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1 HP 17bII+ Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return Cash Flow Zero A Series of Cash Flows What Net Present Value Is Present Value and Net Present Value Getting the Present Value And Now For the Internal Rate of Return Relating NPV to IRR

2 CASH FLOW ZERO: Two important calculations to make that are associated with discounted cash flow analysis are net present value, which is usually but not always different from present value, and the internal rate of return. To calculate each of these we need to give the calculator an initial cash flow, what the calculator has been asking us for when we see FLOW(0)=?. This zero-year cash flow is what is paid for the asset, it is the cash flow that buys the asset and initiates ownership of the cash flows for the purchaser. As such, it is thought of as flowing in the opposite direction from the positive cash flows the asset is going to produce for the owner. We ll show it as a negative in our cash flows. A SERIES OF CASH FLOWS: Estimated cash flow at the end of periods 1 through : \$./period period 5: \$000. Discount rate: % Purchase price for this asset: \$10,000. Go to the cash flow menu from the main menu by pressing 'FIN' and 'CFLO.' Then clear with 'SK' (shift key), 'CLR DATA,' and 'YES.' Then, put in the purchase price with these keystrokes: /- Why are we making the \$10,000. negative? Recall that this is the purchase price and that money is flowing away from the purchaser. We show it as a negative to indicate that direction of cash flow. Keystrokes for the cash flows: Now calculate with these keystrokes: WHAT NET PRESENT VALUE IS: 000 NPV Answer: 1, What does this mean that the net present value is \$1,382. (rounded)? Does that mean the asset that is projected to produce the cash flows we entered is worth this amount? hp calculators - 2 -

3 No, actually it is worth more than that. The net present value is a differential, it is a number you get when you subtract what someone pays for an asset from what the asset is worth. It is: Present value -Purchase price Net present value It is a measure of whether someone has overpaid or underpaid for an asset. If the net present value is positive, the purchaser has underpaid. If the net present value is negative, the purchaser paid too much for the asset when compared to what it is worth. If the net present value is zero, the purchaser bought the asset for just what it is worth. PRESENT VALUE AND NET PRESENT VALUE: Look at our problem we just keyed into the calculator: Present value -10,000 1,382. Can you see how we compute the actual present value? Sure. We do the reverse of the subtraction and add the net present value and the purchase price. The present value is \$11,382. How, you may ask, if you read our section on discounted cash flow analysis, did the calculator get the present value earlier without having to add this net present value and purchase price? Well, we did not include the purchase price in the cash flows. We left it as 0 in the FLOW(0). If you do that - leave off the purchase price - then the so-called net present value you are computing is actually the same as the present value. Zero subtracted from a number is still that number. Look above, where we subtracted the \$10,000. purchase price from the present value. If we made the purchase price zero, we are subtracting zero from the present value: Present value -0 Net present value We are forcing the present value and the net present value to be the same by setting the purchase price at zero. Or, another way to look at it is we have taken the one time when present value and net present value are the same, namely when nothing is paid for the asset. That way we can use the net present value function of the calculator to calculate present value. GETTING THE PRESENT VALUE: Exit to the cash flow menu. Clear it with SK and CLR DATA. Press YES, you want to clear the list. We are ready and are looking at FLOW(0)=? in the display. Hit 0 and, telling the calculator that cash flow 0, where the purchase price goes, is 0. You are now at the first cash flow. Put in the rest of the cash flows. From the time you cleared your cash flows your keystrokes have been this: hp calculators - 3 -

4 Now you are ready to calculate. Press in: NPV Answer: 11, You have calculated the present value by calculating the net present value under a special circumstance: when no purchase price is included in the cash flows. \$11,382. present value - 0 purchase price \$11,382. net present value So, when you want to calculate present value, leave off the purchase price by putting 0 into FLOW(0). When you want to calculate net present value, put the purchase price in FLOW(0) as a negative. AND NOW FOR THE INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN: One time you must put the purchase price into flow '0' is when you want to calculate the internal rate of return (IRR). And that is because the IRR is a rate of return of cash flows when measured against the purchase price. It is a return on the purchase price that the cash flows are earning. Let s calculate it for the last cash flows. We would start out putting in the keystrokes above when the purchase price was included. These were: /- 000 At this point, in the calculator menu, you can immediately ask the calculator for the IRR. You don t need a discount rate or to calculate the net present value. You may put in a rate and calculate a net present value, but it isn t necessary. It will not affect your IRR calculation. But, let s put in our discount rate of % and also calculate the net present value. So: Then: NPV Answer: 1, IRR% Answer: This internal rate of return of 17.23% means that paying \$10,000. for this asset and earning \$3,000. per period for four periods and then \$,000. the next period represents an average periodic rate of return on the \$10,000. of 17.23%. hp calculators - -

5 And remember what the net present value means. It is a measure of whether you have overpaid or underpaid for an asset when compared to what it is worth. The positive \$1,382. (rounded) means you have paid below value by this amount. You got a bargain! RELATING NPV TO IRR: Do you see the net present value s relationship with the internal rate of return? You can draw certain conclusions from one about the other. Positive Net Present Value A positive net present value, again, means you paid less for the property than it is worth. Well, if you did that and still got the returns that were projected, your money is working harder for you than represented by the discount rate. Look at our cash flows here. When they were discounted at %, we got a value of \$11,382. That s what the cash flows are worth. If you paid \$11,382. for an asset and got these returns, you would be earning % per period on your \$11,382. But we plugged in a purchase price of \$10,000. and put in the same cash flows for the returns. So, what we are saying is that our \$10,000., a smaller amount of money than the \$11,382., can earn the same returns. The rate of return on the \$10,000. is going to be higher than the % discount rate we used to value the asset at \$11,382. Our \$10,000. is getting a better rate of return. It is doing a better job because, although less than the \$11,382., it is earning the same dollars. Hence, its rate of return is higher. Do you see what we are getting at? A net present value that is positive means the internal rate of return will exceed the discount rate. Negative Net Present Value On the other hand, if we overpaid for the property, the net present value is going to be negative. With a purchase price of, let's say, \$,000., the net present value is: \$11,382. present value -,000. purchase price net present value What is the internal rate of return going to be in comparison to the discount rate? It is going to be less than the discount rate, isn t it? When we overpay, we are paying more money for the asset than we should, more than it is worth. Discounting the returns at % yields a value of \$11,382. That says that paying \$11,382. for the asset and getting those cash flows is a % return on our purchase price. Well, if we pay more than \$11,382. (a negative net present value!) and still get the same returns, our money is not working so well for us, it is earning less than %. Get back to the cash flow menu from the calculation menu by pressing '.' After you have cleared it, put in: 000 +/- hp calculators - 5 -

6 Key in the remainder of the cash flows as we did above: 000 NPV Answer: Note the negative sign on the \$618. (rounded). The purchase price is more than this asset is worth by a margin of \$618. Now key in: IRR% Answer: 9.98 If the net present value is negative, the internal rate of return will be less than the discount rate. Net Present Value of Zero Of course, finally, if we pay exactly what the asset is worth, \$11,382., the net present value is zero: \$11,382. present value - 11,382. purchase price 0 net present value And, the internal rate of return will be the same as the discount rate. After all, that is how we got the value of \$11,382. We discounted those cash flows at %. Summary Chart Net present value Internal rate of return Purchase price less than value Positive Exceeds discount rate Purchase price exceeds value Negative Less than discount rate Purchase price equals value Zero Equals discount rate hp calculators - 6 -

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Your retirement income Exploring your options Contents 01 Accessing your pension savings with Standard Life 03 What do you want to do with your pension pot? 09 A regular retirement income for the rest