To familiarise students with the stages in the development of a human fetus.

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1 Bumps and Babies Lesson aim To familiarise students with the stages in the development of a human fetus. 3 Lesson objectives Students will be expected to: Work effectively within a group. Discuss within a group. Communicate effectively with others. Recognise the different stages of development of the fetus. Recognise that our scientific knowledge has helped to make the process of pregnancy and childbirth safer than it has been in the past. Recognise the role that science plays in the work/ professional contribution of healthcare professionals who can assist in monitoring stages of a pregnancy in a range of different ways. Lesson Outcomes By the end of this lesson: All students must be able to appreciate that a baby develops from a single cell during its nine months in the womb and that a range of healthcare professionals can be involved throughout this process to help make it safer and more fulfilling. Most students should be able to appreciate that there are a number of tests which are routinely carried out throughout pregnancy to help ensure the health and well being of the mother and baby. Some students may be able to appreciate that combining information from a range of different tests such as ultra sound scans and blood chemistry tests can give a more complete picture of the pregnancy. National Curriculum links KS3 Science Sc1; 2i Sc2; 1c,d 2h QCA Scheme of Work for Science Unit 7b: Reproduction Suggested age group suitability Year 7 Time required One hour. 1

2 Key Stage 3 Lesson plan 3 - BUMPS AND BABIES Pre-Lesson preparation required This activity is based around students working in teams of three or four to create a short presentation on the development of the fetus. Each team will need a sheet of paper showing the outline of a fetus. To do this, copy (or print out from the CD-ROM) the fetus outline attached to this lesson plan. This works best if they are reproduced onto card. It will be necessary to create eight different size outlines, representing the fetus at 8, 12, 16, 20, 25, 28, 31 and 34 weeks respectively. These need to be produced actual size or students will not be able to carry out measurements correctly. The table below gives the relevant crown to rump length of the different age fetuses. It is suggested that the fetus outline on the CD-ROM is best used here at it can easily be resized as required. The outline for the 32 week fetus will just fit onto a sheet of A4 card if it is rotated slightly. The outline of the 34 week fetus will need to be reproduced onto a sheet of A3 card or made up from two A4 sheets. In both of these cases students will need larger pieces of card and paper with which to create the frame for their scans. Fetus Age (weeks) Crown to Rump Length (cm) cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm crown to rump length Students will use these fetus outline drawings to create their own ultrasound scans. Create a frame by cutting the centre out of an A4 sheet of card and then build the ultrasound scan as shown below. When complete, students should be able to reveal the fetus/embryo by placing the scan onto an overhead projector. thin paper (80gsm or less) card frame glue card fetus glue thin paper (80gsm or less) If possible, there will need to be a number of overhead projectors available on which students will be able to see their scans to prevent queuing. NOTE: In order to prevent overheating, scans should not be left on the projector for long periods. 2

3 Materials and equipment required For the students (per team) 1 copy of Student Resource Sheet Make Your Own Ultrasound Scan 2 copies of: Student Resource Sheet Born Yesterday! Student Resource Sheet Pregnancy Healthcare Timeline Student Resource Sheet Baby Grows! 4 copies (1 per student) of Student Resource Sheet Pregnancy Glossary Access to an overhead projector 1 card showing the outline of a fetus 2 pairs of scissors Sticky tape 1 A4 sheet of card 2 A4 sheets of thin paper (80gsm or less) Prior knowledge required Students will need to be familiar with the general process of fertilisation and reproduction in humans. Students will need to be able to read data from a line graph. Note This activity takes students through the course of a pregnancy. As a part of this process the issue of abortion/termination of pregnancy may be raised. Although this activity is designed to look primarily at the science, teachers may wish to introduce a discussion of the ethical issues. Lesson structure (including approximate timings) Housekeeping: Intro Activity: Introduction of lesson and explanation of aims and objectives. Arrange students into fours. (5 minutes) Before beginning the group activity spend a few minutes reviewing what students know about the process of fertilisation and reproduction in humans. They should all be aware that the process of pregnancy begins with the fertilisation of an egg by a sperm. This is conception. From this point the fetus develops and grows until it is ready for birth at 38 to 40 weeks. It may be useful to point out that the first eight weeks from conception are the embryonic stage and it is only after this, when the embryo begins to develop recognisable human features that it is referred to as a fetus. Explain that a range of healthcare professionals are involved in providing care during pregnancy ad that these professionals provide a range of specialist skills and knowledge. If time allows, ask the class to contribute examples of the kinds of people who could be involved in this process. Obvious answers will be doctor, nurse and midwife. Encourage students to think about the radiographer who takes the ultrasound scan, the biomedical scientist who analyses urine samples to check for high protein levels (indicating kidney problems) or the haematologist/ biochemist who analyses blood samples for low levels of red blood cells (anaemia) or high sugar levels (a possible sign of diabetes). 3

4 Key Stage 3 Lesson plan 3 - BUMPS AND BABIES Run through the instructions for producing the ultrasound scan and then give each pair of students the materials necessary to proceed. It should be pointed out to students that ultrasound scans are generally only given once or twice during pregnancy (at 16 weeks is most common). (20 minutes) Group Activity: Once all teams have produced their scans, collect them in. Shuffle the scans and give one back to each team so that they are not viewing a scan that they have created. Give each team the necessary Student Resource Sheets and run through the instructions with the class. Each team will now need to do the following: Measure the crown to rump length of their fetus and use the graph included on Student Resource Sheet Born Yesterday to calculate its age. Cut out a silhouette of their fetus for use in the presentation. Students can add detail to the silhouette if they have access to suitable reference materials. Use the information in Student Resource Sheets 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5 to fill in the relevant sections in the Born Yesterday sheet. Use the information they have collected in order to complete the Born Yesterday sheet to create a one to two minute presentation outlining the age and stage of development of their fetus, the typical medical treatments that a woman at this stage of pregnancy might receive and the different healthcare professionals who might be involved. Teams can then make their presentations to the rest of the group. These should be done in order of the age of the fetus. Students making presentations could also be given lab coats and stethoscopes (if available) to add an element of theatre to the proceedings. A small prize could be offered for the best presentation. This could be selected either by the teacher or by student vote. (30 minutes) Closing: Summarise key points: The embryo and fetus develop from a single cell to a baby in the nine months it spends in the womb. Medical science is able to make the process of pregnancy and childbirth much less risky than it may have been in the past. The ability to do this requires a range of tests throughout pregnancy. A range of healthcare professionals can be involved at various stages of a pregnancy and various areas of science are involved in this respect. This is an area where ethical issues sometimes need to be considered. End. (5 minutes) 4

5 Extension/Homework Teams could bring together the information they have collected to create a pregnancy timeline which could be displayed on the classroom wall. This lesson concentrates on the development of the fetus, to produce a timeline which also includes the embryonic stage from 0 to 8 weeks suitable image references can be found at Students could be asked to look at the gestational periods of other animals to see how they compare to 9 months for a human baby. They could be asked to consider what factors might affect the gestational period size for example. Students could be asked to think about the experience of being pregnant today and how it might compare with the same experience 100 years ago in terms of the science and technology available to monitor progress and provide care. Differentiation Adapt discussion sessions to suit ability and age group. Provide extra support during group activity for those students who require it. The ultrasound scans could be pre-prepared for less able groups, allowing more time to be spent on collecting information for the presentation element of the lesson. Risk assessment It is the responsibility of the supervising teacher to carry out all risk assessments with regard to this activity and to make sure that any such risk assessment complies with the requirements of the particular institution in which it is being conducted. Fetus Outline 5

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