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2 ii - EXCERPT FROM ENERGY BALANCES OF OECD COUNTRIES (215 edition) The following analysis is an excerpt from the publication Energy Balances of OECD Countries (215 edition). Please note that we strongly advise users to read definitions, detailed methodology and country specific notes which can be found either in our publication or in the on-line data service ( Please address your inquiries to Please note that all IEA data is subject to the following Terms and Conditions found on the IEA s website:

3 EXCERPT FROM ENERGY BALANCES OF OECD COUNTRIES (215 edition) - iii RECENT ENERGY TRENDS IN OECD Key supply trends in 214 In 214 1, the OECD produced over 4 Mtoe for the first time since the International Energy Agency (IEA) was founded in Also exports were the highest ever recorded (1 695 Mtoe), while imports, 2.5% below the 213 level, were the lowest since 24. Consistently, the OECD total primary energy supply (TPES) provisionally decreased by 1% (Figure 1). The 214 increase in production (), similar to that observed in 213, was driven by significant increases in the United States (12% oil and 5% natural gas), in Canada (9% oil) and Australia (9% coal). The 214 total net import level (1 324 Mtoe) was the lowest recorded in the OECD since Mtoe 6 Figure 2. OECD energy supply % 2% Figure 1. OECD energy supply: changes % -1% -2% % *Total Primary Energy Supply -2.5% TPES* Production Imports Exports After the economic downturn the OECD TPES tended to level out around levels comparable to those of the year 2. This occurred after about 25 years of relatively steady growth (1.4% per year on average between 1984 and 27). The 214 TPES level, Mtoe, was 4% lower than in 24 but 16% higher than in 199 and 55% higher than in 1971 (Figure 2). 1. All the energy supply data for 214 described in this chapter are provisional. 1 TPES* Production Net imports *Total Primary Energy Supply With production increasing more than energy use, the level of self-sufficiency (defined as production/tpes) increased to 78% in 214 in the region as a whole, which is comparable to the high levels observed around 1985, after the responses to the oil crises of the previous decade. In 214, OECD Americas was very close to being self-sufficient (with a ratio of 99%, the highest level since the founding of the IEA) (Figure 3). The overall drop in TPES in 214 was driven by a 4% decrease in OECD Europe, where natural gas supply was about 1 lower than in 213, generally due to a milder winter. For gas, reductions larger than 1 were observed in several major consuming countries,

4 iv - ENERGY BALANCES OF OECD COUNTRIES (215 edition) Figure 3. OECD energy self-sufficiency biofuels, increased by 8%, providing in 214 over 1 TWh in OECD (Figure 6). Figure 5. OECD Total Primary Energy Supply: change by source Mtoe Total Americas Asia Oceania Europe like Germany, France, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and Belgium. In the Slovak Republic, the decrease was almost of one-third. -7 Total Coal Oil Gas Nuclear Other* *Other includes hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, biofuels, waste as well as electricity and heat trade. The reduction in Asia-Oceania was driven by a decrease for Japan, where oil supply was about 5% (1 Mtoe) lower than in 213, due to lower levels of electricity generation from oil. OECD Americas showed instead a.8% year-on-year increase (Figure 4). 2% Figure 4. OECD Total Primary Energy Supply: change 9% 6% Figure 6. OECD electricity generation: change 1%.8% -1% -2% % -1.4% - Total Fossil* Nuclear Hydro Other** *Fossil includes coal, peat, oil shale, oil and gas. **Other includes geothermal, solar, wind, biofuels, waste and heat. -4% -5% Total Americas Asia Oceania -4. Europe More generally, in OECD, TPES for all fossil fuel decreased between 213 and 214, with gas reduced by 2., coal by 1.9% and oil by.9% (Figure 5). The reduction of fossil fuels was also pronounced in use for electricity generation (-16 TWh). For electricity, other sources, mainly solar PV, wind and Non-hydro renewable electricity generation rose very fast over the last ten years, bringing its contribution to 9% of total generation in 214, comparable with the 1 of conventional hydro. Total renewable sources (hydro and non-hydro) provisionally accounted for TWh electricity generation across the OECD in 214 (Figure 7). In Europe alone, where development of renewable generation was more pronounced, wind accounted in 214 for 7% of total generation, biofuels for 4% and solar PV for (Figure 8).

5 EXCERPT FROM ENERGY BALANCES OF OECD COUNTRIES (215 edition) - v TWh 25 Figure 7. OECD renewable electricity generation Figure 9. OECD electricity generation mix Total Hydro Other renewables Figure 8. OECD electricity generation in 214: shares of non-hydro renewable sources 16% 14% 12% 1 8% 6% 4% Nuclear Total renewables Fossil Despite the growth in renewable, the share of electricity from fossil fuels has not varied much since 1985, after the major introduction of nuclear capacity. The electricity generation mix in the OECD in 214 remained dominated by fossil fuels (59%), mainly coal and gas (Figure 1). Figure 1. OECD electricity generation mix 214 Other* 9% 2% Total Americas Asia Oceania Europe Hydro 1 Coal 32% Wind Solar PV Biofuel Other* *Other includes geothermal, solar thermal, tide and renewable municipal waste, The share of renewable sources in electricity became larger than that of nuclear in 211, with the gap continuing to grow (Figure 9), partly as a consequence of the progressive closure of nuclear plants in Japan following the Fukushima events - nuclear generation in Japan was zero in 214. Nuclear 19% Gas 24% Oil *Other includes geothermal, solar, wind, tide, biofuels, waste and heat.

6 vi - EXCERPT FROM ENERGY BALANCES OF OECD COUNTRIES (215 edition) Key demand trends in 213 In 213, total final consumption in the OECD increased by 2%, although there were differences across the three areas (Figure 11). With Europe and Asia- Oceania on average changing little, the OECD growth was driven by the 3.5% growth of OECD Americas, occurring across the various end-use sectors: industry (6%), residential and services (4%), transport (2%). 4% 2% 1% -1% Figure 11. OECD Total Final Consumption: change At the country-level, significant reductions were observed in Greece (-11%), Spain and Italy (-4%), all of which also experienced decreases in GDP levels in 213. Across the regions, 213 TFC levels were broadly comparable to those of the early 2 s with the annual rate of growth declining (Figure 12). Figure 12. OECD Total Final Consumption by region Mtoe Total Americas Asia Oceania Europe observed over the years. In the OECD region, the final energy intensity (TFC/GDP) in 213 was less than half that of 1971 (Figure 13). Figure 13. Final energy intensity in OECD = *GDP based on 25 USD PPP. Changes in final energy intensities are very different across countries, depending on changes in economic structures and on efficiency improvements. Sectoral energy intensities (defined based on the national GDP) also show decreasing trends and levels, although more detailed analysis at national level would be needed to assess reasons (Figure 14). Figure 14. Sectoral energy intensities* in OECD toe/million USD PPP GDP* Total Final Consumption (TFC) TFC/GDP* Americas Asia Oceania Europe Trends in TFC continued to show the general decoupling of economic growth from energy consumption Industry Transport Residential Services *Defined as sectoral final consumption/gdp PPP. The structure of the OECD TFC shows that transport was the largest energy consuming sector in 213, accounting for a third of final energy consumption, followed by industry with 31% (Figure 15). Such shares have reversed since 1971, when industry accounted for 41% of TFC and transport for 24%.

7 EXCERPT FROM ENERGY BALANCES OF OECD COUNTRIES (215 edition) - vii Of course, there are large variations across the region. The share of transport in 213 was largest in very large countries, like the United States, Mexico and Australia, all with values around 4; as well as in Luxembourg (57%), in this case due to price-driven fuel tourism. It was much lower in smaller countries with a strong industrial sector (for example Korea, Iceland, Finland, Belgium, the Netherlands). Figure 15. OECD Total Final Consumption by sector 213 Other* Services 1 Industry 31% Transport 3 The OECD in the world In 213, the OECD accounted for 18% of global population, 47% of GDP and 4 of TPES (Figure 17). The OECD has progressively reduced its relative importance within the global context. These shares have significantly changed since 1971, when the region accounted for 61% of the global energy supply Figure 17. OECD in the world, 213 Residential 2 Population GDP* TPES Production OECD Non-OECD *Other includes agriculture, forestry, fishing and non-specified. Differences in economic structure affect the energy mix at national level, as different sectors tend to use fuels differently. In particular, transport almost completely relies on oil, while residential and services in the OECD make large use of electricity and gas. Coal, heavily used for electricity generation, is used very little in TFC (Figure 16). 1 Figure 16. Total Final Consumption by sector: shares by energy source (213) *GDP based on 25 USD PPP. However, with 4.2 toe per capita (compared to a world average of 1.9 toe per capita), the OECD is the most energy-intensive region, in terms of TPES/population. Several factors explain these high levels: an electrification rate of almost 1, a high rate of cars per household, large industry and service sectors, high heating degree-days and a high GDP per capita. Figure 18. OECD energy indicators by region, 213 World average= Industry Transport Residential Services Coal Oil Gas Electricity Other* *Other includes biofuels and waste, direct use of geothermal/solar thermal and heat. Total Americas Asia Oceania Europe TPES/capita TPES/GDP* *GDP based on 25 USD PPP.

8 viii - EXCERPT FROM ENERGY BALANCES OF OECD COUNTRIES (215 edition) While OECD levels of energy/capita are generally larger than the world average by a factor of two, with some regional variations, OECD levels of energy intensity of the economy (TPES/GDP, based on PPP) tend to be slightly lower than the world average, possibly reflecting a less energy-intensive economic structure and a generally more advanced development in efficient use of energy, with high efficiency in transformation and some final consumption sectors (Figure 18). For a more detailed assessment of global trends, data for non-oecd countries and regions are available in the publication and databases Energy Balances of non-oecd countries.

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