# Boolean Expressions, Conditions, Loops, and Enumerations. Precedence Rules (from highest to lowest priority)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Boolean Expressions, Conditions, Loops, and Enumerations. Precedence Rules (from highest to lowest priority)"

Transcription

1 Boolean Expressions, Conditions, Loops, and Enumerations Relational Operators == // true if two values are equivalent!= // true if two values are not equivalent < // true if left value is less than the right value <= // true if left value is less than OR EQUAL to the right value > // true if left value is greater than the right value >= // true if left value is greater than OR EQUAL to the right value Logical Operators! // inverts true to false or false to true && // boolean AND // boolean OR Precedence Rules (from highest to lowest priority) - Arithmetic operators (i.e. ++,--,+,-,*,/, ) - Boolean operators (i.e. <, >, <=, >=) - ==,!= - && - Note: Integer values can be used as boolean values - 0 is considered as false and non- zero is considered as true - For this class, we should not use numbers for boolean values. All boolean expressions must be bool types. If- else statements Ability to execute two alternative statements based on the value of a Boolean Expression. if (Boolean Expression) { // code1 else { // code2 - Notice the {. This allows many statements to be executed within a block. - Without {, only the following statement will be executed and other statements are considered outside the block statement. Multi- way If- else Statements Multiple if- else statements can allow the program to execute many branches.

2 int x = 3; if (x == 1) cout << x equals 1 << endl; else if (x == 2) cout << x equals 2 << endl; else if (x == 3) cout << x equals 3 <<endl; else cout << x does not equal 1, 2, or 3 << endl; Switch statements - Another way to write Multi- way if- else statements are switch statements. - A switch statement can use either an integer type, bool, char, or enum. - The break statement tells the compiler that it s the end of a case. - Without the break statement, the compiler will execute the statements until a break is reached. int a = 3; switch (a) { case 1: cout << x equals 1 << endl; case 2: cout << x equals 2 << endl; case 3: cout << x equals 3 << endl; default: cout << x does not equal 1, 2, or 3 << endl; It is possible to have many cases refer to the same statements. int a = 3; switch (a) { case 1: case 2: cout << x equals 1 or 2 << endl; case 3: cout << x equals 3 << endl; default: cout << x does not equal 1, 2, or 3 << endl;

3 Embedded if- else statements Within a block statement, another if statement can be written. int x = 7; if (x >= 5) { cout << x > 5 << endl; if (x == 5) { cout << x == 5 << endl; else { cout << x > 5 << end; While loop while (Boolean Expression) { // code The code block will be executed as long as the boolean expression evaluates to true. Do- while Loop do { //code while (Boolean Expression); Useful if you want to execute a block of code at least once. For Loop for (initialization; boolean expression; update) { //code - Legal to leave the init, boolean expression, and/or update statement empty. - Considered bad style to leave any of them blank. Nested Loops Within a loop s block, other loops can be defined. for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { cout << i = << i << endl; for (int j = 0; j < 10; j++) { cout << j = << j << endl; The above nested loop is an example of O(n 2 ), where n = 10 in this case.

4 Continue and break in loops - continue statement can be used to stop the current execution of statements within the block and jump to the next iteration of the current loop. - break statement can be used to break out of the current loop and continue execution after the end of the loop. Call Stack When functions are called, they are maintained in a call stack The call stack consists of one or more frames - An instance of the function. - Contains information such as parameters, return values, and local variables. Each frame also keeps track of the frame pointer for the function that called it. Therefore, when the function finishes execution, it gets popped from the stack and returns to the function that called it so it can continue execution. Recursion When a function contains a call to itself. Factorial N! = N * (N 1) * (N 2) * * 3 * 2 * 1 Note: 0! = 1, 1! = 1 int factorial (int n) { if (n <= 1) // base case return 1; return n * factorial(n 1); Fibonacci f(n) = f(n- 1) + f(n- 2)). f(0) = 0, f(1) = 1, f(2) = 1, f(3) = 2, f(4) = 3, int fibonacci(int n) { if (n == 1) { return 1; if (n == 0) { return 0; retrun fibonacci(n-2) + fibonacci(n-1);

5 Tail Recursion When there is no other computation to do once a value is returned. int factorialtail(int n, int product) { if (n == 1) return product; return factorialtail(n - 1, product * n); Stack Overflow - Happens when a program crashes due to running out of memory in its call stack. Enumerations - Enumeration is a type whose values are defined by a list of constants of type int. - You can define enumeration types to any int value. enum Month {JAN = 1, FEB = 2, MARCH = 3, APRIL = 4, MAY = 5, JUNE = 6, JULY = 7, AUG = 8, SEP = 9, OCT = 10, NOV = 11, DEC = 12; Note, without defining the values, it starts with 0 and always increments the previous enum by 1. enum Month { JAN, FEB, MARCH, APRIL, MAY, JUNE, JULY, AUG, SEP, OCT, NOV, DEC ; // JAN = 0 à DEC = 11 Note: It s good to define enums in an appropriate header file so other source files may use it. int month = 3; switch (month) case DEC: case JAN: case FEB: cout << It s winter time! << endl; case MARCH: case APRIL: case MAY: cout << It s spring time! << endl; case JUNE: case JULY: case AUG: cout << It s summer time! << endl; case SEP: case OCT:

6 case NOV: cout << It s fall! << endl; default: cout << Not a valid month << endl;

### 9 Control Statements. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Objectives. 9.3 Statements

9 Control Statements 9.1 Introduction The normal flow of execution in a high level language is sequential, i.e., each statement is executed in the order of its appearance in the program. However, depending

### What is a Loop? Pretest Loops in C++ Types of Loop Testing. Count-controlled loops. Loops can be...

What is a Loop? CSC Intermediate Programming Looping A loop is a repetition control structure It causes a single statement or a group of statements to be executed repeatedly It uses a condition to control

### CSCI 123 INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS IN C++

Brad Rippe CSCI 123 INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS IN C++ Recursion Recursion CHAPTER 14 Overview 14.1 Recursive Functions for Tasks 14.2 Recursive Functions for Values 14.3 Thinking Recursively

### What Is Recursion? 5/12/10 1. CMPSC 24: Lecture 13 Recursion. Lecture Plan. Divyakant Agrawal Department of Computer Science UC Santa Barbara

CMPSC 24: Lecture 13 Recursion Divyakant Agrawal Department of Computer Science UC Santa Barbara 5/12/10 1 Lecture Plan Recursion General structure of recursive soluions Why do recursive soluions terminate?

### Chapter 5. Selection 5-1

Chapter 5 Selection 5-1 Selection (Decision) The second control logic structure is selection: Selection Choosing between two or more alternative actions. Selection statements alter the sequential flow

### 16. Recursion. COMP 110 Prasun Dewan 1. Developing a Recursive Solution

16. Recursion COMP 110 Prasun Dewan 1 Loops are one mechanism for making a program execute a statement a variable number of times. Recursion offers an alternative mechanism, considered by many to be more

### What Is Recursion? Recursion. Binary search example postponed to end of lecture

Recursion Binary search example postponed to end of lecture What Is Recursion? Recursive call A method call in which the method being called is the same as the one making the call Direct recursion Recursion

### Embedded Systems. Review of ANSI C Topics. A Review of ANSI C and Considerations for Embedded C Programming. Basic features of C

Embedded Systems A Review of ANSI C and Considerations for Embedded C Programming Dr. Jeff Jackson Lecture 2-1 Review of ANSI C Topics Basic features of C C fundamentals Basic data types Expressions Selection

### Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber

Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Chapter 3 Control Structures 1 Control structures Algorithm Development Conditional Expressions Selection Statements Repetition Statements Structuring

### Lecture 2 Notes: Flow of Control

6.096 Introduction to C++ January, 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Marrero Lecture 2 Notes: Flow of Control 1 Motivation Normally, a program executes statements from first to last. The

### While Loop. 6. Iteration

While Loop 1 Loop - a control structure that causes a set of statements to be executed repeatedly, (reiterated). While statement - most versatile type of loop in C++ false while boolean expression true

### Recursion. Slides. Programming in C++ Computer Science Dept Va Tech Aug., 2001. 1995-2001 Barnette ND, McQuain WD

1 Slides 1. Table of Contents 2. Definitions 3. Simple 4. Recursive Execution Trace 5. Attributes 6. Recursive Array Summation 7. Recursive Array Summation Trace 8. Coding Recursively 9. Recursive Design

### Introduction to Programming (in C++) Loops. Jordi Cortadella, Ricard Gavaldà, Fernando Orejas Dept. of Computer Science, UPC

Introduction to Programming (in C++) Loops Jordi Cortadella, Ricard Gavaldà, Fernando Orejas Dept. of Computer Science, UPC Example Assume the following specification: Input: read a number N > 0 Output:

### Example. Introduction to Programming (in C++) Loops. The while statement. Write the numbers 1 N. Assume the following specification:

Example Introduction to Programming (in C++) Loops Assume the following specification: Input: read a number N > 0 Output: write the sequence 1 2 3 N (one number per line) Jordi Cortadella, Ricard Gavaldà,

### Chapter 8 Selection 8-1

Chapter 8 Selection 8-1 Selection (Decision) The second control logic structure is selection: Selection Choosing between two or more alternative actions. Selection statements alter the sequential flow

### Name: Class: Date: 9. The compiler ignores all comments they are there strictly for the convenience of anyone reading the program.

Name: Class: Date: Exam #1 - Prep True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Programming is the process of writing a computer program in a language that the computer can respond to

### C++FA 5.1 PRACTICE MID-TERM EXAM

C++FA 5.1 PRACTICE MID-TERM EXAM This practicemid-term exam covers sections C++FA 1.1 through C++FA 1.4 of C++ with Financial Applications by Ben Van Vliet, available at www.benvanvliet.net. 1.) A pointer

### 6. Control Structures

- 35 - Control Structures: 6. Control Structures A program is usually not limited to a linear sequence of instructions. During its process it may bifurcate, repeat code or take decisions. For that purpose,

### Storage Classes CS 110B - Rule Storage Classes Page 18-1 \handouts\storclas

CS 110B - Rule Storage Classes Page 18-1 Attributes are distinctive features of a variable. Data type, int or double for example, is an attribute. Storage class is another attribute. There are four storage

### Statements and Control Flow

Contents 1. Introduction 2. Types and Variables 3. Statements and Control Flow 4. Reading Input 5. Classes and Objects 6. Arrays 7. Methods 8. Scope and Lifetime 9. Utility classes 10. Introduction to

### AT&T Global Network Client for Windows Product Support Matrix January 29, 2015

AT&T Global Network Client for Windows Product Support Matrix January 29, 2015 Product Support Matrix Following is the Product Support Matrix for the AT&T Global Network Client. See the AT&T Global Network

### Analysis One Code Desc. Transaction Amount. Fiscal Period

Analysis One Code Desc Transaction Amount Fiscal Period 57.63 Oct-12 12.13 Oct-12-38.90 Oct-12-773.00 Oct-12-800.00 Oct-12-187.00 Oct-12-82.00 Oct-12-82.00 Oct-12-110.00 Oct-12-1115.25 Oct-12-71.00 Oct-12-41.00

### MS Visual C++ Introduction. Quick Introduction. A1 Visual C++

MS Visual C++ Introduction 1 Quick Introduction The following pages provide a quick tutorial on using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 to produce a small project. There should be no major differences if you are

### Moving from C++ to VBA

Introduction College of Engineering and Computer Science Mechanical Engineering Department Mechanical Engineering 309 Numerical Analysis of Engineering Systems Fall 2014 Number: 15237 Instructor: Larry

### C++FA 3.1 OPTIMIZING C++

C++FA 3.1 OPTIMIZING C++ Ben Van Vliet Measuring Performance Performance can be measured and judged in different ways execution time, memory usage, error count, ease of use and trade offs usually have

### Conditions & Boolean Expressions

Conditions & Boolean Expressions 1 In C++, in order to ask a question, a program makes an assertion which is evaluated to either true (nonzero) or false (zero) by the computer at run time. Example: In

### 13 Classes & Objects with Constructors/Destructors

13 Classes & Objects with Constructors/Destructors 13.1 Introduction In object oriented programming, the emphasis is on data rather than function. Class is a way that binds the data & function together.

### Module 2 Stacks and Queues: Abstract Data Types

Module 2 Stacks and Queues: Abstract Data Types A stack is one of the most important and useful non-primitive linear data structure in computer science. It is an ordered collection of items into which

### Chapter 5 Functions. Introducing Functions

Chapter 5 Functions 1 Introducing Functions A function is a collection of statements that are grouped together to perform an operation Define a function Invoke a funciton return value type method name

### COMPARISON OF FIXED & VARIABLE RATES (25 YEARS) CHARTERED BANK ADMINISTERED INTEREST RATES - PRIME BUSINESS*

COMPARISON OF FIXED & VARIABLE RATES (25 YEARS) 2 Fixed Rates Variable Rates FIXED RATES OF THE PAST 25 YEARS AVERAGE RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE LENDING RATE - 5 YEAR* (Per cent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

### COMPARISON OF FIXED & VARIABLE RATES (25 YEARS) CHARTERED BANK ADMINISTERED INTEREST RATES - PRIME BUSINESS*

COMPARISON OF FIXED & VARIABLE RATES (25 YEARS) 2 Fixed Rates Variable Rates FIXED RATES OF THE PAST 25 YEARS AVERAGE RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE LENDING RATE - 5 YEAR* (Per cent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

### Keywords are identifiers having predefined meanings in C programming language. The list of keywords used in standard C are : unsigned void

1. Explain C tokens Tokens are basic building blocks of a C program. A token is the smallest element of a C program that is meaningful to the compiler. The C compiler recognizes the following kinds of

### Common Data Structures

Data Structures 1 Common Data Structures Arrays (single and multiple dimensional) Linked Lists Stacks Queues Trees Graphs You should already be familiar with arrays, so they will not be discussed. Trees

### Sources: On the Web: Slides will be available on:

C programming Introduction The basics of algorithms Structure of a C code, compilation step Constant, variable type, variable scope Expression and operators: assignment, arithmetic operators, comparison,

### QUIZ-II QUIZ-II. Chapter 5: Control Structures II (Repetition) Objectives. Objectives (cont d.) 20/11/2015. EEE 117 Computer Programming Fall-2015 1

QUIZ-II Write a program that mimics a calculator. The program should take as input two integers and the operation to be performed. It should then output the numbers, the operator, and the result. (For

### The C++ Language. Loops. ! Recall that a loop is another of the four basic programming language structures

The C++ Language Loops Loops! Recall that a loop is another of the four basic programming language structures Repeat statements until some condition is false. Condition False True Statement1 2 1 Loops

### Calling the Function. Two Function Declarations Here is a function declared as pass by value. Why use Pass By Reference?

Functions in C++ Let s take a look at an example declaration: Lecture 2 long factorial(int n) Functions The declaration above has the following meaning: The return type is long That means the function

### Chapter One Introduction to Programming

Chapter One Introduction to Programming 1-1 Algorithm and Flowchart Algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for calculation. More precisely, algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of

### J a v a Quiz (Unit 3, Test 0 Practice)

Computer Science S-111a: Intensive Introduction to Computer Science Using Java Handout #11 Your Name Teaching Fellow J a v a Quiz (Unit 3, Test 0 Practice) Multiple-choice questions are worth 2 points

### PART-A Questions. 2. How does an enumerated statement differ from a typedef statement?

1. Distinguish & and && operators. PART-A Questions 2. How does an enumerated statement differ from a typedef statement? 3. What are the various members of a class? 4. Who can access the protected members

### PROBLEM SOLVING SEVENTH EDITION WALTER SAVITCH UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO CONTRIBUTOR KENRICK MOCK UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE PEARSON

PROBLEM SOLVING WITH SEVENTH EDITION WALTER SAVITCH UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO CONTRIBUTOR KENRICK MOCK UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE PEARSON Addison Wesley Boston San Francisco New York London

### Data Structure with C

Subject: Data Structure with C Topic : Tree Tree A tree is a set of nodes that either:is empty or has a designated node, called the root, from which hierarchically descend zero or more subtrees, which

### Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale

Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale Introduction to C programming Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa October 25, 2010 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna)

### For the next three questions, consider the class declaration: Member function implementations put inline to save space.

Instructions: This homework assignment focuses on basic facts regarding classes in C++. Submit your answers via the Curator System as OQ4. For the next three questions, consider the class declaration:

### C++ INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

C++ INTERVIEW QUESTIONS http://www.tutorialspoint.com/cplusplus/cpp_interview_questions.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com Dear readers, these C++ Interview Questions have been designed specially to get

### The While Loop. Objectives. Textbook. WHILE Loops

Objectives The While Loop 1E3 Topic 6 To recognise when a WHILE loop is needed. To be able to predict what a given WHILE loop will do. To be able to write a correct WHILE loop. To be able to use a WHILE

### CS 2412 Data Structures. Chapter 2 Stacks and recursion

CS 2412 Data Structures Chapter 2 Stacks and recursion 1 2.1 Stacks A stack is a data structure in which all insertions and deletions of entries are made at one end, called top of the stack. Examples:

### Stacks. Linear data structures

Stacks Linear data structures Collection of components that can be arranged as a straight line Data structure grows or shrinks as we add or remove objects ADTs provide an abstract layer for various operations

### Object Oriented Software Design

Object Oriented Software Design Introduction to Java - II Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa September 14, 2011 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna) Introduction

### The C Programming Language course syllabus associate level

TECHNOLOGIES The C Programming Language course syllabus associate level Course description The course fully covers the basics of programming in the C programming language and demonstrates fundamental programming

Operator Overloading Lecture 8 Operator Overloading C++ feature that allows implementer-defined classes to specify class-specific function for operators Benefits allows classes to provide natural semantics

### Outline. Conditional Statements. Logical Data in C. Logical Expressions. Relational Examples. Relational Operators

Conditional Statements For computer to make decisions, must be able to test CONDITIONS IF it is raining THEN I will not go outside IF Count is not zero THEN the Average is Sum divided by Count Conditions

### Moving from CS 61A Scheme to CS 61B Java

Moving from CS 61A Scheme to CS 61B Java Introduction Java is an object-oriented language. This document describes some of the differences between object-oriented programming in Scheme (which we hope you

### Phys4051: C Lecture 2 & 3. Comment Statements. C Data Types. Functions (Review) Comment Statements Variables & Operators Branching Instructions

Phys4051: C Lecture 2 & 3 Functions (Review) Comment Statements Variables & Operators Branching Instructions Comment Statements! Method 1: /* */! Method 2: // /* Single Line */ //Single Line /* This comment

### VB.NET Programming Fundamentals

Chapter 3 Objectives Programming Fundamentals In this chapter, you will: Learn about the programming language Write a module definition Use variables and data types Compute with Write decision-making statements

### Course: Programming II - Abstract Data Types. The ADT Stack. A stack. The ADT Stack and Recursion Slide Number 1

Definition Course: Programming II - Abstract Data Types The ADT Stack The ADT Stack is a linear sequence of an arbitrary number of items, together with access procedures. The access procedures permit insertions

### Keil C51 Cross Compiler

Keil C51 Cross Compiler ANSI C Compiler Generates fast compact code for the 8051 and it s derivatives Advantages of C over Assembler Do not need to know the microcontroller instruction set Register allocation

### Case 2:08-cv-02463-ABC-E Document 1-4 Filed 04/15/2008 Page 1 of 138. Exhibit 8

Case 2:08-cv-02463-ABC-E Document 1-4 Filed 04/15/2008 Page 1 of 138 Exhibit 8 Case 2:08-cv-02463-ABC-E Document 1-4 Filed 04/15/2008 Page 2 of 138 Domain Name: CELLULARVERISON.COM Updated Date: 12-dec-2007

### Common Beginner C++ Programming Mistakes

Common Beginner C++ Programming Mistakes This documents some common C++ mistakes that beginning programmers make. These errors are two types: Syntax errors these are detected at compile time and you won't

### CENTERPOINT ENERGY TEXARKANA SERVICE AREA GAS SUPPLY RATE (GSR) JULY 2015. Small Commercial Service (SCS-1) GSR

JULY 2015 Area (RS-1) GSR GSR (LCS-1) Texarkana Incorporated July-15 \$0.50690/Ccf \$0.45450/Ccf \$0.00000/Ccf \$2.85090/MMBtu \$17.52070/MMBtu Texarkana Unincorporated July-15 \$0.56370/Ccf \$0.26110/Ccf \$1.66900/Ccf

### 10CS35: Data Structures Using C

CS35: Data Structures Using C QUESTION BANK REVIEW OF STRUCTURES AND POINTERS, INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL FEATURES OF C OBJECTIVE: Learn : Usage of structures, unions - a conventional tool for handling a

### CS 141: Introduction to (Java) Programming: Exam 1 Jenny Orr Willamette University Fall 2013

Oct 4, 2013, p 1 Name: CS 141: Introduction to (Java) Programming: Exam 1 Jenny Orr Willamette University Fall 2013 1. (max 18) 4. (max 16) 2. (max 12) 5. (max 12) 3. (max 24) 6. (max 18) Total: (max 100)

### Section IV.1: Recursive Algorithms and Recursion Trees

Section IV.1: Recursive Algorithms and Recursion Trees Definition IV.1.1: A recursive algorithm is an algorithm that solves a problem by (1) reducing it to an instance of the same problem with smaller

### Example of a Java program

Example of a Java program class SomeNumbers static int square (int x) return x*x; public static void main (String[] args) int n=20; if (args.length > 0) // change default n = Integer.parseInt(args[0]);

### Introduction. Earlier programs structured as methods that call one another in a disciplined, hierarchical manner Recursive methods

Recursion 1 2 Introduction Earlier programs structured as methods that call one another in a disciplined, hierarchical manner Recursive methods Call themselves Useful for some problems to define a method

### Basics of I/O Streams and File I/O

Basics of This is like a cheat sheet for file I/O in C++. It summarizes the steps you must take to do basic I/O to and from files, with only a tiny bit of explanation. It is not a replacement for reading

### CmpSci 187: Programming with Data Structures Spring 2015

CmpSci 187: Programming with Data Structures Spring 2015 Lecture #12 John Ridgway March 10, 2015 1 Implementations of Queues 1.1 Linked Queues A Linked Queue Implementing a queue with a linked list is

### CpSc212 Goddard Notes Chapter 6. Yet More on Classes. We discuss the problems of comparing, copying, passing, outputting, and destructing

CpSc212 Goddard Notes Chapter 6 Yet More on Classes We discuss the problems of comparing, copying, passing, outputting, and destructing objects. 6.1 Object Storage, Allocation and Destructors Some objects

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java/java_quick_guide.htm JAVA - QUICK GUIDE Copyright tutorialspoint.com What is Java? Java is: Object Oriented Platform independent: Simple Secure Architectural- neutral

### IS0020 Program Design and Software Tools Midterm, Feb 24, 2004. Instruction

IS0020 Program Design and Software Tools Midterm, Feb 24, 2004 Name: Instruction There are two parts in this test. The first part contains 50 questions worth 80 points. The second part constitutes 20 points

### Programing the Microprocessor in C Microprocessor System Design and Interfacing ECE 362

PURDUE UNIVERSITY Programing the Microprocessor in C Microprocessor System Design and Interfacing ECE 362 Course Staff 1/31/2012 1 Introduction This tutorial is made to help the student use C language

### Comp151. Definitions & Declarations

Comp151 Definitions & Declarations Example: Definition /* reverse_printcpp */ #include #include using namespace std; int global_var = 23; // global variable definition void reverse_print(const

### Passing 1D arrays to functions.

Passing 1D arrays to functions. In C++ arrays can only be reference parameters. It is not possible to pass an array by value. Therefore, the ampersand (&) is omitted. What is actually passed to the function,

### Debugging. Common Semantic Errors ESE112. Java Library. It is highly unlikely that you will write code that will work on the first go

Debugging ESE112 Java Programming: API, Psuedo-Code, Scope It is highly unlikely that you will write code that will work on the first go Bugs or errors Syntax Fixable if you learn to read compiler error

### Arrays. number: Motivation. Prof. Stewart Weiss. Software Design Lecture Notes Arrays

Motivation Suppose that we want a program that can read in a list of numbers and sort that list, or nd the largest value in that list. To be concrete about it, suppose we have 15 numbers to read in from

### Selection Statements

Chapter 5 Selection Statements 1 Statements So far, we ve used return statements and expression ess statements. e ts. Most of C s remaining statements fall into three categories: Selection statements:

### UIL Computer Science for Dummies by Jake Warren and works from Mr. Fleming

UIL Computer Science for Dummies by Jake Warren and works from Mr. Fleming 1 2 Foreword First of all, this book isn t really for dummies. I wrote it for myself and other kids who are on the team. Everything

### Lecture Notes on Linear Search

Lecture Notes on Linear Search 15-122: Principles of Imperative Computation Frank Pfenning Lecture 5 January 29, 2013 1 Introduction One of the fundamental and recurring problems in computer science is

### High-Level Programming Languages. Nell Dale & John Lewis (adaptation by Michael Goldwasser)

High-Level Programming Languages Nell Dale & John Lewis (adaptation by Michael Goldwasser) Low-Level Languages What are disadvantages of low-level languages? (e.g., machine code or assembly code) Programming

### 6.087 Lecture 2 January 12, 2010

6.087 Lecture 2 January 12, 2010 Review Variables and data types Operators Epilogue 1 Review: C Programming language C is a fast, small,general-purpose,platform independent programming language. C is used

### Enhanced Vessel Traffic Management System Booking Slots Available and Vessels Booked per Day From 12-JAN-2016 To 30-JUN-2017

From -JAN- To -JUN- -JAN- VIRP Page Period Period Period -JAN- 8 -JAN- 8 9 -JAN- 8 8 -JAN- -JAN- -JAN- 8-JAN- 9-JAN- -JAN- -JAN- -JAN- -JAN- -JAN- -JAN- -JAN- -JAN- 8-JAN- 9-JAN- -JAN- -JAN- -FEB- : days

### Java Interview Questions and Answers

1. What is the most important feature of Java? Java is a platform independent language. 2. What do you mean by platform independence? Platform independence means that we can write and compile the java

### Member Functions of the istream Class

Member Functions of the istream Class The extraction operator is of limited use because it always uses whitespace to delimit its reads of the input stream. It cannot be used to read those whitespace characters,

### Functions Recursion. C++ functions. Declare/prototype. Define. Call. int myfunction (int ); int myfunction (int x){ int y = x*x; return y; }

Functions Recursion C++ functions Declare/prototype int myfunction (int ); Define int myfunction (int x){ int y = x*x; return y; Call int a; a = myfunction (7); function call flow types type of function

### PIC 10A. Lecture 7: Graphics II and intro to the if statement

PIC 10A Lecture 7: Graphics II and intro to the if statement Setting up a coordinate system By default the viewing window has a coordinate system already set up for you 10-10 10-10 The origin is in the

### Syllabus OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING C++

1 Syllabus OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING C++ 1. Introduction : What is object oriented programming? Why do we need objectoriented. Programming characteristics of object-oriented languages. C and C++. 2.

### C++ program structure Variable Declarations

C++ program structure A C++ program consists of Declarations of global types, variables, and functions. The scope of globally defined types, variables, and functions is limited to the file in which they

### recursion here it is in C++ power function cis15 advanced programming techniques, using c++ fall 2007 lecture # VI.1

topics: recursion searching cis15 advanced programming techniques, using c++ fall 2007 lecture # VI.1 recursion recursion is defining something in terms of itself there are many examples in nature and

### 1) The postfix expression for the infix expression A+B*(C+D)/F+D*E is ABCD+*F/DE*++

Answer the following 1) The postfix expression for the infix expression A+B*(C+D)/F+D*E is ABCD+*F/DE*++ 2) Which data structure is needed to convert infix notations to postfix notations? Stack 3) The

### Recursion vs. Iteration Eliminating Recursion

Recursion vs. Iteration Eliminating Recursion continued CS 311 Data Structures and Algorithms Lecture Slides Monday, February 16, 2009 Glenn G. Chappell Department of Computer Science University of Alaska

### Introduction to Java

Introduction to Java The HelloWorld program Primitive data types Assignment and arithmetic operations User input Conditional statements Looping Arrays CSA0011 Matthew Xuereb 2008 1 Java Overview A high

### Legislative Brief: PAY OR PLAY PENALTIES LOOK BACK MEASUREMENT METHOD EXAMPLES. EmPowerHR

EmPowerHR Legislative Brief: PAY OR PLAY PENALTIES LOOK BACK MEASUREMENT METHOD EXAMPLES The Affordable Care Act (ACA) imposes a penalty on applicable large employers (ALEs) that do not offer health insurance

### Tutorial on C Language Programming

Tutorial on C Language Programming Teodor Rus rus@cs.uiowa.edu The University of Iowa, Department of Computer Science Introduction to System Software p.1/64 Tutorial on C programming C program structure:

### 6. Standard Algorithms

6. Standard Algorithms The algorithms we will examine perform Searching and Sorting. 6.1 Searching Algorithms Two algorithms will be studied. These are: 6.1.1. inear Search The inear Search The Binary

### 2015 Ohio MemberSource Newsletter Targeted Production Schedule (Laura Huff/Courtney Stewart)

2015 Ohio MemberSource Newsletter (Laura Huff/Courtney Stewart) 2015 Newsletter Production Schedule 1st Quarter (Spring) Dec. 1, 2014 Dec. 5, 2014 Dec. 17, 2014 Dec. 26, 2014 Jan. 23 Jan. 30 Feb. 20 March

### 1 Description of The Simpletron

Simulating The Simpletron Computer 50 points 1 Description of The Simpletron In this assignment you will write a program to simulate a fictional computer that we will call the Simpletron. As its name implies

### The University of Alabama in Huntsville Electrical and Computer Engineering CPE 112 01 Test #4 November 20, 2002. True or False (2 points each)

True or False (2 points each) The University of Alabama in Huntsville Electrical and Computer Engineering CPE 112 01 Test #4 November 20, 2002 1. Using global variables is better style than using local

### CS104: Data Structures and Object-Oriented Design (Fall 2013) October 24, 2013: Priority Queues Scribes: CS 104 Teaching Team

CS104: Data Structures and Object-Oriented Design (Fall 2013) October 24, 2013: Priority Queues Scribes: CS 104 Teaching Team Lecture Summary In this lecture, we learned about the ADT Priority Queue. A