Overview. Summary. Writing Skills

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1 Overview Summary Background Information Two Cultures Meet Native American and European By Ann Rossi By the 1400s, Native Americans had been living in the Americas for more than 10,000 years. Europeans came in search of wealth. These two cultures exchanged many things that brought positive change, such as farming techniques and animals, including the horse. Native Americans began trading with the French, Dutch, English, and Spanish. And, while the Native Americans traded furs, fish, baskets, pottery, and other such goods for iron, axes, knives, pots, and guns, the contact with Europeans also brought diseases, which sometimes wiped out entire villages. The greatest clash between the Europeans and the Native Americans was over land use. Eventually, most Native Americans were forced to give up their way of life and were moved onto reservations. The different Native American groups living in the Americas had one thing in common: they all depended upon and respected Earth and the creatures that lived here. In their view, the land could not be owned. Europeans came to the Americas in search of wealth, and their goals often conflicted with the way of life of the Native Americans. For Europeans, owning land was a sign of wealth and freedom. The arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Americas in 1492 signaled the beginning of an ongoing encounter and exchange between two diverse cultural groups. As more Europeans came to the Americas to establish permanent settlements, conflicts over land ownership intensified. Today, people are trying to learn from the past. Many people realize that nature must be cared for and cultural diversity respected. Learning Objectives Genre/Text Features Reading Skills Writing Skills Social Studies Skills expository photographs/art and captions chapter titles and subheads maps sidebars contents, glossary, and index Skill Focus compare and contrast use word origins Supporting Skills summarize generalize recognize cause/effect make judgments use images Writing Focus write a journal entry (descriptive) Supporting Skills prewrite conduct research Speaking and Listening give oral presentation compare and contrast European and Native American cultures describe how art helps preserve culture describe different cultural perspectives on land use give examples of information and products Europeans and Native Americans traded describe the influence of horses on Native American life create diagrams Two Cultures Meet: Native American and European

2 Focus on Reading Before Reading Activate Prior Knowledge Direct students attention to the cover of the student book. Read the title and point out the illustration. Ask volunteers to suggest what makes up a person s culture.you might ask leading questions such as: What differences between the European and Native American cultures can you see in this illustration? Write students ideas on the board. Then have a volunteer use the glossary to check the definition of culture. clothing ways of life Culture Draw a web on the board and write Culture in the center. Then have students copy the web into their notebooks and complete it by adding aspects of culture, including examples for each. Preview Give students time to preview the book. Ask: Will you be reading about the present or a time in the past? What clues tell you this? From the chapter titles and subheads, what are some topics we ll be reading about? Talk about the map on page 7. Ask: What information does the map provide? beliefs Set Purpose Ask students whether this book reminds them of other books they have read. Ask: What would you like to find out? Model your own purpose for reading, if necessary. Vocabulary Strategy: Word origins Activity Master, Page 228 Explain to students that language is an aspect of culture, and when cultures meet, language is shared. The English language, for example, is rich with words from other languages. Explain that the meanings of some of these words can be figured out from the meaning of the original word. Students can use the Activity Master on page 228 to match vocabulary words with each word s origin. Students will use these words: adobe convert maize mesa stockade tipi Seeds of Change in American History Correlation to National Standards Language Arts Social Studies Geography State/Local read to build an understanding of the cultures of the United States use spoken and written language to communicate effectively use the writing process conduct research develop understanding and respect for diversity in language use across cultures culture time, continuity, and change people, places, and environment places and regions (4, 6) human systems (9, 11, 13) uses of geography (16, 17) See Standards Chart on pages Two Cultures Meet: Native American and European 2 2 5

3 Focus on Reading (continued) During Reading Read Strategically: Compare and contrast Activity Master, Page 229 Assign each chapter of the book as independent reading. As students read Two Cultures Meet, they can compare and contrast Native American and European cultures by completing the Activity Master.You might want to walk through part of the chart with students. (See below.) Use the information from the chart to generalize about the two cultures. Strategy Tip: Use images to aid comprehension Encourage students to use the illustrations to clarify what they read. For example, students can look at the illustration on page 6 to better understand, did not need much clothing. Encourage students to make use of each illustration. They can ask: What part of the text does this help explain? What is the purpose of the picture (map, diagram)? Meeting Individual Needs For specific strategies on meeting individual needs, see pages After Reading Responding Initiate a class discussion to assess reading comprehension with such questions as: Culture includes art, customs, and beliefs. How were these two cultures the European and the Native American similar and different? (compare and contrast) Why did Europeans explore the Americas? (generalize) What did each culture share with the other? (summarize) What conflicts occurred between these two cultures? How were they resolved? (summarize) How did life change for Native Americans when Europeans arrived? (cause and effect) What can people today learn from the events described in this book? (make judgments) Writing and Research: Write a journal entry Activity Master, Page 230 Explain to students that European explorers frequently kept journals as a record of their experiences. Students can use the Activity Master to plan a journal entry of their own. References they might use in addition to Two Cultures Meet include library books, encyclopedias, and the Internet. Communicating: Speaking/listening Give oral presentation In small groups, students can read their journal entries aloud. Students reading aloud should speak clearly make eye contact with the listeners adapt speech as appropriate Listeners should identify comparisons and contrasts between cultures identify goals described listen politely ask questions to clarify understanding Topic Clothing Europeans wore clothing that completely covered them wore shoes wore metal helmets and armor Native Americans wore little clothing wore no shoes or shoes of soft leather wore feathers and beads as decoration Two Cultures Meet: Native American and European

4 Extend and Assess Focus on Social Studies Research a Native American group Organize students into small groups to research a Native American group. Students can use references and library materials to find out where and how the group lived and what eventually happened to the group. Does this Native American group exist today? What is their relationship to the past? Students can present their information in a variety of ways: an oral report, models, a poster, or a set of illustrations. Provide time for groups to share their information. Create a Diagram Activity Master, Page 231 Direct attention to the diagram on page 17.Talk about what it shows (the stops along the slave triangle ). Explain that a diagram can provide information with few words. Challenge students to select an event from Two Cultures Meet and create a diagram for it. Possible topics are trade routes, planting, games, and hunting. Provide time to share diagrams. Assessment Options answers independently in their notebooks: 1 Why did Europeans come to the Americas? 2 Describe one way the two cultures were similar and two ways they were different. 3 What role did horses play in the lives of the Native Americans? 4 How did Europeans view the land? 5 Were there more similarities or differences between the two cultures? 6 What ultimately happened to the Native American cultures? Assessment Activity Ask students to create a simple diagram showing two things Native Americans gave to Europeans and two things Europeans gave Native Americans. Students can use words or illustrations to describe the items exchanged. Provide students with a model to complete. (See below.) Diagrams should be accurate be carefully prepared Multiple-Choice Test Use the multiple-choice test in the Assessment Booklet. Cross-Curricular Connection Science At the time of Two Cultures Meet, Europeans had little understanding that natural resources should be conserved. Students can conduct research on a topic of their choice related to conservation of natural resources. Students can present what they learn on a poster, in a report, or in some other format. In addition to questions of their own, they should answer such questions as: Why is this resource important? Has this resource been threatened? How? What conservation efforts are in place? Home-School Connection Students and parents can make a list of ten items in the home that have been shared by other cultures. Students can investigate foods, music, books, art pieces, and clothing. Students can list each item and the culture they believe it came from. Europeans Items Exchanged 1 2 Seeds of Change in American History Use the following assessment options. Questions Ask the following questions during individual conferences or have students write the Native Americans Items Exchanged 1 2 Two Cultures Meet: Native American and European 2 2 7

5 Name Vocabulary: Word Origins Two Cultures Meet The English language contains words from other languages.the meanings of some of these words can be figured out using the meanings of the original words. Read the original word and its definition. Then write the definition of the English word. Write a sentence for each word. Use the glossary, the index, and a dictionary. Original Words and Definitions Vocabulary Words and Definitions Al toba adobe means the brick (Spanish). Mesa mesa means table (Spanish). Ti pi tipi means a dwelling for more than one person (Dakota). Vertere convert means to turn around (Latin). Maíz means Indian corn (Spanish from Taino mahiz). Estaca means stake (Spanish). maize stockade 2001 National Geographic Society Activity Master Vocabulary

6 Name Reading: Compare and Contrast Two Cultures Meet When Europeans came to the Americas beginning in the 1400s, they met Native Americans who had been living there for centuries. As you read Two Cultures Meet, think about how the European cultures were similar to and different from Native American cultures. For each topic below, compare and contrast these two cultures. Topic Europeans Native Americans Clothing Food Houses Use of animals 2001 National Geographic Society Use of land Trade Reading Strategies Activity Master 2 2 9

7 Name Writing: Prewriting Two Cultures Meet Journal Entry You are a European settler. Write a journal entry describing your experiences. Since your journal is your record of what has happened, you will want to include major events as well as how you feel about your experiences. Use information, maps, pictures in Two Cultures Meet, and other references to write your journal entry. Organize your ideas below. What I ve Learned My Goals Native Americans Conflicts My Experience in America Year The Land Date Dear Journal, 2001 National Geographic Society Activity Master Writing

8 Name Social Studies: Create a Diagram Two Cultures Meet Create a diagram that shows how something happened or was done during the time period covered in Two Cultures Meet. Use the Triangular Trade diagram as a guide.you might diagram how crops were planted, how a game was played, how buffalo were hunted, or how the horse changed the way of life for Native Americans National Geographic Society Social Studies Skills Activity Master 231

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