls water upward in xylem Figure 36.1 An overview of transport in whole plants (Layer 1) Transport in plants 2) Water and minerals transported upward form roots to shoots in xylem 1) Roots absorb water and dissolved minerals from soil Figure 36.1 An overview of transport in whole plants (Layer 2) Figure 36.1 An overview of transport in whole plants (Layer 3) 4. Gas exchange occurs through the stomata 5. Sugar is produced in the leaves 6. Sugar is transported to other parts of plant in phloem Figure 36.1 An overview of transport in whole plants (Layer 4) 7. Respiration in the roots leads to gas exchange There are three levels of transport in plants: the individual cell level (membrane transport) uptake and export of materials in root cells short distance - cell to cell sugar loading from mesophyll to phloem long distance transport tissue to tissue or organ to organ xylem and phloem 1

2 Uniport Uniport COTRANSPORT Water movement in plants is driven by three processes Diffusion Osmosis Bulk Flow Water potential (Ψ) term used to characterize the energy state of water free energy of water (that which is available to do work~ potential energy of water). differences in water potential drive water transport in plants water potential is measure in MPa Water potential In plants water potential has two parts Ψ S = osmotic potential Ψ p = hydrostatic potential (pressure potential) Ψ= Ψ s + Ψ p 2

3 Water potential Water moves from regions where the water potential is relatively positive to areas where it is relatively negative. The addition of solutes will lower the water potential (water will form a shell around a solute and will move less freely than if only in water). There are three assumptions of these statements: water moves whenever there is a difference in water potential within the mass of water. if water potentials of two regions are equal, the regions are in equilibrium and there will be no net movement of water. water potentials must always be considered in pairs or groups because the movement of water is due to the relative differences between areas. Figure 36.3 Water potential and water movement: a mechanical model Water potential is higher on the left side and lower on the left side. 0 MPa vs MPa When the application of pressure is more than the osmotic potential, water will move in the opposite direction (to the left) The application of pressure increases the water potential on the right side so that now the two sides are equal When the application of pressure is negative relative to the right side, water will move to the left Location Ψ s + Ψ p = Ψ A (inside cell) B (outside cell) Q: Which way will the water move? A: from B to A (to inside the cell) Turgor Pressure fully supplied with water, plant cells exhibit a positive hydrostatic pressure caused by the flow of water into the plant cell and its pushing back onto the cell wall Figure 36.4 Water relations of plant cells Water relations of plant cells cellular Ψ > environmental Ψ Cell plasmolyzes Water relations of plant cells cellular Ψ < environmental Ψ 0.7 MPa vs O MPa 3

4 Figure 36.5 A watered tomato plant regains its turgor There are three levels of transport in plants: the individual cell level (membrane transport) uptake and export of materials in root cells short distance - cell to cell sugar loading from mesophyll to phloem long distance transport tissue to tissue or organ to organ xylem and phloem Figure 36.6 Compartments of plant cells and tissues and routes for lateral transport Figure 36.7 Lateral transport of minerals and water in roots There are three levels of transport in plants: the individual cell level (membrane transport) uptake and export of materials in root cells short distance - cell to cell sugar loading from mesophyll to phloem long distance transport tissue to tissue or organ to organ xylem and phloem Figure 36.8 Mycorrhizae, symbiotic associations of fungi and roots ots 4

5 TRANSPIRATION is driving force for movement of water in the plant Defined as the loss of water vapor from leaves, which must be replaced continuously Q. What three forces are working to move water up the stems? A. Partially driven by cohesion, adhesion, surface tension (hydrogen bonding OH MY!) S soil P plant A air C- continuum The SPAC Guttation driving force in the SPAC is the continuously decreasing value of Ψ. No one point in space is isolated, movement always depends on what is behind it and ahead of it. Atmosphere has a very low Ψ Figure The generation of transpirational pull in a leaf Figure Ascent of water in a tree 5

6 Figure 36.13a The mechanism of stomatal opening and closing DAY Ψ guard cell Ψ adjacent cell Ψ is lower than adjacent cell So water moves into the cell NIGHT Ψ guard cell = Ψ adjacent cell DAWN: Ψ guard cell Ψ adjacent cell Ψ in guard cell is < than adjacent cell Guard cells pump in K +, osmotic potential (Ψ s ); water the guard cell DAY Ψ guard cell = Ψ adjacent cell as Ψ s so does the Ψ p until cell is in equilibrium with adjacent cells (net water movement stops) cell is turgid, stomata are open NIGHT Ψ guard cell Ψ adjacent cell K + is pumped back into adjacent cells Equilibrium is reached and the guard cells are flaccid and the stoma is closed. Figure 36.13b The mechanism of stomatal opening and closing Figure An open (left) and closed (right) stoma of a spider r plant (Chlorophytum colosum) leaf Transpiration rates are affected by environmental factors Wind, humidity, temperature, soil moisture, brightness of light Which of the following conditions would increase transpiration? Which would decrease transpiration? A A windy day? A A rainy day? A A hot day? 6

7 Figure Pressure flow in a sieve tube Figure Loading of sucrose into phloem Figure Tapping phloem sap with the help of an aphid 7

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