1 Ecology Symbiotic Relationships Overview of the Co-evolution and Relationships Exhibited Among Community Members What does Symbiosis mean?
2 How do we define Symbiosis? Symbiosis in the broadest sense is any relationship or association between two or more species (an interdependence to some degree) This definition includes all types of relationships and recognize here that we are entering the realm of community ecology organisms that are living close enough to influence one another
3 Look at the possibilities in a matrix Species 1 Species Mutualism Commensalism Predator/Prey or Parasite/Host 0 Commensalism No Effect? Amensalism - Predator/Prey or Parasite/Host Amensalism Competition
4 This list expands on the commonly recognized relationships Some of these are very familiar and some are not, but we will consider them all, and when possible provide models associated with these relationships In this process i.e. the interaction, the nature of the relationship dictates the level of selective pressure experienced by the symbionts In situations with strong negatives, the intensity of the selective pressures are generally more severe for one of the participants, and often this is a case of life and death for the individual on the losing end
5 But, in all of the studies of symbiosis We are looking at the relationships among the species in that relationship and change in response to selective features in the environment (abiotic and biotic recall the garter snake and rough-skinned newt) In these relationships, we are not only evaluating change in a species, we are considering change in two or more species based upon the nature of the interaction
6 When there are multiple species Consider the possibilities. What would we expect to happen? What happens with one species that changes or adapts over time? (Note, this can be with regard to any symbiotic relationship.) What would we expect to happen in the other species? This is Co-evolution. Can we formally define this phenomenon?
7 Co-evolution By the book the evolution of traits in two or more species selected by the mutual interactions controlled by those traits This involves the reciprocal interaction among the species involved, leading to the selective pressure in each of the species
8 Remember the Rough-skin Newt and the Garter Snake?
9 Think about this in terms of Competition Among Species Here we are looking at a negative (-/-) situation for both (all) of the participants In any competitive relationship, there is either extinction of one of the competitors or coexistence In these analyses, the superior competitor will typically win the game (with some room for stochastic events and remember our metapopulation model) but it is not that simple!
10 What about coexistence? In this case, there are a variety of potential outcomes. This includes resource partitioning and character displacement or niche shift if one species is doing the changing The nature of the selective force is resource acquisition be it food, water, nesting sites, shelter, etc.
11 Now, think about this for +/-
12 Interspecific Relationships Interactions among species, or at least populations of species provides selective pressures for the survival of these entities That is, we are looking at major selective forces, and in the case of +/- relationships, the abilities of the participants define survival of the individuals in each of the respective populations
13 Look at this from the potentially negatively impacted individuals What are the reactions of the prey in response to losses to predators? We can address adaptations on basically three levels; morphologically, physiologically and behaviorally (just like we observed with regard to physiological regulation) The negatively impacted individuals typically pay the ultimate price, or at the very least a decrease in fitness associated with this interaction (and the pressures here may be intense)
14 Predator Avoidance Mechanisms Certainly, defense mechanisms include behavioral, morphological and physiological mechanisms Behavioral Mechanisms examples? Physiological examples? Morphological examples? What is the role of mimicry? What about responses by the predators?
18 Do the same thing for the species on the + side of the equation Look at the potential physiological, behavioral and morphological adaptive programs Revisit the concept of co-evolution. What was our working definition? It makes absolute sense from the perspective of natural selection and survival of those that can, and death for those that cannot
19 We are observing co-evolution Antagonistic relationships can clearly demonstrate co-evolutionary trends (e.g. the arms races ) But, the same is true for complimentary relationships where there are benefits to all or one of the participants involved The reasons are still selfish the more benefit an individual gains from an interaction, the better it is for the individual
20 So far We have considered the +/- and the -/- types of relationships. The negative aspects associated with these interactions have been identified as important components in the structuring of communities Remember the various types of interactions that can be identified in our matrix
21 Look at the possibilities in a matrix Species 1 Species Mutualism Commensalism Predator/Prey or Parasite/Host 0 Commensalism No Effect? Amensalism - Predator/Prey or Parasite/Host Amensalism Competition
22 Co-evolution in action We need to look at these from the perspective of the selection pressures faced by both of the species each is attempting to maximize their survival and reproductive output Consider this from the standpoint of the negatively influenced species. Adaptations that will maximize your survival will be of a selective advantage in the population and spread throughout the population of that species by natural selection
23 However, on the positive side There are really two considerations for this issue On one hand, the more resources an individual is able to obtain, the greater the potential reproductive output But, if you are too good at what you do, what happens to the prey or host species? Just like a good parasite should not kill its host, a predator that is too good will eat itself to extinction if the prey species is unable to respond to these challenges
24 But the positives gained may be a function of the benefits provided Mutualistic relationships reflect specializations based upon the interdependence between the interacting species That is, the reciprocity observed in many of these interactions is based upon very specific relationships and responses This is not the case in predator/prey and competitive relationships, although, there is some speculation that even the +/+ relationships evolved from some +/- system
25 This specificity may also yield Different species interacting in different geographic regions Beyond the metapopulation patches, when a widely distributed species maintains close relationships with other specific species, the species that is interacting may change from one location to the next These symbiotic homologs are important for the survival of one or both species
26 Break Time
27 Let us look at the +/+ interactions In these relationships, both or all of the interacting species are gaining some level of benefit from the interaction This is commonly known as mutualism We can identify three basic types Trophic Defensive Dispersive
28 The Trophic type involves food Definition of this form of mutualism is based upon the mutual provision of nutrients for each other That is, both species gain in a trophic sense from this interaction This often entails more than just a facultative relationship it means the ability to survive
29 Lichens are a good example
30 Nitrogen fixing bacteria
31 Nitrogen fixing bacteria
32 The effect of Mycorrhizae
33 Defensive mutualism This form of mutualism generally involves a situation where one member receives food for defending the other from either herbivores, predators or parasites The relationships here can be quite complex and the actual benefits gained clearly evolved as a selfish feeding strategy But here, we also have the possibility for aggressive mimicry and cheating with regard to the mimics
35 The Ant/Acacia Relationship
36 The third type - dispersive Here, we are talking about the situation where again, one is gaining a trophic benefit, but the other is benefiting in terms of movement of some part of that organism We can look at this from the perspective of pollination or seed dispersal of an organism from one area to another
37 Dispersal of Seeds The fruits act as the major source of nutrients for many species, but the reproductive success of an individual plant often depends on moving those seeds to an area of reduced competition This is not only true at the level of inter and intraspecific competition, but perhaps more importantly from related individuals (parent/ offspring considerations) If the individual is successful and gets the seeds dispersed to open habitat, the young will experience reduced competition and the disperser had lunch
39 Pollinator/Flowers This dispersive relationship often involves a great deal of specialization among the participants The rationale for this specialization is quite simple the plant depends on the vector to distribute the pollen to a conspecific A generalist may visit many different species of flowers, wasting much of the pollen, but the specialization results in a tightly coupled mutualistic relationship that is highly dependent and beneficial to all involved
41 Check out this video on Youtube: v=hv4n85-sqxq (there are 6 parts to the movie)
42 Whenever there is a + There is the potential for cheating That is, the benefit gained from this interaction may come at a cost (the reciprocal + ) So, if you can get the benefit for free or at no cost, the system is open to cheating That is exactly what we see in many of these relationships How does selection operate on this level?
43 We have yet to consider two forms These are Commensalism and Amensalism Look at these again in terms of the selective forces acting on the participant(s) Remember what is happening with commensalism, one species is gaining a benefit and the other or others are not influenced, at least not significantly
44 Are there good examples? Well yes, actually many if you consider all of the potential benefits an organism might gather from a particular relationship Often this is a matter of scale, such that the activities of one species is really insignificant to the overall fitness of the other member in that relationship Look at a few examples
45 Barnacles on a whale
46 Just hitchin a ride, but what else?
48 Now, what about Amensalism? These are situations where the relationship is a 0/- The basis for this interaction is the presence or the normal activity patterns of a particular species may negatively impact other species Potential examples of amensalism? Note that this is sometimes a size thing too
49 For example? Perhaps the crushing of plants under the feet of larger forms clearly this negatively impacts the plants or other organisms that are being crushed without influencing the other species Perhaps shadowing by larger species of plants preventing sufficient light penetration for photosynthetic activities
51 Other possible examples Allelopathy is sometimes cited as an example of amensalism Plants are well known for the inclusion of chemical compounds in their tissues and often times this is in response to herbivores But these same chemicals can influence the growth of other species this negatively impacts this other species
52 Note the lack of vegetation
53 Anti-bacterial or fungal compounds Some species are also capable of producing antibiotics These chemicals are naturally produced compounds that have the effect of inhibiting the growth of other organisms a side benefit if you will These features are almost preadaptations that can eliminate potential competitors or parasites in the community
55 Details of Relationships We will spend some time on the relationships that have received the most attention in a modeling sense These are competition and predator/prey relationships and the mathematical models provide insight into the functioning of the systems and the methods associated with ecological modeling studies
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