AMPLIFIERS BJT BJT TRANSISTOR. Types of BJT BJT. devices that increase the voltage, current, or power level

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1 AMPLFERS Prepared by Engr. JP Timola Reference: Electronic Devices by Floyd devices that increase the voltage, current, or power level have at least three terminals with one controlling the flow between two other terminals. TRANSSTOR nvented in 1947 by a team of scientists from Bell Laboratories: William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen bipolar junction transistor The is constructed with three doped d semiconductor regions separated by two pn junctions solid-state device that replaced the vacuum tube. The three regions are called emitter, base, and collector. Types of One type consists of two n regions separated by a p region (npn),

2 Types of and the other type consists of two p regions separated by an n region (pnp). The pn junction joining the base region and the emitter region is called the base-emitter junction. The pn junction joining the base region and the collector region is called the basecollector junction). A wire lead connects to each of the three regions, as shown. These leads are labeled E, B, and C for emitter, base, and collector, respectively. The base region is lightly doped and very thin compared to the heavily doped emitter and the moderately doped collector regions. Schematic Symbol s

3 BASC OPERATON BASNG s n order for a to operate properly as an amplifier, the two pn junctions must be correctly biased with external dc voltages. The operation of the pnp is the same as for the npn except that the roles of the electrons and holes, the bias voltage polarities, and the current directions are all reversed. the base-emitter (BE) junction is forwardbiased and the base-collector (BC) junction is reverse-biased. Operation of NPN Operation of NPN The heavily doped n-type emitter region has a very high density of conduction-band (free) electrons. These free electrons easily diffuse through the forward-biased BE junction into the lightly doped and very thin p- type base region. Operation of NPN The base has a low density of holes, which are the majority carriers. A small percentage of the total t number of free electrons injected into the base region recombine with holes and move as valence electrons through the base region and into the emitter region as hole current. Operation of NPN When the electrons that have recombined with holes as valence electrons leave the crystalline structure of the base, they become free electrons in the metallic base lead and produce the external base current. As the free electrons move toward the reverse-biased BC junction, they are swept across into the collector region by the attraction of the positive collector supply voltage.

4 Operation of NPN TRANSSTOR CURRENTS N NPN The free electrons move through the collector region, into the external circuit, and then return into the emitter region along with the base current. The emitter current is slightly greater than the collector current because of the small base current that splits off from the total current injected into the base region from the emitter TRANSSTOR CURRENTS in PNP TRANSSTOR CURRENTS the emitter current (E) is the sum of the collector current (C) and the base current (B), expressed as follows: E C B Transistor DC bias circuits V BB forward-biases the base-emitter junction, and V CC reverse-biases the base-collector junction. DC Beta and DC Alpha The dc current gain of a transistor is the ratio of the dc collector current ( C ) to the dc base current ( B ) and is designated dc beta β DC C DC B Typical values range from less than 20 to 200 or higher.

5 DC Beta and DC Alpha The ratio of the dc collector current ( C ) to the dc emitter current ( E ) is the dc alpha ( DC ). DC Typically, values of range from 0.95 to 0.99 or greater, but is always less than 1. C E EXAMPLE Determine the dc current gain β dc and the emitter current E for a transistor where B =50 μa and C = 3.65 ma. EXAMPLE A certain transistor has a β dc of 200. When the base current is 50 μ A, determine the collector current. TRANSSTOR DC MODEL Transistor DC Model You can view the unsaturated as a device with a current input and a dependent current source in the output circuit. The input circuit is a forward-biased diode through which there is base current. The output circuit is a dependent current source with a value that is dependent on the base current, B, and equal to β DC B.. deal dc model of an npn Circuit Analysis Consider the basic transistor bias circuit configuration : Three transistor dc currents and three dc voltages can be identified. B : dc base current E : dc emitter current C : dc collector current V BE : dc voltage at base with respect to emitter V CB : dc voltage at collector with respect to base V CE : dc voltage at collector with respect to emitter V BE B 0.7V V BB Circuit Analysis V R B BE V V R CE CC C C V V V CB CE BE

6 PROBLEM 1 Determine B, C, E, V BE, V CE, and V CB in the circuit. The transistor has a β DC = 150. PROBLEM 2 Determine B, C, E, VCE, and VCB in for the following values: R B = 22 kω, R C = 220 Ω, V BB = 6 V, V CC =9 V, and b DC = 90 Collector Characteristic Curves Collector Characteristic Curves a set of collector characteristic curves can be generated that show how the collector current, C, varies with the collector-to-emitter voltage, V CE, for specified values of base current, B Collector Characteristic Curves Conditions for Collector Characteristic Curves V BB is set to produce a certain value of B V CC is zero. Both the base-emitter junction and the base-collector junction are forward-biased because the base is at approximately 0.7 V while the emitter and the collector are at 0 V. The base current is through the base-emitter junction because of the low impedance path to ground and, therefore, C is zero.

7 Circuit States Saturation is the state of a in which the collector current has reached a maximum and is independent of the base current. deally, when V CE exceeds 0.7 V, the basecollector junction becomes reverse-biased and the transistor goes into the active or linear region of its operation. Cutoff is the non-conducting state of a transistor. Cutoff and Saturation Conditions Cutoff When B = 0, the transistor is in the cutoff region of its operation. Under this condition, there is a very small amount of collector leakage current, CEO, due mainly to thermally produced carriers. V CE =V CC Neither the base-emitter nor the base-collector junctions are forward-biased. Saturation Determine whether or not the transistor is in saturation. Assume V CE(sat) = 0.2 V. The base-emitter junction becomes forward-biased and the base current is increased, the collector current also increases ( C =β DC B ) and V CE decreases as a result of more drop across the collector resistor (V CE = V CC - C R C ). When V CE reaches its saturation value, V CE (sat), the basecollector junction becomes forward-biased and C can increase no further even with a continued increase in B. At the point of saturation, the relation C =β DC B is no longer valid

8 Determine whether or not the transistor is saturated for the following values: β DC =125, V BB = 1.5 V, R B = 6.8 Ω, R C = 180 Ω, and V CC = 12 V. More about β DC β DC is not truly constant but varies with both collector current and with temperature. Keeping the junction temperature constant and increasing C causes β DC to increase to a maximum. A further increase in C beyond this maximum point causes β DC to decrease. f C is held constant and the temperature is varied β DC changes directly with the temperature. f the temperature goes up, β DC goes up and vice versa. More about β DC Maximum Transistor Rating Typically, maximum ratings are given for collector-to-base voltage, collector-to-emitter voltage, emitterto-base voltage, collector current, and power dissipation. The product of V CE and C must not exceed the maximum power dissipation. Both V CE and C cannot be maximum at the same time. Maximum Transistor Rating Maximum Transistor Rating f V CE is maximum, C can be calculated as: P D max C V CE f C is maximum, V CE can be calculated by rearranging the previous equation as follows: V CE P D max C

9 Maximum Transistor Rating A certain transistor is to be operated with VCE 6 V. f its maximum power rating is 250 mw, what is the most collector current that it can handle? Maximum Transistor Rating f PD (max) =1 W, how much voltage is allowed from collector to emitter if the transistor is operating with C = 100 ma? SEATWORK Determine each current. What is the β DC? Find V CE, V BE, and V CB s the transistor saturated? SEATWORK 1)The transistor has the following maximum ratings: P D(max) = 800 mw, V CE(max) =15 V, and C(max) =100 ma. Determine the maximum value to which V CC can be adjusted without exceeding a rating. Which rating would be exceeded first?

10 SEATWORK 2)The transistor has the following maximum ratings: P D(max) =500 mw, V CE(max) = 25 V, and C(max) =200 ma. Determine the maximum value to which V CC can be adjusted without exceeding a rating. Which rating would be exceeded first?

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