The Protestant Reformation

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1 The Protestant Reformation Mr. Montreuil April

2 The Big Picture I can explain how the Protestant Reformation impacted Europe religiously, politically, & socially. This Lesson I can identify Reformation leaders, explain why they challenged the Church, break down their differing beliefs, & explain the immediate impact of their actions. 2

3 Famous Faces Martin Luther Pope Leo X Johannes Gutenberg John Calvin Henry VIII Protestants Lutherans Calvinists Anglicans Huguenots Famous Places Wittenberg Famous Things Recant Excommunication Heretic Diet of Worms Predestination Act of Supremacy These terms should be defined in your notebook in the context of the events being studied. Remember to take notes on the information that follows. You will have a quiz on this information at the start of class. 3

4 Reformation Leaders Martin Luther Luther was a German Catholic Monk who had dedicated his life to God and to the Church. However, he became increasingly upset with the corruption he saw in the Catholic Church in the early 1500s and desired reform. The last straw for Luther was when Pope Leo X authorized the selling of indulgences to pay for the restoration of St. Peter s in Rome. Luther wrote the 95 Theses, identifying 95 problems with the Church & the Pope, and posted these to the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany. * Everyone went to church during this time period, so that was where news was posted, on the church door, where everyone could see it. * DO NOT confuse Martin Luther with Martin Luther King. 4

5 Reformation Leaders Martin Luther Luther, who had challenged Church and Papal authority, was ordered to recant, or take back his 95 Theses. He refused, even before an assembly of Church authorities, at the Diet of Worms in As a result he was excommunicated, or kicked out of the Church, stripped of his priesthood, and labeled a heretic. Now in open rebellion against the Catholic Church, Luther continued to spread his ideas. His followers, scattered across much of Northern Germany came to be known as Lutherans. * View the youtube clip from the movie Luther to see a re-enactment of the moment when Luther refused to recant. (You will find the link on the website.) 5

6 Reformation Leaders Martin Luther As Lutheranism spread, it began to separate itself from the Catholic Church in several ways. 1) The authority of the Pope was rejected. The Bible was the only source of religious authority. 2) Entry into heaven was based on faith alone, not necessarily good works (actions). 3) The number of sacraments was reduced from 7 to 2. 4) The belief in Purgatory was rejected. 5) Priests were allowed to get married. * Because this was the first Protestant split from Catholicism, other than the differences above, many practices & beliefs remained the same making Lutheranism relatively close to Catholicism today. 6

7 The Printing Press & Johannes Gutenberg Ironically, at the same time Luther was questioning the Church, another German, Johannes Gutenberg developed Europe s first printing press. This made information, including Luther s 95 Theses, readily available across Northern Europe, helping to spread the Reformation. * The first book published by Gutenberg s press was the Bible, now known as the Gutenberg Bible, and the oldest book in the West printed with moveable type. 7

8 Reformation Leaders John Calvin Inspired by the success of the Lutheran movement, other reforms sought to put their stamp on Christianity in defiance of the Catholic Church. Among others, John Calvin led the Calvinists who spread across Northern Europe as well as into France where they came to be known as Huguenots. Calvin differed from Catholics & Lutherans in his teaching of Predestination. This taught that all people were born sinners and that God had already determined a limited number of people who would be saved. * The term Calvinism was created by Lutherans who opposed Calvin & his followers. * The proper & more accurate term is Reformed, which applies to the followers of others leaders like Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox, & the French Huguenots. 8

9 Reformation Leaders King Henry VIII Henry VIII, King of England, detested what Luther and other Protestants were doing to the Catholic Church. His defense of Catholicism earned him the title Defender of the Faith from the Pope. * Divorce is frowned upon in the Catholic Church, but if circumstances warrant it, as Henry had hoped they would, the marriage can be cancelled through an annulment. However, like any king, Henry needed a male heir to carry on his line, and his wife, Catherine of Aragorn had failed to provide anything other than daughters. Henry wanted a divorce, but had been married years & produced children, and in the eyes of the Church had no good reason to be granted such a request. This put Henry at odds with Pope Clement VII, who Henry soon defied, making himself head of the new Church of England (Anglican Church), and rejecting the authority of the Pope through the Act of Supremacy passed by Parliament at Henry s request. 9

10 * The Pope also rejected Henry s request because Catherine s brother was the King of Spain, a strong Catholic ally against the spread of Protestantism. * Henry was also known to have had an affair with Mary Boleyn, and was now obsessed with Anne Boleyn (Mary s sister) who refused to simply be his mistress. The Act of Supremacy made the monarch of England the head of the Church. (This was the major difference.) As a result, Henry could now marry and divorce at will, and he did five more times. Ironically, when he died, Henry had just one living son, who crowned King Edward VI at just 9 years old. Edward died at age 15, leading to his half sister, Mary, becoming England s first female ruler. * Henry had two of his wives, Anne Boleyn & Catherine Howard, beheaded! 10

11 Next Step(s): 1) You will have a quiz on this information. You may use any notes you take. 2) You should define the vocabulary at the start of this presentation. It will help on your quiz! 3) In class analysis of the impacts of the Reformation on Germany, France, and England. 11

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