# BIOPHYSICS OF NERVE CELLS & NETWORKS

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MSci EXAMINATION May 2007 for Internal Students of Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship BIOPHYSICS OF NERVE CELLS & NETWORKS For Third - & Fourth-Year Physics Students Monday 14th May 2007: to Answer THREE questions. All questions carry equal marks. General Instructions Write your CANDIDATE NUMBER clearly on each of the THREE answer books provided. If an electronic calculator is used, write its serial number in the box at the top right hand corner of the front cover of each answer book. USE ONE ANSWER BOOK FOR EACH QUESTION. Enter the number of each question attempted in the horizontal box on the front cover of its corresponding answer book. Hand in THREE answer books even if they have not all been used. You are reminded that the Examiners attach great importance to legibility, accuracy and clarity of expression. University of London / 2 / 80 Turn over for questions

2 R = 8.314JK 1 mol 1 and F = 96, 500 C mol 1 The distributions of sodium, potassium and chloride ions across the membrane of a nerve cell can be taken to be: Ion Inside Outside Sodium 14 mm 125 mm Potassium 124 mm 5 mm Chloride 6 mm 77 mm

3 1. (i) Starting from the relationship between the membrane current per unit length and the variation of membrane potential along an unmyelinated nerve axon, show that the current i m that flows per unit area across the membrane is given by i m = a 2ρ i θ 2 ( 2 ) V m t 2 where ρ i is the resistivity of the axoplasm, a is the axon radius, θ is the velocity of the action potential and V m is the membrane potential. [8 marks] What can be inferred from the equation in part (i) about how the velocity of the action potential in an unmyelinated nerve varies with axon diameter? Explain your logic clearly. What is meant by the absolute refractory period and how does it differ from the relative refractory period? What effect does a short refractory period have on the properties of a nerve axon? What is myelin and how does it affect the propagation of nerve action potentials? Please turn over

4 2. (i) Explain the principle behind the voltage-clamp method for studying the electrical properties of nerve membranes. How was this method employed to describe the time-course of the changes in sodium ion conductance in the membrane of the squid giant axon following a sudden depolarisation? Hodgkin and Huxley described the sodium current across the axonal membrane in terms of the following equation I Na = m 3 hḡ Na (V m V Na ). What do the various parameters in this equation represent and what are the main assumptions made in its derivation? Show that the time course of h is given by an equation of the form: ( ) t h = h (h h 0 ) exp. τ h [6 marks] Sketch the time-course of the parameter h under the following conditions. (a) The axon has been held under voltage clamp for a prolonged period at 100 mv and is then stepped to 0mV. (b) The axon has been held under voltage clamp for a prolonged period at 0mV and is then stepped to 100 mv. (v) Explain clearly the difference between inactivation of the sodium channel and deactivation of the sodium channel

5 3. (i) Explain what is meant by the terms equilibrium potential and reversal potential, and discuss which factors determine their values. [3 marks] Consider an ohmic channel that is permeable to both sodium and potassium ions. Show that the reversal potential is given by V rev = g KV K + g Na V Na g K + g Na where V K and V Na are the equilibrium potentials for potassium and sodium respectively, and g K and g Na are the respective membrane conductances. Also show that the slope conductance of the channel is simply the sum of the individual ionic conductances. [3 marks] If the channel is three times more permeable to sodium than potassium, calculate a value for the reversal potential. [3 marks] (v) Would the channel be inhibitory or excitatory? Give your reasons. [3 marks] (vi) If these channels had a membrane conductance of 30nScm 2 and were open at the same time as an ohmic chloride channel with a membrane conductance of 70nS cm 2, at what potential would the membrane potential rest? Please turn over

6 4. Are the following statements true or false? Explain your reasoning. ( N.B. no reasoning, no marks!) (i) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) Increasing the external potassium concentration will hyperpolarise a nerve cell which is resting at 65mV. The internal chloride ion concentration determines whether the action of the neurotransmitter GABA on GABA A receptors is excitatory or inhibitory. Inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels does not influence the action potential duration. Energy is required when an ion flows through an open voltage-gated potassium channel. The probability of neurotransmitter release occurring at a central synapse is linearly related to external calcium ion concentration. The ability to sustain high frequency action potential firing requires energy. The voltage-clamp method measures the current required to maintain a specific voltage across a membrane. The subunit composition of a ligand-gated ion channel can influence the duration a postsynaptic conductance change. The potent neurotoxin TTX will reduce both the initial inward current and the sustained outward current recorded from the squid giant axon. The increased input conductance associated with opening of a potassium conductance will decrease the membrane time constant

7 5. (i) One popular theory to explain memory formation in the brain involves changes in the contribution of individual synapses to the total excitatory drive onto a neuron. Describe what parameters could be altered at central synapses to induce such a change in synaptic strength. [10 marks] What factors determine the concentration and duration of the neurotransmitter transient in the synaptic cleft. [5 marks] The single-channel conductance of a synaptic NMDA-type glutamate receptor is 50 ps. The NMDA receptor is predominantly permeable to sodium ions with a reversal potential of 0mV. At a resting potential of 65mV the postsynaptic response to glutamate release is an inward current of 500 pa peak amplitude. Calculate how many NMDA channels are open at the peak of this response. [5 marks] Please turn over

8 6. Records of membrane voltage responses to synaptic conductance changes are shown below. The arrows on the top trace indicate the timing of two identical synaptic conductance changes delivered 2ms apart. Each synaptic conductance change rises linearly to a peak of 1μS in 0.5ms and then decays exponentially with a half-time of 1ms. The reversal potential for the synaptic conductance is 0 mv. The traces compare the voltage responses that occur in a passive membrane with those that take place when Hodgkin/Huxley type sodium and potassium channels are active in the membrane

9 (i) Sketch the synaptic conductance changes that are described above. Why does the passive membrane voltage response have a longer duration than the synaptic conductance changes? Calculate the passive membrane resistance. Estimate the membrane time constant. (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) Why is the voltage response to the second synaptic conductance smaller than the first in the passive membrane example? What does this data tell you about the relative location of these two synaptic conductance changes within a neuron? Why is the peak amplitude of the second action potential smaller than the first? How would the resulting action potentials be altered if the second synaptic conductance occurred 10ms after the first? Sketch the sodium conductance change that occurs during the two action potentials. Sketch the potassium conductance change that occurs during the two action potentials. End 40820

### Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized

Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized (ie) Electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative Changes

### Bi 360: Midterm Review

Bi 360: Midterm Review Basic Neurobiology 1) Many axons are surrounded by a fatty insulating sheath called myelin, which is interrupted at regular intervals at the Nodes of Ranvier, where the action potential

### REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date. The Resting Membrane Potential

REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date ACTIVITY 1 The Resting Membrane Potential 1. Explain why increasing extracellular K + reduces the net diffusion of K + out of

### Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods. 250 20 Yes. 125 20 Yes. 60 20 No. 60 25 No.

3: Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses (Part 2) Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods Interval between stimuli Stimulus voltage (mv) Second action potential?

### Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential

2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool

### CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS

5.1. SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS One of the main functions of neurons is to communicate with other neurons. An individual neuron may receive information from many different sources.

### The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.

The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) ** If this is not printed in color, it is suggested you

### Ion Channels. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com)

Ion Channels Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) ** There are a number of ion channels introducted in this topic which you

### Action Potentials I Generation. Reading: BCP Chapter 4

Action Potentials I Generation Reading: BCP Chapter 4 Action Potentials Action potentials (AP s) aka Spikes (because of how they look in an electrical recording of Vm over time). Discharges (descriptive

### The action potential and nervous conduction CH Fry and RI Jabr Postgraduate Medical School, Division of Clinical Medicine, University of Surrey, UK

The action potential and nervous conduction CH Fry and RI Jabr Postgraduate Medical School, Division of Clinical Medicine, University of Surrey, UK CH Fry, PhD, DSc Professor of Physiology, Division of

### PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. dendrites B. nucleus

### Biology Slide 1 of 38

Biology 1 of 38 2 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System What are the functions of the nervous system? 3 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System 1. Nervous system: a. controls and coordinates functions throughout the body

### Nerves and Nerve Impulse

Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released

### Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006 * = correct answer. 1. The Greek philosopher Aristotle hypothesized that the brain was a) A radiator for cooling the blood.* b) The seat of the soul. c) The organ

### Lab 1: Simulation of Resting Membrane Potential and Action Potential

Lab 1: Simulation of Resting Membrane Potential and Action Potential Overview The aim of the present laboratory exercise is to simulate how changes in the ion concentration or ionic conductance can change

### 12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue I. Introduction to the Nervous System General functions of the nervous system The nervous system has three basic functions: 1. Gather sensory input from the environment

### Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation

Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation Background Neurons (Fig 6.1) are cells in the nervous system that are used conduct signals at high speed from one part of the body to another. This enables rapid, precise

### EXCITABILITY & ACTION POTENTIALS page 1

page 1 INTRODUCTION A. Excitable Tissue: able to generate Action Potentials (APs) (e.g. neurons, muscle cells) B. Neurons (nerve cells) a. components 1) soma (cell body): metabolic center (vital, always

### The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function

C H A P T E R 3 The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function Cynthia J. Forehand, Ph.D. CHAPTER OUTLINE PASSIVE MEMBRANE PROPERTIES, THE ACTION POTENTIAL, AND ELECTRICAL

### Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006 Name * = correct answer Multiple Choice: 1. Axons and dendrites are two types of a) Neurites * b) Organelles c) Synapses d) Receptors e) Golgi cell components 2. The

### Before continuing try to answer the following questions. The answers can be found at the end of the article.

EXCITABLE TISSUE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK 173 8 TH MARCH 2010 Dr John Whittle Specialist Registrar Anaesthetics Dr Gareth Ackland Consultant and Clinical Scientist Anaesthetics,

### Problem Sets: Questions and Answers

BI 360: Neurobiology Fall 2014 Problem Sets: Questions and Answers These problems are provided to aid in your understanding of basic neurobiological concepts and to guide your focus for in-depth study.

### Simulation of an Action Potential using the Hodgkin-Huxley Model in Python. Nathan Law 250560559. Medical Biophysics 3970

Simulation of an Action Potential using the Hodgkin-Huxley Model in Python Nathan Law 250560559 Medical Biophysics 3970 Instructor: Dr. Ian MacDonald TA: Nathaniel Hayward Project Supervisor: Dr. Andrea

### AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information

### Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour:

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 2 The Neural Impulse Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The cell body is enclosed by the. A) cell membrane

### Simulating Spiking Neurons by Hodgkin Huxley Model

Simulating Spiking Neurons by Hodgkin Huxley Model Terje Kristensen 1 and Donald MacNearney 2 1 Department of Computing, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway, tkr@hib.no 2 Electrical Systems Integration,

### The Neuron and the Synapse. The Neuron. Parts of the Neuron. Functions of the neuron:

The Neuron and the Synapse The Neuron Functions of the neuron: Transmit information from one point in the body to another. Process the information in various ways (that is, compute). The neuron has a specialized

### NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON. created by Dr. Joanne Hsu

NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: MICROSCOPIC VIEW OF NEURONS A photograph taken through a light microscope (500x) of neurons in the spinal cord. NEURON

### FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli.

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. 2. Integration. The brain and spinal cord process sensory input and produce responses. 3. Homeostasis.

### Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses

A. Introduction 1. Innovation in Cnidaria - Nerve net a. We need to talk more about nerves b. Cnidaria have simple nerve net - 2 way conduction c. Basis for more complex system in Vertebrates B. Vertebrate

### Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Multiple Choice 1. The nervous system A) monitors internal and external stimuli. B) transmits information in the form of action potentials. C) interprets

### Model Neurons I: Neuroelectronics

Chapter 5 Model Neurons I: Neuroelectronics 5.1 Introduction A great deal is known about the biophysical mechanisms responsible for generating neuronal activity, and these provide a basis for constructing

### Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks

Module 3 Brain s Building Blocks Structure of the Brain Genes chains of chemicals that are arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder there are about 100,000 genes that contain chemical instructions that

### 2006 7.012 Problem Set 6 KEY

2006 7.012 Problem Set 6 KEY ** Due before 5 PM on WEDNESDAY, November 22, 2006. ** Turn answers in to the box outside of 68-120. PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PRINTOUT. 1. You create an artificial

### DENDRITIC INTEGRATION OF EXCITATORY SYNAPTIC INPUT

DENDRITIC INTEGRATION OF EXCITATORY SYNAPTIC INPUT Jeffrey C. Magee A fundamental function of nerve cells is the transformation of incoming synaptic information into specific patterns of action potential

### Modelling Hodgkin-Huxley

University of Heidelberg Molecular Biotechnology (Winter 2003/2004) Modelling in molecular biotechnology Dr. M. Diehl Modelling Hodgkin-Huxley Version 1.0 Wadel, K. (2170370) Contents 1 Introduction 1

### Ions cannot cross membranes. Ions move through pores

Ions cannot cross membranes Membranes are lipid bilayers Nonpolar tails Polar head Fig 3-1 Because of the charged nature of ions, they cannot cross a lipid bilayer. The ion and its cloud of polarized water

### Electrophysiological Recording Techniques

Electrophysiological Recording Techniques Wen-Jun Gao, PH.D. Drexel University College of Medicine Goal of Physiological Recording To detect the communication signals between neurons in real time (μs to

### The Action Potential

OpenStax-CNX module: m46526 1 The Action Potential OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 By the end of this section, you

### An Introduction to Core-conductor Theory

An Introduction to Core-conductor Theory I often say when you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot

### Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory

### Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define

### Passive Conduction - Cable Theory

Passive Conduction - Cable Theory October 7, 2013 Biological Structure Theoretical models describing propagation of synaptic potentials have evolved significantly over the past century. Synaptic potentials

### ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE

ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE and the Action of Nicotine, Cocaine, and Marijuana in the Brain Te a c h e r s G u i d e Films for the Humanities & Sciences Background Information This program, made entirely of

### Biological Neurons and Neural Networks, Artificial Neurons

Biological Neurons and Neural Networks, Artificial Neurons Neural Computation : Lecture 2 John A. Bullinaria, 2015 1. Organization of the Nervous System and Brain 2. Brains versus Computers: Some Numbers

### Standards Alignment Minnesota Science Standards Alignment Matrix www.brainu.org/resources/mnstds

Lesson Summary: Neurons transfer information by releasing neurotransmitters across the synapse or space between neurons. Students model the chemical communication between pre-synaptic and post-synaptic

### UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015 COGNITIVE & BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES MODULE NO: PSC4003

[EDP 005] UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015 COGNITIVE & BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES MODULE NO: PSC4003 Date: Wednesday 21 st January, 2015 Time: 2.00pm

### The mhr model is described by 30 ordinary differential equations (ODEs): one. ion concentrations and 23 equations describing channel gating.

On-line Supplement: Computer Modeling Chris Clausen, PhD and Ira S. Cohen, MD, PhD Computer models of canine ventricular action potentials The mhr model is described by 30 ordinary differential equations

### Andrew Rosen - Chapter 3: The Brain and Nervous System Intro:

Intro: Brain is made up of numerous, complex parts Frontal lobes by forehead are the brain s executive center Parietal lobes wave sensory information together (maps feeling on body) Temporal lobes interpret

### How To Solve The Cable Equation

Cable properties of neurons Eric D. Young Reading: Johnston and Wu, Chapt. 4 and Chapt. 13 pp. 400-411. Neurons are not a single compartment! The figures below show two snapshots of the membrane potential

### CHAPTER I From Biological to Artificial Neuron Model

Ugur HALICI ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS CHAPTER CHAPTER I From Biological to Artificial Neuron Model Martin Gardner in his book titled 'The Annotated Snark" has the following note for the last illustration

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level *0123456789* PHYSICS 9702/02 Paper 2 AS Level Structured Questions For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN

### Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Cable Properties. Passive flow of current. Voltage Decreases With Distance

Slide 1 Properties of the nerve, axon, cell body and dendrite affect the distance and speed of membrane potential Passive conduction properties = cable properties Signal becomes reduced over distance depending

### Monday 11 June 2012 Afternoon

Monday 11 June 2012 Afternoon A2 GCE PHYSICS B (ADVANCING PHYSICS) G495 Field and Particle Pictures *G412090612* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied materials: Data, Formulae and Relationships

### Origin of Electrical Membrane Potential

Origin of Electrical Membrane Potential parti This book is about the physiological characteristics of nerve and muscle cells. As we shall see, the ability of these cells to generate and conduct electricity

### PHYSIOLOGY AND MAINTENANCE Vol. V - Neurons, Action Potentials, and Synapses - Simo S. Oja and Pirjo Saransaari

NEURONS, ACTION POTENTIALS, AND SYNAPSES Simo S. Oja and Pirjo Saransaari University of Tampere Medical School, Finland, and Tampere University Hospital, Finland Keywords: neurones, glial cells, membrane

### QUANTAL ANALYSIS AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

Hons Neuroscience Professor R.R. Ribchester QUANTAL ANALYSIS AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION Our present understanding of the fundamental physiological mechanism of transmitter release at synapses is mainly

### Mechanisms of action of AEDs

Mechanisms of action of AEDs Wolfgang Löscher Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany and Center for Systems Neuroscience Hannover, Germany

### PSIO 603/BME 511 1 Dr. Janis Burt February 19, 2007 MRB 422; 626-6833 jburt@u.arizona.edu. MUSCLE EXCITABILITY - Ventricle

SIO 63/BME 511 1 Dr. Janis Burt February 19, 27 MRB 422; 626-6833 MUSCLE EXCITABILITY - Ventricle READING: Boron & Boulpaep pages: 483-57 OBJECTIVES: 1. Draw a picture of the heart in vertical (frontal

### CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS.

CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS. 6.1. CONNECTIONS AMONG NEURONS Neurons are interconnected with one another to form circuits, much as electronic components are wired together to form a functional

### Cable and Compartmental Models of Dendritic Trees

Cable and Compartmental Models of Dendritic Trees IDAN SEGEV 5.1 Introduction In the previous chapter, we used a single compartment model to study the mechanisms for the activation of voltage-activated

### How To Understand The Distributed Potential Of A Dendritic Tree

Systems Biology II: Neural Systems (580.422) Lecture 8, Linear cable theory Eric Young 5-3164 eyoung@jhu.edu Reading: D. Johnston and S.M. Wu Foundations of Cellular Neurophysiology (MIT Press, 1995).

### Nerve Cell Communication

Nerve Cell Communication Core Concept: Nerve cells communicate using electrical and chemical signals. Class time required: Approximately 2 forty minute class periods Teacher Provides: For each student

### NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C.

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food

### This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship. For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June 2008: 14:00 to 16:00

Imperial College London BSc/MSci EXAMINATION June 2008 This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship SUN, STARS, PLANETS For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June

### of computational neuroscience. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 1 describes the

Chapter 1 This chapter presents elements of neurobiology that form the necessary preparation for a student of computational neuroscience. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 1 describes the biology

### Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz 1. The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves

### Chapter 9 Nervous System

Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory

### Neurotransmission: Muscle Messages

2 Neurotransmission: Muscle Messages GOAL The goal of this unit is to reinforce the process of neuromuscular transmission with hands-on materials. Set-up: -Reaction Time poster -Nerve-muscle poster -Synapse

### U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B.

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue

### Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) Communication Training of brain activity

Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) Communication Training of brain activity Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) picture rights: Gerwin Schalk, Wadsworth Center, NY Components of a Brain Computer Interface Applications

### Nervous Tissue Chapter 12

Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 Overview of the Nervous System Cells of the Nervous System Electrophysiology of Neurons Synapses Subdivisions of the Nervous System Two major anatomical subdivisions: Central

### huwentoxin-iv; TTX, tetrodotoxin; DRG, dorsal root ganglia; HWTX-I, huwentoxin-i; HEK293, human embryonic kidney 293; WT, wild type.

THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY VOL. 283, NO. 40, pp. 27300 27313, October 3, 2008 2008 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Printed in the U.S.A. Tarantula Huwentoxin-IV

### NESTML Tutorial. I.Blundell, M.J.Eppler, D.Plotnikov. Software Engineering RWTH Aachen. http://www.se-rwth.de/

NESTML Tutorial I.Blundell, M.J., D.Plotnikov http://www.se-rwth.de/ Seite 2 Usage of the NESTML Infrastructure Starting eclipse: cd /home/nest/eclipse_nestml./eclipse Working folder for the code generation:

### Physiological Basis of the BOLD Signal. Kerstin Preuschoff Social and Neural systems Lab University of Zurich

Physiological Basis of the BOLD Signal Kerstin Preuschoff Social and Neural systems Lab University of Zurich Source: Arthurs & Boniface, 2002 From Stimulus to Bold Overview Physics of BOLD signal - Magnetic

### The FitzHugh-Nagumo Model

Lecture 6 The FitzHugh-Nagumo Model 6.1 The Nature of Excitable Cell Models Classically, it as knon that the cell membrane carries a potential across the inner and outer surfaces, hence a basic model for

### Nervous System: Nervous Tissue! (Chapter 12)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus!

Nervous System: Nervous Tissue! (Chapter 12)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus! Neural Tissue! -3% of body mass! -cellular, ~20% extracellular

### Lecture One: Brain Basics

Lecture One: Brain Basics Brain Fractured Femur Bone Spinal Cord 1 How does pain get from here to here 2 How does the brain work? Every cell in your body is wired to send a signal to your brain The brain

### Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange

Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).

### General Certificate of Education. BYB4 Energy, Control and Continuity. 2006 examination - June series

Version 1.0: 0906 General Certificate of Education abc Biology 6416 Specification B BYB4 Energy, Control and Continuity Mark Scheme 2006 examination - June series Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal

### Single Neuron Dynamics Models Linking Theory and Experiment. Jan Benda

Single Neuron Dynamics Models Linking Theory and Experiment Jan Benda Single Neuron Dynamics Models Linking Theory and Experiment D I S S E R T A T I O N zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades doctor rerum

### Schneps, Leila; Colmez, Coralie. Math on Trial : How Numbers Get Used and Abused in the Courtroom. New York, NY, USA: Basic Books, 2013. p i.

New York, NY, USA: Basic Books, 2013. p i. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/mcgill/doc?id=10665296&ppg=2 New York, NY, USA: Basic Books, 2013. p ii. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/mcgill/doc?id=10665296&ppg=3 New

### USING LIPID BILAYERS IN AN ARTIFICIAL AXON SYSTEM. Zachary Thomas VanDerwerker. Master of Science In Mechanical Engineering

USING LIPID BILAYERS IN AN ARTIFICIAL AXON SYSTEM Zachary Thomas VanDerwerker Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements

### Human Physiology Study Questions-2

Human Physiology Study Questions-2 Action potentials: Handout-8, Chapter 8 1. Explain the positive feedback component of an action potential that is, how the opening of one voltage-gated sodium (or calcium)

### For thousands of years, humans have aspired to create intelligent. The Nervous System CHAPTER. Chapter Concepts

CHAPTER 11 The Nervous System Chapter Concepts 11.1 Structures and Processes of the Nervous System Homeostasis is maintained in the human body by the various parts of the nervous system. Neural transmission

### UNIVERSITAT DE BARCELONA FACULTAT DE FÍSICA. Resonant spike propagation in coupled neurons with subthreshold activity

UNIVERSITAT DE BARCELONA FACULTAT DE FÍSICA Màster en Biofísica Resonant spike propagation in coupled neurons with subthreshold activity Treball final del Màster en Biofísica 26/7: Belén Sancristóbal Alonso

### NEURAL MODELLING OF A JELLYFISH

NEURAL MODELLING OF A JELLYFISH JAMES YEOMANS BSc (Hons) Computer Information Systems University of Bath May 2005 PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Dr DANIEL RICHARDSON This thesis may be made available for consultation

### Computational Neuroscience. Models of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity. Prof. Dr. Michele GIUGLIANO 2036FBDBMW

Computational Neuroscience 2036FBDBMW Master of Science in Computer Science (Scientific Computing) Master of Science in Biomedical Sciences (Neurosciences) Master of Science in Physics Prof. Dr. Michele

### Learning Objectives Drugs disrupt the natural action of neurotransmitters at the synapse. Logistics

Module Abstract An optional worksheet to use in conjunction with the interactive online activity of the same title located in The New Science of Addiction: module on our website (url above). Students analyze

### Synaptic depression creates a switch that controls the frequency of an oscillatory circuit

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 96, pp. 8206 8211, July 1999 Neurobiology Synaptic depression creates a switch that controls the frequency of an oscillatory circuit FARZAN NADIM*, YAIR MANOR, NANCY KOPELL,

### 3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d.

Chapter Test 1. A cell that receives information and transmits it to other cells via an electrochemical process is called a(n) a. neuron b. hormone c. glia d. endorphin Answer: A difficulty: 1 factual

### Nodus 3.1. Manual. with Nodus 3.2 Appendix. Neuron and network simulation software for Macintosh computers

Nodus 3.1 Manual with Nodus 3.2 Appendix Neuron and network simulation software for Macintosh computers Copyright Erik De Schutter, 1995 Copyright This manual and the Nodus software described in it are

### Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12

HB 11-26-07 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 1 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 Equipment- coil apparatus, BK Precision 2120B oscilloscope, Fluke multimeter, Wavetek FG3C function generator,

### NEURONS NEUROGLIAL CELLS.

1 THE NERVOUS TISSUE Definition: The nervous tissue is an assemblage of cells and supportive elements (materials) in which there is a predominance of cells which are highly specialized in the property

### How Brain Cells Work. Part II The Action Potential

How Brain Cells Work. Part II The Action Potential Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD, Luciana Christante de Mello, MSc and Renato M.E. Sabbatini,PhD Animation and Art: André Malavazzi Electricity is a natural

### Biological Membranes. Impermeable lipid bilayer membrane. Protein Channels and Pores

Biological Membranes Impermeable lipid bilayer membrane Protein Channels and Pores 1 Biological Membranes Are Barriers for Ions and Large Polar Molecules The Cell. A Molecular Approach. G.M. Cooper, R.E.

### MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF NEURAL ACTIVITY

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF NEURAL ACTIVITY Gaute T. Einevoll Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 As, Norway Gaute.Einevoll@umb.no Abstract Keywords: