Chapter One Introduction to Programming

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter One Introduction to Programming"

Transcription

1 Chapter One Introduction to Programming 1-1 Algorithm and Flowchart Algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for calculation. More precisely, algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function. Starting from an initial state, the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, will proceed through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output" and terminating at a final ending state. Flowchart is a graphical representation of an algorithm. These flowcharts play a vital role in the programming of a problem and are quite helpful in understanding the logic of complicated and lengthy problems. Once the flowchart is drawn, it becomes easy to write the program in any high level language. Often we see how flowcharts are helpful in explaining the program to others. Hence, it is correct to say that a flowchart is a must for the better documentation of a complex program. Flowcharts are usually drawn using some standard symbols; however, Start or end of the program Computational steps or processing function of a program Input or output operation Decision making and branching Connector or joining of two parts of program 1

2 The following are some guidelines in flowcharting: a. In drawing a proper flowchart, all necessary requirements should be listed out in logical order. b. The flowchart should be clear, neat and easy to follow. c. The usual direction of the flow of a procedure or system is from left to right or top to bottom. d. Only one flow line should come out from a process symbol. or e. Only one flow line should enter a decision symbol, but two or three flow lines, one for each possible answer, should leave the decision symbol. f. Only one flow line is used in conjunction with terminal symbol. h. If the flowchart becomes complex, it is better to use connector symbols to reduce the number of flow lines. Avoid the intersection of flow lines if you want to make it more effective and better way of communication. i. Ensure that the flowchart has a logical start and finish. j. It is useful to test the validity of the flowchart by passing through it with a simple test data. 2

3 Ex 1-1: Write an algorithm and draw the flowchart for finding the sum of two numbers Algorithm: Input: two numbers x and y Output: the sum of x and y Steps: 1. input x 2. input y 3. sum = x + y 4. output sum START Input x Input y Sum = x + y Output Sum END Q1-1: Write an algorithm and draw the flowchart for finding the area of a rectangle. 1-2 C++ Programming Language Programming is a core activity in the process of performing tasks or solving problems with the aid of a computer. [problem or task specification] - COMPUTER - [solution or completed task] Unfortunately things are not (yet) that simple. In particular, the "specification" cannot be given to the computer using natural language. Moreover, it cannot (yet) just be a description of the problem or task, but has to contain information about how the problem is to be solved or the task is to be executed. Hence we need programming languages. There are many different programming languages, but all of them can be classified into: "High-level" programming languages: These are languages whose syntax is relatively close to natural language. Low-level languages: These include many technical references to the 0's and 1's of the computer. 3

4 C++ is one of the high-level languages; it was developed at Bell Laboratories in the early 1980's, and is based on the C language. C++ is intended as an incremental improvement of C. Most of C is a subset of C++, so that most C programs can be compiled using a C++ compiler. 1-3 Introduction to Programming Ex 1-2: Printing line of text. Line 1: // A first program in C+ begins with //, indicating that the remainder of the line is a comment which describes the purpose of the program. A comment beginning with // is called a single-line comment because it terminates at the end of the current line. Note: You also may use C s style in which a comment (possibly containing many lines) begins with /* and ends with */ /* A first program in C++ Date 2 Oct */ Line: #include <iostream.h> notifies the preprocessor to include in the program the contents of the input/output stream header <iostream.h>. This header must be included for any program that outputs data to the screen or inputs data from the keyboard using C++ s stream input/output. 4

5 The main function: int main ( ) is a part of every C++ program. The parentheses after main indicate that main is a program building block called a function. The left brace, {, must begin the body of every function. A corresponding right brace, }, must end each function s body. An Output Statement cout << Welcome to C++!\n"; instructs the computer to perform an action, to print the string of characters contained between the double quotation marks. The entire line, including cout, the << operator, the string "Welcome to C++!\n" and the semicolon ( ; ), is called a statement. Note: Every C++ statement must end with a semicolon, omitting the semicolon at the end of a C++ statement is a syntax error. Executing the last statement will print the string ( Welcome to C++!) on the screen. You noticed that \n has not been printed, it called a escape sequence. The escape sequence \n means newline. It causes the cursor (i.e., the current screen-position indicator) to move to the beginning of the next line on the screen. Some common escape sequences are listed below: The return Statement return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully is one of several means we ll use to exit a function. The right brace, }, indicates the end of function main. 5

6 * The string Welcome to C++! can be printed by a different way: Ex 1-3: Adding two integer numbers. This program uses the input stream object cin to obtain two integers typed by a user at the keyboard, computes the sum of these values and outputs the result using cout. 6

7 Variable Declarations The identifiers integer1, integer2 and sum are the names of variables. A variable is a location in the computer s memory where a value can be stored for use by a program. These declarations specify that the variables integer1, integer2 and sum are data of type int, meaning that these variables will hold integer values. Note: 1. We could have declared all three variables in one declaration by using a comma-separated list as follows: 2. Declarations of variables can be placed almost anywhere in a program, but they must appear before their corresponding variables are used in the program, for example: Displaying the Result The statement above displays the character string Sum is followed by the numerical value of variable sum followed by endl, the name endl is an abbreviation for end line. Note: Calculations can also be performed in output statements: 7

8 1-4 Arithmetic Operators Integer division yields an integer quotient; for example, the expression 7 / 4 evaluates to 1. C++ provides the modulus operator, %, that yields the remainder after integer division. The modulus operator can be used only with integer operands; for example, 7 % 4 yields 3. Parentheses are used in C++ expressions in the same manner as in algebraic expressions. For example, to multiply a times the quantity b + c we write: a * ( b + c ) C++ applies the operators in arithmetic expressions in a precise order determined by these rules of operator precedence, which are generally the same as those in algebra: 8

9 Ex 1-4: Determine arithmetic mean (average) of five terms. Note: If the parentheses are omitted, we obtain a + b + c + d + e / 5, which evaluates as: Ex 1-5: Convert the following algebraic expression to C++ expression and indicate the order in which C++ applies the operators. Q1-2: Convert the second-degree polynomial y = ax 2 + bx + c to C++ expression and indicate the order in which C++ applies the operators. Ex 1-6: Write a C++ program to calculate the sum and average of three integer numbers. 9

10 Note: The variables sum and average are data of type float, meaning that these variables will hold floating point values. Ex 1-7: Write a C++ program to calculate the circumference of a circle. Note: Constant variables can be declared either: const int S=179; const float PI=3.14; or #define S 179 #define PI

Name: Class: Date: 9. The compiler ignores all comments they are there strictly for the convenience of anyone reading the program.

Name: Class: Date: 9. The compiler ignores all comments they are there strictly for the convenience of anyone reading the program. Name: Class: Date: Exam #1 - Prep True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Programming is the process of writing a computer program in a language that the computer can respond to

More information

PROG0101 Fundamentals of Programming PROG0101 FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMING. Chapter 3 Algorithms

PROG0101 Fundamentals of Programming PROG0101 FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMING. Chapter 3 Algorithms PROG0101 FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMING Chapter 3 1 Introduction to A sequence of instructions. A procedure or formula for solving a problem. It was created mathematician, Mohammed ibn-musa al-khwarizmi.

More information

Sources: On the Web: Slides will be available on:

Sources: On the Web: Slides will be available on: C programming Introduction The basics of algorithms Structure of a C code, compilation step Constant, variable type, variable scope Expression and operators: assignment, arithmetic operators, comparison,

More information

Simple C++ Programs. Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber. Dev-C++ Dev-C++ Windows Friendly Exit. The C++ Programming Language

Simple C++ Programs. Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber. Dev-C++ Dev-C++ Windows Friendly Exit. The C++ Programming Language Simple C++ Programs Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Chapter 2 Simple C++ Programs Program Structure Constants and Variables C++ Operators Standard Input and Output Basic Functions from

More information

Chapter 2: Elements of Java

Chapter 2: Elements of Java Chapter 2: Elements of Java Basic components of a Java program Primitive data types Arithmetic expressions Type casting. The String type (introduction) Basic I/O statements Importing packages. 1 Introduction

More information

JavaScript: Introduction to Scripting. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

JavaScript: Introduction to Scripting. 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 6 JavaScript: Introduction to Scripting 2 Comment is free, but facts are sacred. C. P. Scott The creditor hath a better memory than the debtor. James Howell When faced with a decision, I always ask,

More information

Bachelors of Computer Application Programming Principle & Algorithm (BCA-S102T)

Bachelors of Computer Application Programming Principle & Algorithm (BCA-S102T) Unit- I Introduction to c Language: C is a general-purpose computer programming language developed between 1969 and 1973 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating

More information

C++ Language Tutorial

C++ Language Tutorial cplusplus.com C++ Language Tutorial Written by: Juan Soulié Last revision: June, 2007 Available online at: http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/ The online version is constantly revised and may contain

More information

9 Control Statements. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Objectives. 9.3 Statements

9 Control Statements. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Objectives. 9.3 Statements 9 Control Statements 9.1 Introduction The normal flow of execution in a high level language is sequential, i.e., each statement is executed in the order of its appearance in the program. However, depending

More information

Introduction to Java Applications. 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Java Applications. 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 2 Introduction to Java Applications 2.2 First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text 2 Application Executes when you use the java command to launch the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) Sample program Displays

More information

PART-A Questions. 2. How does an enumerated statement differ from a typedef statement?

PART-A Questions. 2. How does an enumerated statement differ from a typedef statement? 1. Distinguish & and && operators. PART-A Questions 2. How does an enumerated statement differ from a typedef statement? 3. What are the various members of a class? 4. Who can access the protected members

More information

Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale

Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale Introduction to C programming Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa October 25, 2010 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna)

More information

ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS

ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS A typical programming task can be divided into two phases: Problem solving phase produce an ordered sequence of steps that describe solution of problem this sequence of steps

More information

Appendix K Introduction to Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0

Appendix K Introduction to Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 Appendix K Introduction to Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 This appendix serves as a quick reference for performing the following operations using the Microsoft Visual C++ integrated development environment (IDE):

More information

Introduction to Visual C++.NET Programming. Using.NET Environment

Introduction to Visual C++.NET Programming. Using.NET Environment ECE 114-2 Introduction to Visual C++.NET Programming Dr. Z. Aliyazicioglu Cal Poly Pomona Electrical & Computer Engineering Cal Poly Pomona Electrical & Computer Engineering 1 Using.NET Environment Start

More information

JavaScript: Control Statements I

JavaScript: Control Statements I 1 7 JavaScript: Control Statements I 7.1 Introduction 2 The techniques you will learn here are applicable to most high-level languages, including JavaScript 1 7.2 Algorithms 3 Any computable problem can

More information

Java Basics: Data Types, Variables, and Loops

Java Basics: Data Types, Variables, and Loops Java Basics: Data Types, Variables, and Loops If debugging is the process of removing software bugs, then programming must be the process of putting them in. - Edsger Dijkstra Plan for the Day Variables

More information

Algorithms, Flowcharts & Program Design. ComPro

Algorithms, Flowcharts & Program Design. ComPro Algorithms, Flowcharts & Program Design ComPro Definition Algorithm: o sequence of steps to be performed in order to solve a problem by the computer. Flowchart: o graphical or symbolic representation of

More information

QUIZ-II QUIZ-II. Chapter 5: Control Structures II (Repetition) Objectives. Objectives (cont d.) 20/11/2015. EEE 117 Computer Programming Fall-2015 1

QUIZ-II QUIZ-II. Chapter 5: Control Structures II (Repetition) Objectives. Objectives (cont d.) 20/11/2015. EEE 117 Computer Programming Fall-2015 1 QUIZ-II Write a program that mimics a calculator. The program should take as input two integers and the operation to be performed. It should then output the numbers, the operator, and the result. (For

More information

Computer Science 281 Binary and Hexadecimal Review

Computer Science 281 Binary and Hexadecimal Review Computer Science 281 Binary and Hexadecimal Review 1 The Binary Number System Computers store everything, both instructions and data, by using many, many transistors, each of which can be in one of two

More information

Lecture 1 Introduction to Java

Lecture 1 Introduction to Java Programming Languages: Java Lecture 1 Introduction to Java Instructor: Omer Boyaci 1 2 Course Information History of Java Introduction First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text Modifying Our First

More information

Embedded Systems. Review of ANSI C Topics. A Review of ANSI C and Considerations for Embedded C Programming. Basic features of C

Embedded Systems. Review of ANSI C Topics. A Review of ANSI C and Considerations for Embedded C Programming. Basic features of C Embedded Systems A Review of ANSI C and Considerations for Embedded C Programming Dr. Jeff Jackson Lecture 2-1 Review of ANSI C Topics Basic features of C C fundamentals Basic data types Expressions Selection

More information

Algorithm & Flowchart & Pseudo code. Staff Incharge: S.Sasirekha

Algorithm & Flowchart & Pseudo code. Staff Incharge: S.Sasirekha Algorithm & Flowchart & Pseudo code Staff Incharge: S.Sasirekha Computer Programming and Languages Computers work on a set of instructions called computer program, which clearly specify the ways to carry

More information

Boolean Expressions, Conditions, Loops, and Enumerations. Precedence Rules (from highest to lowest priority)

Boolean Expressions, Conditions, Loops, and Enumerations. Precedence Rules (from highest to lowest priority) Boolean Expressions, Conditions, Loops, and Enumerations Relational Operators == // true if two values are equivalent!= // true if two values are not equivalent < // true if left value is less than the

More information

Keywords are identifiers having predefined meanings in C programming language. The list of keywords used in standard C are : unsigned void

Keywords are identifiers having predefined meanings in C programming language. The list of keywords used in standard C are : unsigned void 1. Explain C tokens Tokens are basic building blocks of a C program. A token is the smallest element of a C program that is meaningful to the compiler. The C compiler recognizes the following kinds of

More information

Flowchart Techniques

Flowchart Techniques C H A P T E R 1 Flowchart Techniques 1.1 Programming Aids Programmers use different kinds of tools or aids which help them in developing programs faster and better. Such aids are studied in the following

More information

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 3: Input/Output

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 3: Input/Output C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition Chapter 3: Input/Output Objectives In this chapter, you will: Learn what a stream is and examine input and output streams Explore

More information

ADVANCED SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND DATA STUDIES (ASSDAS) PROGRAM: CTech in Computer Science

ADVANCED SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND DATA STUDIES (ASSDAS) PROGRAM: CTech in Computer Science ADVANCED SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND DATA STUDIES (ASSDAS) PROGRAM: CTech in Computer Science Program Schedule CTech Computer Science Credits CS101 Computer Science I 3 MATH100 Foundations of Mathematics and

More information

Moving from CS 61A Scheme to CS 61B Java

Moving from CS 61A Scheme to CS 61B Java Moving from CS 61A Scheme to CS 61B Java Introduction Java is an object-oriented language. This document describes some of the differences between object-oriented programming in Scheme (which we hope you

More information

Topics. Parts of a Java Program. Topics (2) CS 146. Introduction To Computers And Java Chapter Objectives To understand:

Topics. Parts of a Java Program. Topics (2) CS 146. Introduction To Computers And Java Chapter Objectives To understand: Introduction to Programming and Algorithms Module 2 CS 146 Sam Houston State University Dr. Tim McGuire Introduction To Computers And Java Chapter Objectives To understand: the meaning and placement of

More information

Handout 1. Introduction to Java programming language. Java primitive types and operations. Reading keyboard Input using class Scanner.

Handout 1. Introduction to Java programming language. Java primitive types and operations. Reading keyboard Input using class Scanner. Handout 1 CS603 Object-Oriented Programming Fall 15 Page 1 of 11 Handout 1 Introduction to Java programming language. Java primitive types and operations. Reading keyboard Input using class Scanner. Java

More information

Chapter 5. Selection 5-1

Chapter 5. Selection 5-1 Chapter 5 Selection 5-1 Selection (Decision) The second control logic structure is selection: Selection Choosing between two or more alternative actions. Selection statements alter the sequential flow

More information

COMP 250 Fall 2012 lecture 2 binary representations Sept. 11, 2012

COMP 250 Fall 2012 lecture 2 binary representations Sept. 11, 2012 Binary numbers The reason humans represent numbers using decimal (the ten digits from 0,1,... 9) is that we have ten fingers. There is no other reason than that. There is nothing special otherwise about

More information

Sequential Program Execution

Sequential Program Execution Sequential Program Execution Quick Start Compile step once always g++ -o Realtor1 Realtor1.cpp mkdir labs cd labs Execute step mkdir 1 Realtor1 cd 1 cp../0/realtor.cpp Realtor1.cpp Submit step cp /samples/csc/155/labs/1/*.

More information

Application. Outline. 3-1 Polynomial Functions 3-2 Finding Rational Zeros of. Polynomial. 3-3 Approximating Real Zeros of.

Application. Outline. 3-1 Polynomial Functions 3-2 Finding Rational Zeros of. Polynomial. 3-3 Approximating Real Zeros of. Polynomial and Rational Functions Outline 3-1 Polynomial Functions 3-2 Finding Rational Zeros of Polynomials 3-3 Approximating Real Zeros of Polynomials 3-4 Rational Functions Chapter 3 Group Activity:

More information

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION TECHNIQUES

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION TECHNIQUES 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION TECHNIQUES 2.1 INTRODUCTION Graphical representation of any process is always better and more meaningful than its representation in words. Moreover, it is very difficult to arrange

More information

Computer Programming Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed

Computer Programming Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed Algorithm: A step-by-step procedure for solving a problem in a finite amount of time. Algorithms can be represented using Flow Charts. CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ALGORITHM: Computer Programming Lecturer: Dr.

More information

PIC 10A. Lecture 7: Graphics II and intro to the if statement

PIC 10A. Lecture 7: Graphics II and intro to the if statement PIC 10A Lecture 7: Graphics II and intro to the if statement Setting up a coordinate system By default the viewing window has a coordinate system already set up for you 10-10 10-10 The origin is in the

More information

The While Loop. Objectives. Textbook. WHILE Loops

The While Loop. Objectives. Textbook. WHILE Loops Objectives The While Loop 1E3 Topic 6 To recognise when a WHILE loop is needed. To be able to predict what a given WHILE loop will do. To be able to write a correct WHILE loop. To be able to use a WHILE

More information

Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any.

Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any. Algebra 2 - Chapter Prerequisites Vocabulary Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any. P1 p. 1 1. counting(natural) numbers - {1,2,3,4,...}

More information

Multichoice Quetions 1. Atributes a. are listed in the second part of the class box b. its time is preceded by a colon. c. its default value is

Multichoice Quetions 1. Atributes a. are listed in the second part of the class box b. its time is preceded by a colon. c. its default value is Multichoice Quetions 1. Atributes a. are listed in the second part of the class box b. its time is preceded by a colon. c. its default value is preceded by an equal sign d. its name has undereline 2. Associations

More information

Answers to Review Questions Chapter 7

Answers to Review Questions Chapter 7 Answers to Review Questions Chapter 7 1. The size declarator is used in a definition of an array to indicate the number of elements the array will have. A subscript is used to access a specific element

More information

Variables, Constants, and Data Types

Variables, Constants, and Data Types Variables, Constants, and Data Types Primitive Data Types Variables, Initialization, and Assignment Constants Characters Strings Reading for this class: L&L, 2.1-2.3, App C 1 Primitive Data There are eight

More information

Comp151. Definitions & Declarations

Comp151. Definitions & Declarations Comp151 Definitions & Declarations Example: Definition /* reverse_printcpp */ #include #include using namespace std; int global_var = 23; // global variable definition void reverse_print(const

More information

13 Classes & Objects with Constructors/Destructors

13 Classes & Objects with Constructors/Destructors 13 Classes & Objects with Constructors/Destructors 13.1 Introduction In object oriented programming, the emphasis is on data rather than function. Class is a way that binds the data & function together.

More information

Visual Logic Instructions and Assignments

Visual Logic Instructions and Assignments Visual Logic Instructions and Assignments Visual Logic can be installed from the CD that accompanies our textbook. It is a nifty tool for creating program flowcharts, but that is only half of the story.

More information

1.6 The Order of Operations

1.6 The Order of Operations 1.6 The Order of Operations Contents: Operations Grouping Symbols The Order of Operations Exponents and Negative Numbers Negative Square Roots Square Root of a Negative Number Order of Operations and Negative

More information

Lecture 3. Arrays. Name of array. c[0] c[1] c[2] c[3] c[4] c[5] c[6] c[7] c[8] c[9] c[10] c[11] Position number of the element within array c

Lecture 3. Arrays. Name of array. c[0] c[1] c[2] c[3] c[4] c[5] c[6] c[7] c[8] c[9] c[10] c[11] Position number of the element within array c Lecture 3 Data structures arrays structs C strings: array of chars Arrays as parameters to functions Multiple subscripted arrays Structs as parameters to functions Default arguments Inline functions Redirection

More information

Computer Programming C++ Classes and Objects 15 th Lecture

Computer Programming C++ Classes and Objects 15 th Lecture Computer Programming C++ Classes and Objects 15 th Lecture 엄현상 (Eom, Hyeonsang) School of Computer Science and Engineering Seoul National University Copyrights 2013 Eom, Hyeonsang All Rights Reserved Outline

More information

Lecture 2 Notes: Flow of Control

Lecture 2 Notes: Flow of Control 6.096 Introduction to C++ January, 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Marrero Lecture 2 Notes: Flow of Control 1 Motivation Normally, a program executes statements from first to last. The

More information

Passing 1D arrays to functions.

Passing 1D arrays to functions. Passing 1D arrays to functions. In C++ arrays can only be reference parameters. It is not possible to pass an array by value. Therefore, the ampersand (&) is omitted. What is actually passed to the function,

More information

PROGRAMMING IN C PROGRAMMING IN C CONTENT AT A GLANCE

PROGRAMMING IN C PROGRAMMING IN C CONTENT AT A GLANCE PROGRAMMING IN C CONTENT AT A GLANCE 1 MODULE 1 Unit 1 : Basics of Programming Unit 2 : Fundamentals Unit 3 : C Operators MODULE 2 unit 1 : Input Output Statements unit 2 : Control Structures unit 3 :

More information

Programming Languages & Tools

Programming Languages & Tools 4 Programming Languages & Tools Almost any programming language one is familiar with can be used for computational work (despite the fact that some people believe strongly that their own favorite programming

More information

Storage Classes CS 110B - Rule Storage Classes Page 18-1 \handouts\storclas

Storage Classes CS 110B - Rule Storage Classes Page 18-1 \handouts\storclas CS 110B - Rule Storage Classes Page 18-1 Attributes are distinctive features of a variable. Data type, int or double for example, is an attribute. Storage class is another attribute. There are four storage

More information

Basics of I/O Streams and File I/O

Basics of I/O Streams and File I/O Basics of This is like a cheat sheet for file I/O in C++. It summarizes the steps you must take to do basic I/O to and from files, with only a tiny bit of explanation. It is not a replacement for reading

More information

(!' ) "' # "*# "!(!' +,

(!' ) ' # *# !(!' +, MATLAB is a numeric computation software for engineering and scientific calculations. The name MATLAB stands for MATRIX LABORATORY. MATLAB is primarily a tool for matrix computations. It was developed

More information

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Polynomial Division.. 314 The Rational Zero Test.....317 Descarte s Rule of Signs... 319 The Remainder Theorem.....31 Finding all Zeros of a Polynomial Function.......33 Writing a

More information

The Method of Partial Fractions Math 121 Calculus II Spring 2015

The Method of Partial Fractions Math 121 Calculus II Spring 2015 Rational functions. as The Method of Partial Fractions Math 11 Calculus II Spring 015 Recall that a rational function is a quotient of two polynomials such f(x) g(x) = 3x5 + x 3 + 16x x 60. The method

More information

Notes on Algorithms, Pseudocode, and Flowcharts

Notes on Algorithms, Pseudocode, and Flowcharts Notes on Algorithms, Pseudocode, and Flowcharts Introduction Do you like hot sauce? Here is an algorithm for how to make a good one: Volcanic Hot Sauce (from: http://recipeland.com/recipe/v/volcanic-hot-sauce-1125)

More information

CSE 1223: Introduction to Computer Programming in Java Chapter 2 Java Fundamentals

CSE 1223: Introduction to Computer Programming in Java Chapter 2 Java Fundamentals CSE 1223: Introduction to Computer Programming in Java Chapter 2 Java Fundamentals 1 Recall From Last Time: Java Program import java.util.scanner; public class EggBasket { public static void main(string[]

More information

2) Write in detail the issues in the design of code generator.

2) Write in detail the issues in the design of code generator. COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING VI SEM CSE Principles of Compiler Design Unit-IV Question and answers UNIT IV CODE GENERATION 9 Issues in the design of code generator The target machine Runtime Storage

More information

This unit will lay the groundwork for later units where the students will extend this knowledge to quadratic and exponential functions.

This unit will lay the groundwork for later units where the students will extend this knowledge to quadratic and exponential functions. Algebra I Overview View unit yearlong overview here Many of the concepts presented in Algebra I are progressions of concepts that were introduced in grades 6 through 8. The content presented in this course

More information

C++ INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

C++ INTERVIEW QUESTIONS C++ INTERVIEW QUESTIONS http://www.tutorialspoint.com/cplusplus/cpp_interview_questions.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com Dear readers, these C++ Interview Questions have been designed specially to get

More information

ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS. By Miss Reham Tufail

ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS. By Miss Reham Tufail ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS By Miss Reham Tufail ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS A typical programming task can be divided into two phases: Problem solving phase produce an ordered sequence of steps that describe

More information

arrays C Programming Language - Arrays

arrays C Programming Language - Arrays arrays So far, we have been using only scalar variables scalar meaning a variable with a single value But many things require a set of related values coordinates or vectors require 3 (or 2, or 4, or more)

More information

PROBLEM SOLVING SEVENTH EDITION WALTER SAVITCH UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO CONTRIBUTOR KENRICK MOCK UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE PEARSON

PROBLEM SOLVING SEVENTH EDITION WALTER SAVITCH UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO CONTRIBUTOR KENRICK MOCK UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE PEARSON PROBLEM SOLVING WITH SEVENTH EDITION WALTER SAVITCH UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO CONTRIBUTOR KENRICK MOCK UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE PEARSON Addison Wesley Boston San Francisco New York London

More information

Chapter 3. Input and output. 3.1 The System class

Chapter 3. Input and output. 3.1 The System class Chapter 3 Input and output The programs we ve looked at so far just display messages, which doesn t involve a lot of real computation. This chapter will show you how to read input from the keyboard, use

More information

Introduction to Python

Introduction to Python Caltech/LEAD Summer 2012 Computer Science Lecture 2: July 10, 2012 Introduction to Python The Python shell Outline Python as a calculator Arithmetic expressions Operator precedence Variables and assignment

More information

Appendix M: Introduction to Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Express Edition

Appendix M: Introduction to Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Express Edition Appendix M: Introduction to Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Express Edition This book may be ordered from Addison-Wesley in a value pack that includes Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Express Edition. Visual C++ 2010

More information

Pseudo code Tutorial and Exercises Teacher s Version

Pseudo code Tutorial and Exercises Teacher s Version Pseudo code Tutorial and Exercises Teacher s Version Pseudo-code is an informal way to express the design of a computer program or an algorithm in 1.45. The aim is to get the idea quickly and also easy

More information

Fundamentals of Programming

Fundamentals of Programming Fundamentals of Programming Introduction to the C language Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa February 29, 2012 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna) The C language

More information

VHDL Test Bench Tutorial

VHDL Test Bench Tutorial University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE171 - Digital Design Laboratory VHDL Test Bench Tutorial Purpose The goal of this tutorial is to demonstrate how to automate

More information

SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS AND MATRICES WITH THE TI-89. by Joseph Collison

SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS AND MATRICES WITH THE TI-89. by Joseph Collison SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS AND MATRICES WITH THE TI-89 by Joseph Collison Copyright 2000 by Joseph Collison All rights reserved Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections

More information

IS0020 Program Design and Software Tools Midterm, Feb 24, 2004. Instruction

IS0020 Program Design and Software Tools Midterm, Feb 24, 2004. Instruction IS0020 Program Design and Software Tools Midterm, Feb 24, 2004 Name: Instruction There are two parts in this test. The first part contains 50 questions worth 80 points. The second part constitutes 20 points

More information

Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber

Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Chapter 3 Control Structures 1 Control structures Algorithm Development Conditional Expressions Selection Statements Repetition Statements Structuring

More information

Numeral Systems. The number twenty-five can be represented in many ways: Decimal system (base 10): 25 Roman numerals:

Numeral Systems. The number twenty-five can be represented in many ways: Decimal system (base 10): 25 Roman numerals: Numeral Systems Which number is larger? 25 8 We need to distinguish between numbers and the symbols that represent them, called numerals. The number 25 is larger than 8, but the numeral 8 above is larger

More information

Regular Expressions and Automata using Haskell

Regular Expressions and Automata using Haskell Regular Expressions and Automata using Haskell Simon Thompson Computing Laboratory University of Kent at Canterbury January 2000 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Regular Expressions 2 3 Matching regular expressions

More information

Computer Programming I & II*

Computer Programming I & II* Computer Programming I & II* Career Cluster Information Technology Course Code 10152 Prerequisite(s) Computer Applications, Introduction to Information Technology Careers (recommended), Computer Hardware

More information

We will learn the Python programming language. Why? Because it is easy to learn and many people write programs in Python so we can share.

We will learn the Python programming language. Why? Because it is easy to learn and many people write programs in Python so we can share. LING115 Lecture Note Session #4 Python (1) 1. Introduction As we have seen in previous sessions, we can use Linux shell commands to do simple text processing. We now know, for example, how to count words.

More information

Clock Arithmetic and Modular Systems Clock Arithmetic The introduction to Chapter 4 described a mathematical system

Clock Arithmetic and Modular Systems Clock Arithmetic The introduction to Chapter 4 described a mathematical system CHAPTER Number Theory FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE Plus hours Plus hours Plus hours + = + = + = FIGURE. Clock Arithmetic and Modular Systems Clock Arithmetic The introduction to Chapter described a mathematical

More information

While Loop. 6. Iteration

While Loop. 6. Iteration While Loop 1 Loop - a control structure that causes a set of statements to be executed repeatedly, (reiterated). While statement - most versatile type of loop in C++ false while boolean expression true

More information

C++ Input/Output: Streams

C++ Input/Output: Streams C++ Input/Output: Streams 1 The basic data type for I/O in C++ is the stream. C++ incorporates a complex hierarchy of stream types. The most basic stream types are the standard input/output streams: istream

More information

Computer Science 217

Computer Science 217 Computer Science 217 Midterm Exam Fall 2009 October 29, 2009 Name: ID: Instructions: Neatly print your name and ID number in the spaces provided above. Pick the best answer for each multiple choice question.

More information

How To Write Portable Programs In C

How To Write Portable Programs In C Writing Portable Programs COS 217 1 Goals of Today s Class Writing portable programs in C Sources of heterogeneity Data types, evaluation order, byte order, char set, Reading period and final exam Important

More information

Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in); // scanner for the keyboard. Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in); // scanner for the keyboard

Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in); // scanner for the keyboard. Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in); // scanner for the keyboard INPUT & OUTPUT I/O Example Using keyboard input for characters import java.util.scanner; class Echo{ public static void main (String[] args) { Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in); // scanner for the keyboard

More information

Math Review. for the Quantitative Reasoning Measure of the GRE revised General Test

Math Review. for the Quantitative Reasoning Measure of the GRE revised General Test Math Review for the Quantitative Reasoning Measure of the GRE revised General Test www.ets.org Overview This Math Review will familiarize you with the mathematical skills and concepts that are important

More information

The C Programming Language course syllabus associate level

The C Programming Language course syllabus associate level TECHNOLOGIES The C Programming Language course syllabus associate level Course description The course fully covers the basics of programming in the C programming language and demonstrates fundamental programming

More information

Common Beginner C++ Programming Mistakes

Common Beginner C++ Programming Mistakes Common Beginner C++ Programming Mistakes This documents some common C++ mistakes that beginning programmers make. These errors are two types: Syntax errors these are detected at compile time and you won't

More information

8 Divisibility and prime numbers

8 Divisibility and prime numbers 8 Divisibility and prime numbers 8.1 Divisibility In this short section we extend the concept of a multiple from the natural numbers to the integers. We also summarize several other terms that express

More information

What is a Loop? Pretest Loops in C++ Types of Loop Testing. Count-controlled loops. Loops can be...

What is a Loop? Pretest Loops in C++ Types of Loop Testing. Count-controlled loops. Loops can be... What is a Loop? CSC Intermediate Programming Looping A loop is a repetition control structure It causes a single statement or a group of statements to be executed repeatedly It uses a condition to control

More information

Compiler Construction

Compiler Construction Compiler Construction Lecture 1 - An Overview 2003 Robert M. Siegfried All rights reserved A few basic definitions Translate - v, a.to turn into one s own language or another. b. to transform or turn from

More information

I PUC - Computer Science. Practical s Syllabus. Contents

I PUC - Computer Science. Practical s Syllabus. Contents I PUC - Computer Science Practical s Syllabus Contents Topics 1 Overview Of a Computer 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Functional Components of a computer (Working of each unit) 1.3 Evolution Of Computers 1.4 Generations

More information

Formal Languages and Automata Theory - Regular Expressions and Finite Automata -

Formal Languages and Automata Theory - Regular Expressions and Finite Automata - Formal Languages and Automata Theory - Regular Expressions and Finite Automata - Samarjit Chakraborty Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zürich March

More information

Formulas, Functions and Charts

Formulas, Functions and Charts Formulas, Functions and Charts :: 167 8 Formulas, Functions and Charts 8.1 INTRODUCTION In this leson you can enter formula and functions and perform mathematical calcualtions. You will also be able to

More information

Moving from C++ to VBA

Moving from C++ to VBA Introduction College of Engineering and Computer Science Mechanical Engineering Department Mechanical Engineering 309 Numerical Analysis of Engineering Systems Fall 2014 Number: 15237 Instructor: Larry

More information

NUMBER SYSTEMS. William Stallings

NUMBER SYSTEMS. William Stallings NUMBER SYSTEMS William Stallings The Decimal System... The Binary System...3 Converting between Binary and Decimal...3 Integers...4 Fractions...5 Hexadecimal Notation...6 This document available at WilliamStallings.com/StudentSupport.html

More information

Visual Studio 2008 Express Editions

Visual Studio 2008 Express Editions Visual Studio 2008 Express Editions Visual Studio 2008 Installation Instructions Burning a Visual Studio 2008 Express Editions DVD Download (http://www.microsoft.com/express/download/) the Visual Studio

More information

Binary Division. Decimal Division. Hardware for Binary Division. Simple 16-bit Divider Circuit

Binary Division. Decimal Division. Hardware for Binary Division. Simple 16-bit Divider Circuit Decimal Division Remember 4th grade long division? 43 // quotient 12 521 // divisor dividend -480 41-36 5 // remainder Shift divisor left (multiply by 10) until MSB lines up with dividend s Repeat until

More information

Computer Programming Tutorial

Computer Programming Tutorial Computer Programming Tutorial COMPUTER PROGRAMMING TUTORIAL by tutorialspoint.com tutorialspoint.com i ABOUT THE TUTORIAL Computer Prgramming Tutorial Computer programming is the act of writing computer

More information