France Country Report. EUFORI Study. European Foundations for Research and Innovation. Edith Bruder. Research and innovation

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1 France Country Report EUFORI Study European Foundations for Research and Innovation Edith Bruder Research and innovation 1

2 EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-General for Research and Innovation European Commission B-1049 Brussels

3 France Country Report EUFORI Study Edith Bruder CERPHI Centre d Etude et de Recherche sur la Philanthropie

4 Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union. Freephone number (*): (*) The information given is free, as are most calls (though some operators, phone boxes or hotels may charge you). LEGAL NOTICE This document has been prepared for the European Commission however it reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. More information on the European Union is available on the Internet ( Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015 European Union, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation

5 Contents 1 Contextual Background Historical background The legal and fiscal framework The foundation landscape Research and innovation funding in France 13 2 Data Collection The identification of foundations supporting R&I The survey The interviews 17 3 Results Types of foundation The origins of funds Expenditure Focus of support The geographical dimensions of activities Foundations operations and practices Foundationss roles in the research arena 28 4 Innovative Examples 29 5 Conclusions Main conclusions Strengths and weakness of the R&I foundation sector in France Recommendations 35 6 References 37 5

6 1 Contextual Background 1.1 Historical background This brief historical outline will enable us to gain an understanding of why in France, charitable foundations have been so few in number and so relatively weak when compared to those in place in other industrialised countries. Throughout the Middle Ages, philanthropy in France was developed under the tight control of the Church, either in the form of hospitals or hospices specifically designed to address the needs of the poor and the homeless, or as charitable works provided by monastic institutions, colleges and universities. From very early on, the French monarchs made known their unease concerning this considerable amount of property and land held inalienably, free from any form of taxation by the Crown, and most notably inheritance fees, which became the basis of a form of power beyond the control, either direct or indirect, of the State. Thus, from the eighteenth century onwards, the existence of charitable foundations were subordinate to royal approval. The opposition towards charitable foundations increased during the period of the French Revolution, especially in the context of the open conflict between the Church and State. The State had a monopoly over activities carried out in the interest of the general public. Following this revolutionary upheaval, which was without any kind of equivalent in any other of the European countries, charitable foundations more or less disappeared until the end of the nineteenth century. Only a few charitable foundations of a religious nature continued to exist, having been officially recognised as suitable for serving the public interest under a procedure requiring prior authorisation which had been imposed by the Emperor Napoléon the First. It was only in the twentieth century, during the 1970s, that the French State began to encourage the idea of creating new charitable foundations, firstly by setting up the Fondation de France, whose mission is to promote philanthropy and to act as an umbrella organisation for individual or corporate foundations. From their inception and throughout their existence up until very recently, in fact, these French foundations have long been subject to government policy and controls. For a long time the regulations governing foundations have been solely based on the case law provided by the French Council of State and that of the civil courts, whereas for fiscal reasons associations and foundations that were officially recognised as public interest organisations, were considered to be one and the same thing. The context in which foundations operated in France was characterised by four main factors: first they had to accept advice and submit to controls from the State, second the irreversible nature of their grant, third the long-term sustainability of their activities and finally their mode of governance. The French system of foundations is still under the influence of practices inherited from the past. To royal authorisation succeeded government agreement; the presence of a government representative on the FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

7 Board has for a long time been a guarantee of public interest. Another reason for the small number of French foundations is undoubtedly linked to the success of the nonprofit organisation system under the Law of (This system has had a considerable development thanks to this Law.) This dependency and complexity are the main reasons why the numbers of foundations have remained so low, right up to the beginning of the twenty-first century. In 2001, official figures mentioned the existence of barely over a thousand foundations, of which four hundred and seventy-three were recognised as being of public interest, and of those, two thirds were considered to be inactive and five hundred were operating under the aegis of the Fondation de France. With the property and assets they have been given to manage, these foundations have been able to provide services in various sectors such as hospitals, retirement homes, research centres, museums and community centres, as well as financing social projects and awarding scholarships and grants. However, from the nineteen-nineties, France has adopted a number of important measures when several pieces of legislation were brought in that provided a more precise definition of the legal status and prerogatives of these organisations in order to make their creation and their functioning more accessible. If these foundations which I have just mentioned, have included research and innovation in their remit, it was only in 2004 that the Ministry for Research and Technology provided the impetus for the development of Research Foundations designed to support ambitious scientific research programs by promoting working partnerships between publicly funded research institutions and the private sector. The organisational structure and legal framework of a foundation specifically devoted to research is an extremely recent phenomenon, without any historical precedent and very little available data to go on. The last twenty years have seen a process of adjustment and opening-up of the characteristics of the foundations What has this evolution consisted of? 1.2 The legal and fiscal framework This evolution has comprised several phases. Up until 1987, foundations existed almost entirely without any kind of legal status, adopting the form of a local nonprofit making association in spite of the legal obligation of obtaining prior administrative recognition. The Law that came into force on 23 July 1987 dealt with the development of private sponsorship and defined a foundation as The act whereby one or more persons whether they are private individuals or representatives of corporate entities decide jointly and irrevocably to assign property, rights or resources to the establishing of a nonprofit making charitable foundation devoted to the general public interest. Up until the year 1990, foundations were obliged to have at their disposal sufficient grants to allow them to cover their annual budget. This condition was changed in 1990 with the advent of corporate foundations, which were essentially designed as time-limited projects funded by cashflow and not by revenue generated from capital returns. 7

8 The year 2003 marked a particularly important step forward: the French Council of State revised the standard regulatory forms of public benefit foundations, while at the same time bringing in legislation that significantly reinforced fiscal incentives in favour of philanthropy. These new forms of regulatory status have allowed them to become more flexible and reactive in the way they operate. We can sum up these improvements in the regulations as a speeding-up of the process for obtaining official recognition as a public interest organisation; as a relaxation of the rules governing the setting-up of these organisations regarding the matter of choosing to create either an executive board or a supervisory board in conjunction with a management board; as a greater freedom in being able to choose board members; as being able to choose between having representatives of the State as de facto members on the executive board or having a government commissioner acting solely in an advisory capacity; and as an easing of the regulations concerning the level of initial capital required where the level of this capital is no longer strictly defined and can even be spread out over a ten-year period. However, even if there is no minimum capital required in the legislation to establish a foundation, in practice the State authorities do set a requirement for public benefit foundations (no minimum for endowment funds.) A starting capital of up to EUR 1 million may be required by the authorities for the foundation to fulfill its purposes. Nevertheless, the setting-up of a public benefit foundation, a corporate foundation or a scientific research cooperation foundation still remains, in principal, under the control of a competent authority by official decree. Moreover, the presence of representatives of the State as members of management boards of foundations has long been considered a means of guaranteeing and safeguarding the public interest. However, for corporate foundations from the year 1990 and public benefit foundations from the year 2003, management boards were planned without any kind of representation on behalf of the government whatsoever. At the same time, significant improvements have been made to the donors tax regime. The legislation relating to sponsorship was voted in by the French Parliament on 1 August This brought notable improvements to the tax regime for donors, whether they are private individuals or companies, as well as for officially recognised public interest foundations. These new advantages consist of: The increase and standardisation of tax relief up to sixty per cent (60 %). The raising of the ceiling up to twenty per cent (20 %) on income tax for private individuals and point five per cent (0.5 %) of the turnover of donor companies. Mitigating the effect of this ceiling by allowing beyond the permitted limit of taxed income or the level of tax on turnover a rescheduling of excess payments over a period of five years. Rebates on inheritance tax corresponding to the level of donations given by heirs and legatees to foundations. FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

9 The raising of the tax rebate ceiling to fifty thousand (EUR ) Euros on income earned on assets and capital, with regard to corporation tax. In 2008 the creation of French endowment funds directly inspired by the UK and American model brought with it a more liberal concept of public benefit and a clear break with the way successive French governments had previously practised their control over this sector. These funds, which are solely dedicated to the management of wealth derived from private philanthropy, are completely free from any form of government supervision. They can be created simply by a declaration lodged at the local government level (that is to say the prefecture) and there is absolutely no obligation for representatives of the State to be imposed as de facto members of their management structure. 1.3 The foundation landscape According to the statistics of December 2011 provided by the Observatoire de la Fondation de France in partnership with the Centre Français des Fonds et Fondations, there are foundations, including endowment funds in France. (The foundations that operate under the umbrella of the Institut de France have not been included in this group by the operators, due to the lack of consistent accounting data.) Since 2001, the number of foundations has increased by 60 % and their assets have gone up by 72 % (Etude Les fonds et fondations en France, Fondation de France, Centre Français des Fondations, 2010). This evolution is directly linked to the increasing numbers of different statutory forms of foundations that have emerged over the last few years. By establishing significant fiscal improvements and the evolution of legal dispositions, the French government supports the emergence of new statutory forms of foundations Foundations officially recognised as public benefit foundations 617 Corporate foundations 293 Sheltered foundations 901 Foundations for scientific research cooperation 31 Partnership-based foundations 12 University foundations 27 Endowment funds 852 Total foundations and endowment funds able to complement public actions. In fact, in spite of its apparent diversity and heterogeneity, the foundation sector in France divides itself onto two main groups: private operating foundations which manage considerable resources coming from grants drawn from public sector budgets, and grantmaking foundations operating on finance from the private sector, which manage money obtained through private donations. 9

10 Over the period from the year 2000 up to the year 2010 one can observe the evolution of the sharing out of roles taking place between the various forms of foundations and legal status. The last accessible key figures are from 2009: Figure 1: Distribution of foundations according to their activity and date of creation to to to to to to 1969 Before % 3% 9% 3% 14% 9% 5% 12% 9% 6% 12% 2% 10% 2% Grantmaking foundations 19% 20% Operating foundations 28% 33% Sources : Fondation de France et Centre Français des Fondations. Les fonds et fondations en France de 2001 à 2010 EUR 4.9 billion of total expenditure (+ 36 % since 2001) EUR 14.3 billion of assets (+ 72 % since 2001) employees (+ 26 % since 2001) 2 FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

11 Figure 2: Breakdown in spending of foundations on the different fields of action according to their main operating procedures Health Social action Education and training Arts and culture Sciences International relations, humanitarian action Religion Employement Environnement Housing Others 9% 4% 7% 1% 5% 0% 3% 0% 3% 0% 3% 1% 1% 2% 3% 2% 14% 13% 17% 31% 33% 48% Grantmaking foundations Operating foundations Sources : Fondation de France et Centre Français des Fondations. Les fonds et fondations en France de 2001 à 2010 Overall, the trend that one notices in the 1980s is consolidation from 2008 onwards in respect of most of the funding foundations created, as compared to the numbers of operating funds. This reveals a strong penetration of this activity by the private sector. The largest amounts of spending are those in the field of health: these represent 47 % of total spending. Whether the foundations concerned are operating or distributing funds, they all show the same level of spending in this field. But there is a sharing of roles in the health sector: 24 % of the spending of funding foundations is invested in medical research but only 7.5 % for operating foundations, which dedicate 34 % to health care. The second most important priority in terms of spending for French foundations is that of social welfare programs, which accounted fo up 32 % of total spending in 2008, which can be compared with 24 % in % of expenditure is dedicated to education and training (+ 6 % since 2001) 3 11

12 Figure 3: Foundations' assets as percentages of the total number of foundations (by type) EUR and over EUR EUR EUR EUR EUR EUR to EUR EUR EUR and less 1% 1% 3% 2% 1% 5% 8% 4% 8% 5% 7% 5% 9% 7% 6% 8% 2% 5% 19% 16% 11% 18% 16% 13% 14% 13% 16% 23% 25% 31% Total Grantmaking foundations Operating foundations Operating foundations have the highest assets when compared to funding foundations. 69 % of funding foundations have less than EUR 1 million of assets; 77 % of operating foundations have more than EUR 1 million Euros of assets. Ever since the implementation of the reforms in 2003, the government has shown its political will in promoting the idea of the Research Foundation in France. The Ministry which has overall responsibility for scientific research and new technology has sought to give impetus to setting up research foundations, and their development has become a major focus in the context of research and innovation policy. Mrs Claudie Haigneré, the then Minister for Scientific Research and New Technology spelt out the following objectives: The policy on research and innovation which I am pursuing seeks to achieve scientific excellence and provide a boost to our system of research. It is also focused on the aim of economic growth, job creation and progress. The expenditure on research should be 3 % of the GDP, of which 2 % will come from 4 the private sector, in order to place France at the forefront of international competition. FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

13 These public interest research foundations, also known as public interest scientific foundations, have at least one of the following aims: to conduct or to promote scientific research, to increase awareness, or to disseminate scientific information or technology. Their means of action can be the financing of research programs either carried out in a public sector laboratory or carried out in the context of a partnership between a public sector laboratory and small or large businesses, after a process of tendering and selection by a scientific committee of experts. Twenty new foundations were eventually created, with an endowment made from initial public funds subsequently matched with private contributions according to a 1-to-1 principle. In accordance with standard forms of statutes, these research foundations must have a scientific committee of experts. The Ministry for Scientific Research or the research organisations or higher education establishments themselves are represented on these scientific committees of the foundations. These new standard forms of statutes and this new legislation will apply to all these public interest causes. 31 % of all existing foundations are committed to scientific research, either completely or partly. (Sources: Fondation de France et Centre Français des Fondations. Les fonds et fondations en France de 2001 à 2010 Figure 4: Activities of French foundations 4 % 2 % 15 % 10 % 69 % No research activity Research being a secondary activity Dedicated to hard sciences Dedicated to social sciences Dedicated to medical sciences Of this 31 %, 16 % are active in fields at the core of scientific research such as medical research (10 % of foundations), social science (2 % of foundations) and hard science (4 % of foundations). For the remaining half, research is only a secondary activity. One can observe that for the operating foundations, the fields of research that they invest in are similar, if not identical to the field of their main activity. For funding foundations, the wide range of fields that they actively support is quite frequently observed, as well as the fact that they do not seek to build up any particular coherence between these fields, means that at the same time this approach gives these funding foundations their freedom of action and flexibility. Even so, 13

14 one can observe that those foundations that invest mainly in the field of health care are more often more involved in aiding research projects than those foundations that are involved with the cultural sector. Among university foundations, one can see that only four foundations out of ten are involved in supporting research projects. One can also see that for funding foundations that support projects in the health sector, one out of two also support research, most of the time in a field that is close to their main field of activity. In contrast, among the operating foundations in the health sector, only one out of seven sets up research projects. Whether they are operating foundations or funding foundations, among those foundations that are active in the cultural sector, only one out of five seeks to develop research activities. Only one funding foundation out of seven specialising in environmental issues funds research, which is a very low proportion. Whether they are distributors of funds or operating foundations, one can say that among the foundations that are active in the fields of child education, social welfare and international solidarity, very few are active in the field of research. The Fondation de France was set up in 1969, and its mission at first consisted of taking charge of and managing charitable foundations, and secondly of raising funds to promote social innovation. It also plays a role in promoting the foundation sector and in providing a forum for reflection on best practice in the field. In 1989 La Fondation de France was the co-founder of the European Foundation Centre and proposed in association with EFC a communication service network of foundations and sponsoring companies. EFC is the mouthpiece for charitable foundations when talking to European institutions. It is also a forum for exchanges of opinion, and acts as a catalyst for new projects, which enhances the spread of ethical practice among foundations. In 1998 UNOGEP, also known as France Générosités an umbrella group representing professional fundraisers was given the task of promoting philanthropy and of negotiating the conditions under which they operate, such as their fiscal arrangements, their regulatory framework and so on. And lastly, since 2001 the CFF the French Foundation Centre has provided a platform for information, exchanges of views, and thinking, giving advice and playing a representative role for all the different kinds of foundations that exist today. 1.4 Research and innovation funding in France The total expenses by the French R&I sector were EUR 45 billion in 2011, i.e % of THE French GDP, 1.44 % for private expenditure and 0.81 % for public expenditure. In terms of public expenditure, universities and high education establishments represent 0.32 % of the French GDP, administration and public research 0.46 %, and nonprofit organisations (including foundations) 0.03 % (around EUR 600 million). FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

15 Figure 5: Percentage of the GDP spent on R&D by the private sector in 2011 Services Other industrial branches Telecommunication Other machines and equipments Controlling instruments & apparatus Office machines & automatic data processing Chemical materials industry Aeronautic and spatial industry Medicinal & pharmaceutical products Road vehicles The above aggregated figures are not available for the public sector. When compared to other EU Members on innovation performance, France is classified in the second group, as an innovation follower, behind the group of innovation leaders (Denmark, Finland, Germany and Sweden). No statistics are available on the size of foundation support for R&I in France. However, as the creation of R&I foundations is quite recent in France, the size of their R&I investments is still negligible when compared to other sectors. As it we can see in the above figure, the main targets and priorities of R&D in France are in the automobile, health and aeronautic sectors. French universities and public research organisations are well integrated into scientific European networks. France s weaknesses seem to lie in public-private cooperation and in innovation by SMEs. Since 2005 France has substantially improved its R&I system through new funding and evaluation agencies, such as OSEO (the public evaluation agency for research and higher education) and the creation of competitiveness clusters (called Pôles de Compétitivité). These competitiveness clusters contribute to developing and strengthening links between SMEs, large firms and government research organisations. These transformations are still unfolding and the positive effects of the reforms on France s R&I capacity and performance, as well as on the economy at large are expected to grow over time. At the end of 2012 there were 72 clusters with a total of enterprises: 95 % SMIs and 5 % others (large enterprises and financial organisations). There was an increase of 261 enterprises involved, including the creation of 120 new enterprises between 2011 and

16 France has set a national R&I intensity target for 2020 of 3 %. In 2011, France s R&I intensity was 2.25 %, with an average growth rate over of 1 % over the period , slightly higher than the EU annual average growth over the whole decade. The priorities fixed by the French government to reach its target by 2020 were developed by La stratégie nationale de la recherche. FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

17 2 Data Collection 2.1 The identification of foundations supporting R&I For the purposes of this report we referred to a survey to collect the data. To establish a list of French foundations supporting R&I we used the general database of the Directory of the Centre Français des Fonds et Fondations, as well as additional information obtained from telephone interviews when the sets of data were found to be incomplete. We also used information available to the general public such as that found on the relevant websites. A preliminary telephone call allowed us to identify the name and position of the person to whom the survey should be sent and to personalise the relationship with the foundation administrators. 180 foundations operating in the R&I sector were selected for the survey some of them at least partly dedicated to R&I which represent a large majority of those who practise such activities. The French R&I foundation sector is nearly fully represented in the survey in terms of size, importance, governance and origin of income. We extended the information to those who are representative of French R&I but who did not answer the questionnaire by using the financial information from their annual reports: Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, Institut Pasteur and Fondation Jerome Lejeune, with one exception due to a lack of relevant information: Fondation ARC. Most of them operate in the health sector, which is characteristic of the R&I foundations landscape in France. 2.2 The survey The data for this survey comes from an enquiry carried out in spring 2013 from a questionnaire of 34 questions aimed at all the statutory forms of foundation. The survey was done online or on paper, and in some cases we used the telephone. 134 foundations received a survey invitation by accompanied by a letter of endorsement. 28 foundations received a survey invitation by post accompanied by a letter of endorsement. In order to raise the response rates, the person identified as being in charge of the survey was called back to encourage them to take part. 27 foundations (a 15 % response rate) answered the questionnaire representing the diversity of R&I foundations in France: public-interest foundations some of which are research foundations and corporate foundations. Six foundations only answered Q1 because there was a filter question to eliminate foundations not relevant to the study; 11 answers remained anonymous. We noticed that the response rate for the economic questions dropped to around 8 %. 17

18 2.3 The interviews Five detailed interviews were carried out with people in charge of foundations dedicated to R&I. In order to have a more in-depth understanding of the foundations activities and their impact on research/innovation, we selected the foundations which had answered the questionnaire, with the exception of Fondation Altran pour l Innovation, which was selected because it is a corporate foundation operating outside the health sector. These foundations: Fondation René TOURAINE for Research in Dermatology, Fondation INNABIOSANTE, Fondation d'entreprise Adrea, Fondation Altran pour l Innovation and Fondation Mérieux were selected in order to give a representation of the wide variety and range of foundations which support research and innovation in France. Fondation René TOURAINE for Research in Dermatology: this foundation of public interest was created in 1991, with an initial endowment of EUR 8.5 million. The sixteen founders were cosmetic and pharmaceutical manufacturers. The foundation s resources is mainly income from endowments, service fees and sales, and public grants. Fondation René Touraine is a typical example of a foundation created by the will and vision of one man who was both a practitioner and a researcher. Its story demonstrates how those who made it work knew how to make it evolve, going from the business of organising scientific events to that of managing networks, becoming a coordinator of networking, and even a service provider. Fondation INNABIOSANTE: this foundation of public interest created in 2006 was labeled Fondation de Recherche according to the national legislation on the financing of research and innovation. Its funding is both public and private, coming from national and regional organisations. The foundation is dedicated to the development of cooperation in favour of research and industry in the domain of the fight against cancer. Interdisciplinary research projects on new technologies adapted to bioscience, information technology, nanotechnology, biotechnology and radiotherapy techniques are specifically funded by the Foundation, which aims to develop European projects with public and private partnerships. Fondation d'entreprise Adrea, (Health Insurance): created in 2011, this corporate Foundation is dedicated to activities aiming to improve the quality of life of patients in an unstable situation. As most projects in the social/health domain are dedicated to children, the foundation has chosen to be dedicated to adults. The foundation supports initiatives to improve the professional skills of their beneficiaries, and surveys on health, social or medico-social innovations. The social innovation criterion is always a part of their selection criteria even, if not the only one. Fondation Altran pour l Innovation: this foundation is the corporate foundation of Altran Technologies, a consulting group specialising in technological innovation. Created in 1996, Foundation Altran is dedicated to the support of technological innovation for the public interest. FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

19 Fondation Mérieux: a family public interest foundation created in 1967, dedicated to the fight against infectious diseases in developing countries that do not control infectious disease epidemiology. The outlines of the interviews included questions about their governance, their make up, their structure (with or without salaried staff), their future prospects (with or without expendable endowments), and their development since their creation (or example, Fondation Mérieux was originally the Institut Mérieux, whose creation dates back 1867, whereas the Altrea Corporate Foundation has only been in existence for the last two years), their budgets, the origin of their income, the way they operate, the scope of their activities (national or international), and the diversity of the support they receive (financing, skills-based sponsorship, having research provided for them etc). The following points were touched on during the interviews, but one must take into account the fact that these were tailored according to the concerns and preoccupations of the interviewees and to the specific nature of their foundations: The historical dimension of the foundation: the founder his or her motivations, the initial objectives and how these are liable to evolve. Significant aspects of the way they operate, their governance, their budget and the sources of their income. The main areas in which their work is focused, in research and innovation, the scope of their activity, their success stories. Examples of innovation or innovative applications that they thought deserved mentioning in our own research. 19

20 3 Results 3.1 Types of foundation 25 foundations completed the questionnaire; among them 17 are active only in research, seven both in research and innovation, and one only in innovation. It is clearly apparent that most R&I French foundations are mainly active in research even if some of them are at least partly active in innovation. Regarding the activities of foundations considered in France as nonprofit, innovation implying commercial development is often outside their scope. Risks in relation to innovation are not compatible with the demands of respectability and the precautionary principle underlying the foundations ethical system in France. Research foundations are medical-oriented and are governed by a Board comprising university professors. Among the 20 Foundations that answered the question about grantmaking vs operating, nine are dedicated to grantmaking. Another three are partially dedicated to grantmaking, and the remaining eight are purely operating foundations. This accurately reflects the general landscape of foundations in France as described below. Operating foundations are essentially public-benefit foundations and obtain their resources from government grants as well as income accruing from their own activities. Public-benefit foundations, notably those involved in scientific cooperation, support a large majority of the operational type projects. Grantmaking foundations have seen their number grow, mostly due to fiscal incentives. 45 % of grantmaking foundations appeared after 2000; 16 % emerged in 2008 and The emergence of grantmaking foundations dates back to the 1970s, notably with the creation of the Fondation de France, which operates as an umbrella organisation. The corporate foundation, which came into being in 1990, increased this progression (28 % of funding foundations were set up between 1990 and 1999). Figure 6: Types of foundations according to year of establishment Number of foundations by decade Up to since 2010 FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

21 It is clearly apparent that the political and fiscal measures adopted by the French government from the beginning of the 1990s stimulated the development of foundations, with a peak corresponding more precisely to the measures taken in was a period of innovation, the incubation of new schemes and new initiatives. Since 2008, endowment funds have brought flexibility and helped the creation of smaller foundations. 3.2 The origins of funds Financial founders 20 foundations answered this question. These foundations were funded by wealthy individuals/families (six) and for-profit corporations (six). Six of the financial founders were public (universities and the public sector). The remaining two were founded by other nonprofit organisations Large research foundations are often founded by wealthy industrial tycoons who decide to dedicate a part of their wealth and profits to their foundations. Wealthy families personally affected by illness are also founders of foundations. Due to fiscal incentives, this proportion has increased sharply since In the last few decades, scientific cooperation foundations have often been founded by eminent researchers who raised funds from private companies or local administrations Income Figure 7: Total income according to categories in Euros, 2012 As a percentage of the total number of foundations (N=18) 11% 6% 11% 33% 39% EUR EUR EUR EUR and over Don't want to answer this question Statistics on income in Euros Number of foundations 16 Mean in Euros Median in Euros Total income in Euros

22 The majority of French R&I foundations are small or medium-sized organisations; 14 of those that answered this question have incomes lower than EUR 10 million Euros. These foundations were mostly recently created; the highest incomes correspond to foundations created before The increase in this number is linked to the new procedures of the creation of foundations and the development of small-sized foundations. The sources of income in the sample (N=17) are mainly income from endowments (13) and donations from for-profit corporations (10), followed by donations from other nonprofit organisations (nine), and donations from individuals (nine). Income from the government applies to only six of them, and services and fees make a small contribution (five). Fundraising from individuals and companies are systematic and essential. Only 11 foundations answered the question about the breakdown of income. For a better understanding we have separated the figures of Institut Pasteur, by far the largest, from the other foundations in the sample: Institut Pasteur Income from endowments (11%) Donations from individuals or for-profit corporations (16%) Income from the government (23%) Fees and sales (48%) Other (2%) Total income in Euros Aggregated figures of the ten other foundations in the sample: Income from endowments (7 %) Donations from individuals or for-profit corporations (31 %) Donations from for-profit corporations (24 %) Donations from other nonprofit organisations (1 %) Income from the government (29 %) Fees and sales (3 %) Other (5 %) Total Comparing Institut Pasteur s income, of which fees and sales represent their largest source of income, the other ten foundations have incomes from donations and small incomes from fees and sales due to the fact that most of them were recently created. FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

23 The René Touraine Foundation provides a good example of the development of resources by providing private services to corporations, thanks to its online tool. The free online availability in 2005 of the reference work Thérapeutique Dermatologique in French-speaking countries was the first example of a medical book freely available online. The remarkable amount of traffic to this website encouraged the Foundation to translate it into English (work in progress), the main goal being the development of a network of partners becoming a permanent online convention. This online convention is available to all MDs without limitation. The industry has also access to specific payable services in order to ensure additional resources for the Foundation. This method of functioning could be useful and well-worth developing in other public interest foundations in the French context, characterised by, on one hand a significant reduction in the level of government grants, and on the other an economic downturn which has automatically brought a decrease in income accruing from endowments, which for some foundations constitute an essential part of their funding Assets 16 foundations answered this question. Three of them did not want to make their figures available. Of the 13 remaining, six have assets between EUR 1 and 10 million, two have assets between EUR 10 and 100 million, two between EUR 100 million and 1 billion, and three have assets smaller than EUR Statistics assets in Euros Number of foundations 13 Mean in Euros Median in Euros Total assets in Euros Three respondents did not give a breakdown of their assets (including Institut Pasteur). For the ten foundations answering this question (total assets: EUR ), their general inclination is oriented towards secured investments: 50 % of investments are long-term investment-securities, 31 % are long-term investment-fixed assets, 6 % are long-term special funds and other types of investment represent only 2 %. This caution can be understood as a possible consequence of the financial crash of Expenditure Total expenditure For the 15 foundations answering this question, the total expenditure is EUR The mean value is EUR and the median is EUR The distribution of expenditure is parallel to the distribution of income. Six foundations in the sample have an expenditure of between EUR 1 and 10 million, five between EUR 100,000 and 1 million, two between EUR 10 and 100 million, one more than EUR 100 million and one less than EUR

24 The breakdown of expenditure between research, innovation and other purposes was only provided by 13 foundations. (We have to mention the absence of Institut Pasteur in these results. If Institut Pasteur had been included, the amount on research would have been much higher.) Out of them, from a total of EUR , expenditure on research represented EUR , innovation only EUR , and other purposes EUR foundations answered the question on the distribution of expenditure to basic vs applied research. All the foundations in the sample carry out applied research. Eight of them also carry out basic research. Distribution of expenditure to research; basic vs applied in Euros Basic research (N=8) Applied research (N=13) Unknown Total expenditure on research Research expenditure 13 foundations answered the question about the distribution of expenditure between direct and researchrelated expenditure. Direct research vs research-related in Euros Direct research (N=10) Research related (N=11) Unknown Total expenditure on research Direct research represents the majority of expenditure (78 %). Research-related expenditure (12 %) represents only a small part of French R&I foundations expenditure Changes in expenditure Among the 15 foundations answering this question, seven declared an increase in their expenditure in 2012, five declared that they had remained the same, only two declared a decrease, and one had just started to support R&I. Due to the growth in the foundation sector and the development of existing foundations, French R&I foundations expenditure is still increasing in spite of the economic downturn. Concerning the forecast expenditure for the following year, among the 13 foundations answering this question, the majority (seven) expect stability in their expenditure, four still expect an increase, and only two a decrease. FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

25 More generally, the level of expenditure is all the more modest when the income of the foundations is provided only by their endowments. To maintain their endowments, including inflation, when their investment performance is around 5 or 6 %, this implies that their research programs cannot exceed more than 2 or 3 % of their expenditure. 3.4 Focus of support Beneficiaries Eight foundations answered the question about beneficiaries. Out of them, seven support public HEIS, seven support research institutes, four support the nonprofit sector, only one supports private HEIs, and one the business sector Research areas Out of the 15 foundations answering the question about their research areas, five are involved in natural science, two in engineering and technology, nine in medical science, one in agricultural science, and three in social and behavioural science. French foundations play a determining role in social innovation even if it does not represent an important part of their funding. ADMICAL which is the organisation putting together French sponsoring companies dedicates a specific working group to social innovation. The working group mainly includes foundations that redistribute funding, without operating projects of social innovation themselves. Presently, as mentioned by the Director of Fondation ADREA, the working group studies the way company sponsorship can support social innovation. As private organisations we are free to make social experimentation possible by providing financial support. When this experimentation gives positive results it will be, in some cases, institutionalised by the government authorities. Expenditure breakdown Amount in Euros Natural science (N=5) Engineering and technology (N=2) Medical science (N=9) Agricultural science (N=1) 0 Social and behavioural science (N=3) The humanities (N=0) 0 Others (N=0) 0 Total expenditure on research * *This amount is much smaller than the total amount of expenditure in due to the fact that only nine foundations gave a geographical breakdown of their expenditures. 25

26 Only five foundations provided a breakdown of their expenditure according to the sector of activities, natural and medical science representing a large majority of their expenditure. The figures of Institut Pasteur, one of the largest foundations, being integrated, significantly increase the percentage of medical science Research-related activities Ten foundations answered the question about their involvement in research-related activities. Five of them are involved in research mobility and career development, one in technology transfer, seven in infrastructure and equipment, all ten in the dissemination of research, seven in science communication/ education, and two in civil mobilisation/advocacy. Expenditure breakdown Amount in Euros Research mobility and career development (N=2) Technology transfer (N=1) 1 790,000 Infrastructure and equipment (N=4) Dissemination of research (N=4) Science communication/education (N=3) Civil mobilization/advocacy (N=1) 820,000 Other (N=0) 0 Not specified into categories (N=0) 0 Unknown 0 Total expenditure on research The geographical dimensions of activities Geographical focus The foundations in the sample remain generally focused on a local/regional level (48 %), then on a national scale (31 %), but have little international scope (17 %). There remains much to accomplish on the European level (only 4 % of funding). This could be partly explained by the small size of the foundations that answered this question in particular. Geographical distribution of expenditure Geographical level Amount in Euros Local/regional level National level European level International level Total expenditure * *This amount is much smaller than the total amount of expenditure in due to the fact that only nine foundations gave a geographical breakdown of their expenditures. FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

27 3.5.2 The role of the European Union Regarding the opinion of the foundations on what the role of the European Union should be, 13 foundations answered (three had no opinion): Collaborate with foundations in projects 7 Evaluate projects from foundations 3 Contribute to awareness raising about foundations 8 Invest in an information infrastructure through databases 1 Provide a structure to enhance collaboration 6 Provide fiscal facilities 10 Provide a legal framework 8 So far the EU s role is mainly perceived as to provide fiscal facilities (N=10) or to provide a legal framework (N=8). Beyond this, the EU is seen also as an engaging player that can raise awareness about foundations, or collaborate with foundations on projects Contribution to European integration 12 foundations answered the question about their contribution to European integration. Two of them admitted they do not contribute. Five foundations said they contribute on educational issues, nine on research issues, one on social issues, one on cultural issues and one on other issues. Promoting shared participation in projects and access to funding at a European level in order to contribute to European integration, is part of the strategic objectives of Fondation Innabiosanté. Mr Lionel Havion, Financial and Administrative Director of the Foundation specified that: In France, we should train researchers to be much more aware of the availability of funding packages for European projects. Research institutes are aware, but many researchers consider that they can find sufficient funds for their research in France and don t necessarily take a look at what s available at the European level. France is very often badly-placed in the rankings when it comes to request funding. We are constantly trying to 27

28 convince research teams of this and to help them find potential partners abroad in order to reply to calls for European projects, but unfortunately up to now, at this stage we are still trying to educate them to this end. 3.6 Foundations operations and practices How do grantmaking foundations support research? Nine foundations answered the question; their behaviour is quite diverse with respect to grantmaking, as shown below; never always Our foundation: Supports on a long-term basis Supports an organisation only once Is involved in the implementation of a project which it funds Conducts evaluations to assess whether a grant was successful and why Demands evidence of how grants have been spent after funded projects have been complete Prefers small grants to multiple organisations/individuals over large grants to a few organisations/individuals Pro-actively searches for projects (e.g. through competitive calls for proposals) Waits for applications from third parties, with no active call for proposals Engagement in partnerships Out of the 13 foundations answering the question about partnerships, five answered that they are not involved in partnerships. Out of the other eight involved in partnerships, four are involved in partnerships with other foundations, three with universities, four with hospitals, four with research institutes, three with governments organizations, five with other nonprofit organisations and five with companies. For six foundations out of the seven that answered this question, these partnerships are primarily sought because they allow the pooling of expertise or increasing impact. Avoiding the duplication of efforts or creating economies of scale do not appear as important motivations. FRANCE - EUFORI Study Country Report

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