# FRACTIONS: EASY AS PIE! Grade Level: 4th Grade Presented by: Sue Gill, Clegern Elementary School, Edmond, Oklahoma Length of Unit: 7 lessons

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1 FRACTIONS: EASY AS PIE! Grade Level: 4th Grade Presented by: Sue Gill, Clegern Elementary School, Edmond, Oklahoma Length of Unit: 7 lessons I. ABSTRACT This unit, "Fractions: Easy as Pie! is intended to teach every content skill in the Core Knowledge Sequence by using developmental, practice, and problem-solving activities. The fraction activities will include concrete, pictorial, and symbolic methods of utilizing fraction circles. Once the basic concepts in each lesson are introduced, teachers are encouraged to supplement the lessons with the textbook or other resources as needed. In this way teachers are allowed flexibility, as they may want to spend several days on one lesson objective. II. OVERVIEW A. Concept Objective: 1. The students will use fraction circles to create fractions and solve problems concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. 2. The students will practice writing skills by keeping a Math journal with daily writing assignments. B. Content from the Core Knowledge Sequence 1. Recognize fractions to one-twelfth 2. Identify numerator and denominator 3. Write mixed numbers, and change improper fractions to mixed numbers 4. Recognize equivalent fractions 5. Put fractions in lowest terms 6. Rename fractions with unlike denominators to fractions with common denominators 7. Compare fractions with like and unlike denominators, using the signs <, >, and = 8. Solve problems in the form of 2/3=?/12 C. Skill Objectives: 1. The students will identify the fractions represented by the shaded part of a given shape or picture that represents a fraction (halves through twelfths). 2. The students will identify equivalent fractions and mixed numbers. 3. The students will rename improper fractions as mixed numbers and vice versa. 4. The students will compare fractions or mixed numbers through twelfths. 5. The students will order a series of fractions and/or mixed numbers from least to greatest or vice versa. 6. The students will find the sum of two fractions or mixed numbers with like denominators without regrouping. 7. The students will solve real-world problems, the solution of which requires a basic understanding of fractions. III. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE A. For Teachers: 1. Hirsch Jr., E. D. What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know. Core Publications, Inc., B. For Students: 1. Addition 2. Subtraction 3. Multiplication 4. Division with remainders Fractions: Easy as Pie, Grade Core Knowledge Conference 1

2 5. Patterning IV. RESOURCES A. Any fraction resources can be utilized to supplement this unit. V. LESSONS Lesson One: Introduction to Fractions a. The students will recognize that fractions are part of a whole number. a. The students will construct fractions in halves, thirds, fourths, sixths, eighths, and twelfths. b. The students will explain what the numerator and the denominator in a written fraction represent. 1. Fraction circles of different colors for each student (white-whole, orange-halves, yellow thirds, green-fourths, blue-sixths, red-eighths, purple-twelfths) *Note: pieces are not labeled 1/4, etc., to allow natural discovery 1. Fraction: Equal parts to a whole, derived from a Latin word meaning "to break" 2. Numerator: the top number of a fraction that tells the number of equal parts compared to the number of equal parts in a whole 3. Denominator: the bottom number of a fraction that tells the number of equal parts in the whole 4. Whole number: a complete amount lacking no part, member, or element 1. Ask the students if they were really hungry, would they want a ¼-pound hamburger from McDonald's or a 1/3 pound hamburger from Burger King if the hamburgers were the same price. Discuss their answers and explanations for their choices. 2. Have the students take out a sheet of paper and draw a picture of what the white circle looks like. Tell them that a fraction is part of a whole. Explain that the numerator is the top number, and the denominator is the bottom number in a fraction. Explain that the numerator is the individual pieces of one color and the denominator is the number of the same color pieces that make up the whole circle. Use the orange halves to illustrate this. 3. Have the students manipulate the orange parts to make the whole. Ask them to draw a picture of what the orange parts look like when they make the whole. Next to the picture ask them to write the fraction for one part of the whole, and the fraction for all parts of the whole. 4. Follow the same procedure as #3 with each color in this order: yellow, green, blue, red, and purple. 5. Ask the students to discuss in small groups and answer the following questions on paper: "What patterns do you see for the fractions under each piece?" and "What patterns do you see for all of the fractions that make up the whole?" Discuss these questions as a class after the small groups have had time to discuss. 1. The students will write a paragraph in their Math journal answering the following Fractions: Easy as Pie, Grade Core Knowledge Conference 2

5 Lesson Four: Finding an Unknown Numerator or Denominator a. Finding unknown numerators or denominators a. The students will find unknown numerators and denominators in fractions 1. Fraction circles for each student 1. None 1. Begin today's lesson by reviewing previous lesson on equivalent fractions. Discuss different combinations that were found to be equivalent to 1/4. 2. Take an example that was mentioned (for example, 1/4 is equivalent to 2/8) and write it on the board with the numerator missing in the second fraction (1/4=?/8). Ask the question, "How could we find out what this numerator is if it isn't shown?" 3. Allow the students time to manipulate their fraction pieces to determine how many red (eighths) pieces it takes to equal one green piece (fourths). Once they have determined that it takes two red pieces to equal one green piece, ask them to draw a picture of the problem and label it with the fractions. 4. Write this problem on the board: 1/4=3/?. Have the students take the fraction piece that they know in this problem (1/4) and try different colors of 3 to determine which color it takes to be equivalent to 1/4. Once the students determine that it takes three of the purple pieces (twelfths) to equal 1/4, ask them to draw a picture of the problem and label it with the fractions. 5. The students should discuss and answer the following questions in small groups: "What patterns do you notice when you determine the unknown numerator or denominator with the fraction circles?" and "What patterns do you notice when you look at the fractions written on paper?" Discuss these questions as a class after the small groups have had time to discuss. 1. The students will write a paragraph in their Math journal explaining how they determined an unknown numerator or denominator using the term "equivalent" appropriately somewhere in their paragraph. 2. The students will use their fraction circles and a sheet of paper to create and write 3 problems involving an unknown numerator or denominator. They will trade papers with a friend and solve each other's problems. Lesson Five: Adding Fractions with Like Denominators and Putting Fractions in Lowest Terms Fractions: Easy as Pie, Grade Core Knowledge Conference 5

9 Handouts/Student Worksheets section of this unit.) Each group will be assigned a specific content skill (from Sequence page 101) and asked to create a short presentation for the entire class at school illustrating that skill--using their pie. The students may combine with another group if two pies are needed to illustrate the concept (as in mixed numbers and improper fractions). At the end of the presentations the class will enjoy a pie party. VII. HANDOUTS/WORKSHEET A. PIE ASSIGNMENT VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Hirsch Jr., E. D. Core Publications, Inc., What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know. Fractions: Easy as Pie, Grade Core Knowledge Conference 9

10 Appendix A: PIE ASSIGNMENT 1. Write a paragraph describing exactly what you did in making the group pie. 2. Explain what your part of the overall effort was that involved fractions when you made the pie. 3. What does your fraction mean? 4. What is your group's goal in your presentation to the class? 5. Write a paragraph explaining how your group will accomplish this goal in your presentation. What will your role be in the presentation? Fractions: Easy as Pie, Grade Core Knowledge Conference 10

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