# Review for Test 3. Polarized light. Action of a Polarizer. Polarized light. Light Intensity after a Polarizer. Review for Test 3.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Review for Test 3. Polarized light. Action of a Polarizer. Polarized light. Light Intensity after a Polarizer. Review for Test 3."

Transcription

1 Review for Test 3 Polarized light No equation provided! Polarized light In linearly polarized light, the electric field vectors all lie in one single direction. Action of a Polarizer Transmission axis Polarized light Single direction for E field vector Unpolarized light Random direction for E field E Polarized light may be produced from unpolarized light with the aid of polarizing material. B 3 Light Intensity after a Polarizer. If the incoming light is unpolarized: The light intensity after passing through a polarizer is halved irrespective of the transmission axis of the polarizer. urved Mirrors. If the incoming light is linearly polarized: The light intensity after a polarizer is governed by Malus Law. I = I 0 cos 0 where θ 0 is the angle between the polarization direction of the incoming light and the transmission axis of the polarizer, I 0 and I is the intensity of light before and after transmission through the polarizer. 5 6

2 Drawing Ray Diagrams for a oncave (onvergent) Mirror Draw the principal axis, the concave mirror in the middle, the object in front of the mirror, and both and in front of the mirror. There are four rays one typically draws to determine the location of the image. Image ormation by onvex (Divergent) Mirrors Draw the principal axis, the convex mirror in the middle, the object in front of the mirror, and both and behind the mirror. We can establish four similar ways as in the last slide to draw reflected rays for a convex mirror. Object Image (virtual) Object Image (virtual) oncave mirror 7 onvex mirror 8 Properties of Images formed by a oncave (onvergent) Mirror Effect on the Image formed by a oncave Mirror by Moving the Object The properties depends on the position of the object relative to the mirror, and. Below is a summary of the image properties for different positions of the object. Both the magnification and image distance increase as the object moves toward the focal point from either side. oncave mirror Increasing magnification Increasing magnification Virtual, upright, (Virtual and upright) or (Real and inverted), infinitely 9 Virtual, upright, (Virtual and upright) or (Real and inverted), infinitely 0 Properties of Images formed by a onvex (Divergent) Mirror Effect on the Image formed by a onvex Mirror by Moving the Object The mages formed by a convex mirror are always virtual, upright and. Below is an illustration of the image properties for different positions of the object. Both the magnification and image distance increases as the object moves toward the mirror. Increasing magnification Virtual, upright, Virtual, upright, onvex mirror onvex mirror

3 The Mirror Equation Drawing a ray diagram is a great way to get an idea about what s going on. But to find the precise distances of the object and/or image, we should use the mirror equation. f d d where d o = object distance, d i = image distance. o Magnification = (image height, h i ) / (object size, h o ) is another property of common and practical interest. Magnification, m = i h i h o d = i d o Sign onvention of the Mirror Equation The parameters, d i and f can be positive or negative depending on the position of the image and the focal point,, respectively, relative to the mirror. Below lists the sign convention. Image position ocal point, In front of the mirror d i is + f is + (apply to concave or convergent mirrors) Behind the mirror f is (apply to convex or divergent mirrors) 3 Negative magnification means that the image is inverted. onvergent vs. Diverging Lenses Lenses We have seen that convergent and Divergent mirrors converge and diverge light reflected upon them. onvergent and Divergent lenses converge and diverge light transmitted through them. Make sure that you don t mix up the ray diagram of lenses with mirrors! onvex (convergent) lenses oncave (divergent) lenses 5 All parallel light rays converge Parallel light rays transmitted to point after transmission through the lens do not converge. through the lens. But when they are extrapolated backward, they appear to. 6 Image formation with a convex (convergent) lens Draw the principal axis, the convex lens in the middle, the object (on the left side of the lens), and the focal point on both sides of the lens. Below shows the three rays one commonly draws in a ray diagram to determine the image formed by a convex lens. Image formation with a concave (divergent) lens Draw the principal axis, the concave lens in the middle, the object (on the left side of the lens), and the focal point on both sides of the lens. Below shows the three rays one commonly draws in a ray diagram to determine the image formed by a concave lens

4 Properties of Images formed by a onvex (onvergent) Lens The properties depends on the position of the object relative to the mirror, and. Below is a summary of the image properties for different positions of the object. Note that it s the same as that for convergent mirrors. onvex lens Virtual, upright, Properties of Images formed by a oncave (Divergent) Lens The mages formed by a divergent lens are always virtual, upright and. Below is an illustration of the image properties for different positions of the object. Note that it s same as that for divergent mirrors. Virtual, upright, (Virtual and upright) or (Real and inverted), infinitely 9 oncave lens 0 The Thin-lens Equation Sign convention of the thin-lens equation f d d o i onveniently, it s the same equation we used for mirrors! Same side as the object (usually l.h.s. of the lens) Opposite side to the object (usually r.h.s. of the lens) Image position d i is d i is + Magnification, m = h i h o d = i Sign convention of m (same as before): Positive means that the image is upright. Negative means that the image is inverted. d o Point where the transmitted rays converge or appear to converge f is -, applicable to divergent (concave) lens f is +, applicable to convergent (convex) lens Index of refraction When an EM wave travels in a vacuum its speed is: c = 3.00 x 0 8 m/s. Refraction & Total Internal Reflection In any other medium, light travels at a different speed, v, without changing the frequency. We define the index of refraction, n, of a material by: c n v 0 0 f f Wavelength in vacuum Wavelength in the medium 3 or naturally occurring materials, n > and so v < c and 0.

5 Snell s Law onsequence of Snell s Law I Due to the change in speed, light bends on entering a different medium at an oblique angle. This phenomenon is called refraction. The angle of refraction θ (the angle the ray in the second medium makes with the normal to the interface between the two media) is related to the angle of incidence θ by Snell's Law: n sin n sin where n and n is the refractive index of the first and second medium, respectively. n Incident ray n Partially reflected ray Transmitted, refracted ray 5 Snell's Law: n sin n sin (= constant) Based on Snell s Law, we can see that if the refractive index of a medium is bigger, the angle made by the ray to the normal must be smaller to maintain the product of n and sin constant. This property is independent of whether the medium is the first (incoming) or the second (outgoing) one. So, if light enters from a less dense to a denser medium, it bends toward the normal. onversely, if light enters from a denser to a less dense medium, it bends away from the normal. a b n a n b 6 onsequence of Snell s Law II onsequence of Snell s Law III Snell's Law: n sin n sin = constant If = 0, n sin = n sin = 0 = 0 Since n is not zero, must be zero to make the product of n and sin equal to zero. Light entering a medium perpendicularly is not bent. n a n b 7 A ray entering a rectangular slab at angle would emerge from the opposite edge of the slab at the same angle, but is shifted laterally. n n n It is the same angle because the incident angle at the opposite edge is, the same as the refraction angle at the entrance edge. So, the exit angle of the ray in medium must be again. 8 onsequence of Snell s Law IV A ray going from a denser to a less dense medium suffers total internal reflection if the incident angle is bigger than the critical angle, which is the incident angle for which the refraction angle is 90 o. c n n Interference Patterns nsinc nsin90 n so c sin n c

6 onditions for constructive interference When two or more light waves pass through a given point and arrive there in phase, constructive interference occurs. If the sources are in phase, the condition required for constructive interference is: PLD = m m = 0,,, 3, onditions for destructive interference When two or more light waves pass through a given point and arrive there out of phase, destructive interference occurs. If the sources are in phase, the condition required for destructive interference is: PLD = m Source 3 m = 0,,, 3, Source Source 3 Source Source onstructive interference 3 Source 3 Source Source Destructive interference 3 Interference from Two Sources We can understand the pattern by recalling that PLD along the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the two sources is always zero. If we move systematically away from the perpendicular bisector to either side, the PLD increases in the order of 0.5,,.5,, as shown below. PLD = L-L = Double Slit - ocus on the condition for constructive interference. Source Source 33 - Destructive interferences occur right in the middle between two adjacent maxima. 3 The double-source equation Diffraction Grating - We only consider the condition for constructive interference: d sin Bright fringes of a double-slit sin m m 0,,, 3, d

7 Diffraction Grating ondition for constructive interference: d sin(θ) = mλ, where d is the slit separation. (m = 0,,, ) Below is the Intensity profile of the interference pattern produced by grating with different number of slits separated by the same distance, d. Diffraction by a Single Slit - We only consider the condition for destructive interference: By adding more slits, the interference maxima are much brighter, and a lot sharper Diffraction (by a Single Slit) Dark ringes in a Diffraction Pattern There s no condition for constructive interference, except we know that there is constructive interference in the =0 direction, giving rise to the central maximum. Without diffraction Interference pattern rom diffraction: Light intensity With diffraction Midpoint of central bright fringe The condition for destructive interference is: wsinθ = mλ, m =,,3, where w is the width of the slit. Note that m cannot be zero, at where the central maximum is Example: Width of the central maximum Solution The width of the central maximum of the interference pattern, x, is given by (x/)/d = tan x = Dtan w D x Realistic double-slit pattern The realistic double-slit pattern is a combination of the single slit pattern and the (ideal) double source pattern we encountered at the beginning. The (ideal) double source pattern assumes the slits to be infinitely narrow. Single-slit: Ideal doublesource: Realistic double-slit: wsin = m or sin = m(/a), () where m = for the dark fringe right next to the central maximum. When << w, sin is <<. As a result, sin tan By equations () and (), we get x = Da 7 7

8 Wave-Particle Duality: Photoelectric Effect & De Broglie Wavelength The photoelectric effect In the photoelectric effect, electrons are given out by a metal when it is shone by optical or UV light with high enough frequency, f, to overcome the work function, W 0,of the metal. Given the particle model, the energy conservation for the photoelectric effect is: hf W K 0 max where K max is the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons. 3 The electron volt ev =.60 x 0-9 J J = / (.6 x 0-9 ) ev Use c = f and E = hf, we can determine the frequency (f = c/) and energy for the photons (E = hc/(in J) = hc/e (in ev)) in the visible spectrum (i.e., 00nm<<700nm). Wavelength requency Energy 00 nm (violet) Hz 3. ev 700 nm (red).3 0 Hz.8 ev 5 The photoelectric effect a graph Pay attention to what is being plotted against what! Example: How should a graph of K max vs. photon energy (hf) look like? onsider cases where hf < W 0 and hf > W 0. (i) When hf W 0, K max = 0 (ii) When hf > W 0, hf W0 Kmax K hf W max 0 K max (ev) oefficient of term hf = Slope = hf < W 0 W 0 Slope = hf > W 0 hf (ev) What would the slope be if the plot is K max vs. f? 6 The de Broglie wavelength The momentum of a photon is given by: h p Nuclear Reactions In 93, Louis de Broglie predicted that objects we generally think of as particles (such as electrons and neutrons) should also exhibit a wave-like nature, with a wavelength of: h h p mv 7 8 8

9 The nucleus A nucleus consists of protons and neutrons; these are known as nucleons. Each nucleus is characterized by two numbers: A, the atomic mass number (the total number of nucleons); and Z, the atomic number (the number of protons). The number of neutrons is N, so A = N + Z. Any nucleus can be written in a form like this: A 7 ZX 3Al The X stands for the chemical symbol. On the right is a particular isotope of aluminum, aluminum-7. Isotopes of an element have the same Z, but different number of neutrons. 9 The atomic mass unit u = (Mass of )/ = kg = 93.5 MeV/c 50 The mass defect Each carbon atom is made up of 6 neutrons, 6 protons, and 6 electrons, which separately have a mass of: six neutrons: u u six protons: u u six electrons: u u Sum = u When these are combined into a carbon- atom, the atom has a mass of precisely u. The missing The most famous equation in physics E mc The missing mass accounts for the binding energy of the atom (almost all of which is in the nucleus). At the rate of 93.5 MeV/c per u, the mass defect of u corresponds to 9.5 MeV worth of binding energy in the carbon- atom u worth of mass is the mass defect. 5 5 General requirements for a permissible radioactive decay ()The total mass of the daughter nuclides must be smaller than that of the parents. This is effectively saying that the daughter nuclides are on average more stable than the parent nuclides () The sum of the atomic numbers and mass numbers of all the parent nuclides/particles and daughter nuclides/particles before and after the decay must agree. In checking if this requirement is met, take for neutrons ( 0n), A = and Z = 0; for protons ( p), A = and Z = ; and for electrons ( 0 -e), A = hart of the nuclides The chart (next page) shows the existing nuclides and their lifetime, where a darker shade represents nuclides with a longer half-life. In particular, the nuclides shaded in black have half-life > 30 million years and are thus regarded as stable. With increased resolution (found in one can see that for atomic number 0 Z 7, the stable nuclides always have the neutron number, N = Z and/or Z+, except for hydrogen which has H and H as the only stable nuclides. or Z > 7, the stable nuclides have N increasingly bigger than Z as Z increases. 0 and Z =

10 Alpha decay Z If a heavy unstable nuclide A ZX is located near a lighter nuclide with atomic number Z and mass number A and a longer half-life, it will undergo alpha decay. A A- Z Z- X Y He N Beta-minus ( - ) decay In a beta-minus decay, a neutron is turned into a proton by giving up an electron, an electron (a - particle) and an anti electron neutrino. 0-0n p -e νe or nuclides with N/Z being too large Generally, A Z X A Z Y 0 e e Beta-plus (β + ) decay or nuclides 0 + p 0 n +e ν with N/Z being e too small In beta-plus decay, a proton turns into a neutron, positron, and an electron neutrino. In general, we get: A A 0 + ZX Z- Y +e νe

11 Activity, R and the Decay onstant, Radioactivity The rate at which nuclei decay (also known as the activity of the nuclei) is proportional to N, the number of nuclei there are. N R N t where λ is the decay constant. The SI unit of activity is the becquerel (Bq); one Bq equals one disintegration per second. The SI unit of the decay constant is s Number of Unstable Nuclides, N vs. time As a result of the fact that the rate of a radioactive decay is proportional to the number of unstable nuclides that remain, the number of nuclides that haven t decayed decreases exponentially with t. Number remaining after a time t N N e t 0 Initial number at t = 0 n.b. The slope of the graph, dn/dt decreases with time because No. of radioactive nuclei, N dn/dt is proportional to N Time, t Activity as a function of time N N e t 0 R = N = N 0 e t R 0 R = R 0 e t Half-life, T / and the Decay onstant, The decay constant is closely related to the half-life, the time for half the material to decay. T / ln() The activity of a sample or the no. of radioactive nuclei remaining after t = nt / is / n No. of radioactive nuclei, N Time, t Review examples given in the class notes. times the activity at t =

### Main properties of atoms and nucleus

Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom

### AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

### Physics 111 Homework Solutions Week #9 - Tuesday

Physics 111 Homework Solutions Week #9 - Tuesday Friday, February 25, 2011 Chapter 22 Questions - None Multiple-Choice 223 A 224 C 225 B 226 B 227 B 229 D Problems 227 In this double slit experiment we

### Convex Mirrors. Ray Diagram for Convex Mirror

Convex Mirrors Center of curvature and focal point both located behind mirror The image for a convex mirror is always virtual and upright compared to the object A convex mirror will reflect a set of parallel

### PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY)

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) (Three hours) (Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

### PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS 1. Photons 2. Photoelectric Effect 3. Experimental Set-up to study Photoelectric Effect 4. Effect of Intensity, Frequency, Potential on P.E.

### Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of:

Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions

### Masses in Atomic Units

Nuclear Composition - the forces binding protons and neutrons in the nucleus are much stronger (binding energy of MeV) than the forces binding electrons to the atom (binding energy of ev) - the constituents

### How To Understand Light And Color

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order

### Solution Derivations for Capa #14

Solution Derivations for Capa #4 ) An image of the moon is focused onto a screen using a converging lens of focal length (f = 34.8 cm). The diameter of the moon is 3.48 0 6 m, and its mean distance from

### Lecture Notes for Chapter 34: Images

Lecture Notes for hapter 4: Images Disclaimer: These notes are not meant to replace the textbook. Please report any inaccuracies to the professor.. Spherical Reflecting Surfaces Bad News: This subject

### Basic Nuclear Concepts

Section 7: In this section, we present a basic description of atomic nuclei, the stored energy contained within them, their occurrence and stability Basic Nuclear Concepts EARLY DISCOVERIES [see also Section

### Chapters 21-29. Magnetic Force. for a moving charge. F=BQvsinΘ. F=BIlsinΘ. for a current

Chapters 21-29 Chapter 21:45,63 Chapter 22:25,49 Chapter 23:35,38,53,55,58,59 Chapter 24:17,18,20,42,43,44,50,52,53.59,63 Chapter 26:27,33,34,39,54 Chapter 27:17,18,34,43,50,51,53,56 Chapter 28: 10,11,28,47,52

### Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

### 1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

### Physics 1104 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions

Physics 114 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions These review sheets cover only selected topics from the chemical and nuclear energy chapters and are not meant to be a comprehensive review. Topics covered in these

### Code number given on the right hand side of the question paper should be written on the title page of the answerbook by the candidate.

Series ONS SET-1 Roll No. Candiates must write code on the title page of the answer book Please check that this question paper contains 16 printed pages. Code number given on the right hand side of the

### Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION

Objectives Explain the difference between isotopes of the same element. Describe the force that holds nucleons together. Explain the relationship between mass and energy according to Einstein s theory

### Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment

Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment 1. The speed of light found by a Michelson experiment was found to be 2.90 x 10 8 m/s. If the two hills were 20.0 km apart, what was the frequency of the

### GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS

FYSA230/2 GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS 1. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light) experiences reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction phenomena when entering and passing

### Photons. ConcepTest 27.1. 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy. Which has more energy, a photon of:

ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which has more energy, a photon of: 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which

### Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.

### Lesson 29: Lenses. Double Concave. Double Convex. Planoconcave. Planoconvex. Convex meniscus. Concave meniscus

Lesson 29: Lenses Remembering the basics of mirrors puts you half ways towards fully understanding lenses as well. The same sort of rules apply, just with a few modifications. Keep in mind that for an

### Physics 10. Lecture 29A. "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton

Physics 10 Lecture 29A "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton Converging Lenses What if we wanted to use refraction to converge parallel

### The Phenomenon of Photoelectric Emission:

The Photoelectric Effect. The Wave particle duality of light Light, like any other E.M.R (electromagnetic radiation) has got a dual nature. That is there are experiments that prove that it is made up of

### Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand

### Reflection and Refraction

Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, plane-concave-convex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet,

### Chapter 36 - Lenses. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 36 - Lenses A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 2007 Objectives: After completing this module, you should be able to: Determine

### Boardworks AS Physics

Boardworks AS Physics Vectors 24 slides 11 Flash activities Prefixes, scalars and vectors Guide to the SI unit prefixes of orders of magnitude Matching powers of ten to their SI unit prefixes Guide to

### Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV

Objective Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV In this set of lab exercises, the basic properties geometric optics concerning converging lenses and mirrors will be explored. The

### Chapter 23. The Reflection of Light: Mirrors

Chapter 23 The Reflection of Light: Mirrors Wave Fronts and Rays Defining wave fronts and rays. Consider a sound wave since it is easier to visualize. Shown is a hemispherical view of a sound wave emitted

### 2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE In this chapter the principles and systematics of atomic and nuclear physics are summarised briefly, in order to introduce the existence and characteristics of

### Size Of the Image Nature Of the Image At Infinity At the Focus Highly Diminished, Point Real and Inverted

CHAPTER-10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Light rays; are; electromagnetic in nature, and do not need material medium for Propagation Speed of light in vacuum in 3*10 8 m/s When a light ray falls on a

### PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

### Procedure: Geometrical Optics. Theory Refer to your Lab Manual, pages 291 294. Equipment Needed

Theory Refer to your Lab Manual, pages 291 294. Geometrical Optics Equipment Needed Light Source Ray Table and Base Three-surface Mirror Convex Lens Ruler Optics Bench Cylindrical Lens Concave Lens Rhombus

### LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

QUESTION BANK IN SCIENCE CLASS-X (TERM-II) 10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION CONCEPTS To revise the laws of reflection at plane surface and the characteristics of image formed as well as the uses of reflection

### Interference and Diffraction

Chapter 14 nterference and Diffraction 14.1 Superposition of Waves... 14-14. Young s Double-Slit Experiment... 14-4 Example 14.1: Double-Slit Experiment... 14-7 14.3 ntensity Distribution... 14-8 Example

### Study Guide for Exam on Light

Name: Class: Date: Study Guide for Exam on Light Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used

### EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS

EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS The following website should be accessed before coming to class. Text reference: pp189-196 Optics Bench a) For convenience of discussion we assume that the light

### C) D) As object AB is moved from its present position toward the left, the size of the image produced A) decreases B) increases C) remains the same

1. For a plane mirror, compared to the object distance, the image distance is always A) less B) greater C) the same 2. Which graph best represents the relationship between image distance (di) and object

### WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

### Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation 1. When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction it is A. absorbed. B. bent away from the normal. C. bent towards from the normal. D. continues in the

### Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 )

1 of 13 2/17/2016 5:28 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics,

### ATOMIC SPECTRA. Apparatus: Optical spectrometer, spectral tubes, power supply, incandescent lamp, bottles of dyed water, elevating jack or block.

1 ATOMIC SPECTRA Objective: To measure the wavelengths of visible light emitted by atomic hydrogen and verify the measured wavelengths against those predicted by quantum theory. To identify an unknown

### waves rays Consider rays of light from an object being reflected by a plane mirror (the rays are diverging): mirror object

PHYS1000 Optics 1 Optics Light and its interaction with lenses and mirrors. We assume that we can ignore the wave properties of light. waves rays We represent the light as rays, and ignore diffraction.

### A-level PHYSICS (7408/1)

SPECIMEN MATERIAL A-level PHYSICS (7408/1) Paper 1 Specimen 2014 Morning Time allowed: 2 hours Materials For this paper you must have: a pencil a ruler a calculator a data and formulae booklet. Instructions

### Waves and Light Extra Study Questions

Waves and Light Extra Study Questions Short Answer 1. Determine the frequency for each of the following. (a) A bouncing spring completes 10 vibrations in 7.6 s. (b) An atom vibrates 2.5 10 10 times in

### Crystal Optics of Visible Light

Crystal Optics of Visible Light This can be a very helpful aspect of minerals in understanding the petrographic history of a rock. The manner by which light is transferred through a mineral is a means

### RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION

7 RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents a discussion of more complicated issues in ray optics that builds on and extends the ideas presented in the last chapter (which you must read first!)

### TIME OF COMPLETION NAME SOLUTION DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCES. PHYS 3650, Exam 2 Section 1 Version 1 October 31, 2005 Total Weight: 100 points

TIME OF COMPLETION NAME SOLUTION DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCES PHYS 3650, Exam 2 Section 1 Version 1 October 31, 2005 Total Weight: 100 points 1. Check your examination for completeness prior to starting.

Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 1. The number of electrons in an atom of atomic number Z and mass number A is 1) A 2) Z 3) A+Z 4) A-Z 2. The repulsive force between the positively charged protons does

### 6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?

Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through

### Chapter NP-5. Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 NUCLEAR REACTIONS 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS

Chapter NP-5 Nuclear Physics Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS 2.1 ELASTIC SCATTERING 2.2 INELASTIC SCATTERING 2.3 RADIATIVE CAPTURE 2.4 PARTICLE

### Basic Optics System OS-8515C

40 50 30 60 20 70 10 80 0 90 80 10 20 70 T 30 60 40 50 50 40 60 30 C 70 20 80 10 90 90 0 80 10 70 20 60 50 40 30 Instruction Manual with Experiment Guide and Teachers Notes 012-09900B Basic Optics System

### Wave Function, ψ. Chapter 28 Atomic Physics. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Line Spectrum

Wave Function, ψ Chapter 28 Atomic Physics The Hydrogen Atom The Bohr Model Electron Waves in the Atom The value of Ψ 2 for a particular object at a certain place and time is proportional to the probability

### 5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves

5. The Nature of Light Light travels in vacuum at 3.0. 10 8 m/s Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation Continuous radiation: Based on temperature Wien s Law & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Light has

### Experiment 3 Lenses and Images

Experiment 3 Lenses and Images Who shall teach thee, unless it be thine own eyes? Euripides (480?-406? BC) OBJECTIVES To examine the nature and location of images formed by es. THEORY Lenses are frequently

### EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

### Thin Lenses Drawing Ray Diagrams

Drawing Ray Diagrams Fig. 1a Fig. 1b In this activity we explore how light refracts as it passes through a thin lens. Eyeglasses have been in use since the 13 th century. In 1610 Galileo used two lenses

### Diffraction of Laser Light

Diffraction of Laser Light No Prelab Introduction The laser is a unique light source because its light is coherent and monochromatic. Coherent light is made up of waves, which are all in phase. Monochromatic

### Homework #10 (749508)

Homework #10 (749508) Current Score: 0 out of 100 Description Homework on quantum physics and radioactivity Instructions Answer all the questions as best you can. 1. Hewitt10 32.E.001. [481697] 0/5 points

### O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer

2B30: PRACTICAL ASTROPHYSICS FORMAL REPORT: O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer Adam Hill Lab partner: G. Evans Tutor: Dr. Peter Storey 1 Abstract The calibration of a diffraction grating spectrometer

### ............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq.

1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation 90 38 The decay constant is 0.025 year 1. 90 39 0 1 Sr Y + e + 0.55 MeV. (a) Suggest,

### Light and its effects

Light and its effects Light and the speed of light Shadows Shadow films Pinhole camera (1) Pinhole camera (2) Reflection of light Image in a plane mirror An image in a plane mirror is: (i) the same size

### For convenience, we may consider an atom in two parts: the nucleus and the electrons.

Atomic structure A. Introduction: In 1808, an English scientist called John Dalton proposed an atomic theory based on experimental findings. (1) Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.

### 2) A convex lens is known as a diverging lens and a concave lens is known as a converging lens. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Var: 1 Page Ref: Sec.

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 4e (Giancoli) Chapter 33 Lenses and Optical Instruments 33.1 Conceptual Questions 1) State how to draw the three rays for finding the image position due to a thin

### Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics

13 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

### Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Developers AB Overby Objectives Preparation Background The objectives of this experiment are to observe Fraunhofer, or far-field, diffraction through a single

### Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered

### (b) find the force of repulsion between a proton at the surface of a 12. 6 C nucleus and the remaining five protons.

Chapter 13 Nuclear Structure. Home Work s 13.1 Problem 13.10 (a) find the radius of the 12 6 C nucleus. (b) find the force of repulsion between a proton at the surface of a 12 6 C nucleus and the remaining

### Curriculum for Excellence. Higher Physics. Success Guide

Curriculum for Excellence Higher Physics Success Guide Electricity Our Dynamic Universe Particles and Waves Electricity Key Area Monitoring and Measuring A.C. Monitoring alternating current signals with

### Physics 25 Exam 3 November 3, 2009

1. A long, straight wire carries a current I. If the magnetic field at a distance d from the wire has magnitude B, what would be the the magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance d/3 from the wire,

### Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.

### Atomic Theory Part 1

Atomic Theory Part 1 Reading: Ch 2 sections 1 6, 8 Homework: Chapter 2: 39, 47, 43, 49, 51*, 53, 55, 57, 71, 73, 77, 99, 103 (optional) * = important homework question The Atomic Theory (John Dalton, 1803)

### MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY

MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY The separate laws of Conservation of Mass and Conservation of Energy are not applied strictly on the nuclear level. It is possible to convert between mass and energy. Instead

### Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation. Lenses Convex Concave. Mirrors Convex Concave. Optical instruments

Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation Lenses Convex Concave Mirrors Convex Concave Optical instruments Image formation Laws of refraction and reflection can be used to explain how lenses

### THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL

THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL INTRODUCTION When light from a low-pressure gas is subject to an electric discharge, a discrete line spectrum is emitted. When light from such a low-pressure gas is examined with

### 1. Basics of LASER Physics

1. Basics of LASER Physics Dr. Sebastian Domsch (Dipl.-Phys.) Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine Medical Faculty Mannheim Heidelberg University Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3 D-68167 Mannheim, Germany sebastian.domsch@medma.uni-heidelberg.de

### Topic 3. Evidence for the Big Bang

Topic 3 Primordial nucleosynthesis Evidence for the Big Bang! Back in the 1920s it was generally thought that the Universe was infinite! However a number of experimental observations started to question

### Experiment #12: The Bohr Atom. Equipment: Spectroscope Hydrogen and Helium Gas Discharge Tubes, Holder, and Variac Flashlight

Experiment #12: The Bohr Atom Purpose: To observe the visible spectrum of hydrogen and helium and verify the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom. Equipment: Spectroscope Hydrogen and Helium Gas Discharge Tubes,

### Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory (Physics 4780)

Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Week of September 27, 2010 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory (Physics 4780) The University of Toledo Instructor: Randy Ellingson Gamma Ray Production: Co 60 60 60 27Co28Ni *

### Energy. Mechanical Energy

Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) Electromagnetic Radiation Energy Definition of energy Ability to do work Physicist s definition of work Work = force x distance Force acting upon object over distance

### Refractive Index Measurement Principle

Refractive Index Measurement Principle Refractive index measurement principle Introduction Detection of liquid concentrations by optical means was already known in antiquity. The law of refraction was

### Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away.

Revision problem Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612 Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. 1 Optical Instruments Thin lens equation Refractive power Cameras The human eye Combining

Decay of Radioactivity Robert Miyaoka, PhD rmiyaoka@u.washington.edu Nuclear Medicine Basic Science Lectures https://www.rad.washington.edu/research/research/groups/irl/ed ucation/basic-science-resident-lectures/2011-12-basic-scienceresident-lectures

### 19 - RAY OPTICS Page 1 ( Answers at the end of all questions )

19 - RAY OPTICS Page 1 1 ) A ish looking up through the water sees the outside world contained in a circular horizon. I the reractive index o water is 4 / 3 and the ish is 1 cm below the surace, the radius

### 1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters. 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle?

1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4.

### Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves wave may be defined as a periodic disturbance in a medium that carries energy from one point to another. ll waves require a source and a medium of propagation.

### PHY114 S11 Term Exam 3

PHY4 S Term Exam S. G. Rajeev Mar 2 20 2:0 pm to :45 pm PLEASE write your workshop number and your workshop leader s name at the top of your book, so that you can collect your graded exams at the workshop.

### 3 Atomic Structure 15

3 Atomic Structure 15 3.1 Atoms You need to be familiar with the terms in italics The diameter of the nucleus is approximately 10-15 m and an atom 10-10 m. All matter consists of atoms. An atom can be

### Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72

Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72 Problem 25.7) A light beam traveling in the negative z direction has a magnetic field B = (2.32 10 9 T )ˆx + ( 4.02 10 9 T )ŷ

### Atomic Structure Ron Robertson

Atomic Structure Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\atomicstructuretrans.doc I. What is Light? Debate in 1600's: Since waves or particles can transfer energy, what is

### Activitity (of a radioisotope): The number of nuclei in a sample undergoing radioactive decay in each second. It is commonly expressed in curies

Activitity (of a radioisotope): The number of nuclei in a sample undergoing radioactive decay in each second. It is commonly expressed in curies (Ci), where 1 Ci = 3.7x10 10 disintegrations per second.

### Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key

Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key 1. Helium neon laser light (63..8 nm) is sent through a 0.300-mm-wide single slit. What is the width of the central imum on a screen 1.00 m from the slit? 7 6.38 10 sin θ.11

### Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams

Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams The Law of Reflection There is nothing really mysterious about reflection, but some people try to make it more difficult than it really is. All EMR will reflect

### KE A = PE MAX 1/2M v 2 = k q1 q2 /R

CHAPTER 13 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE NUCLEAR FORCE The nucleus is help firmly together by the nuclear or strong force, We can estimate the nuclear force by observing that protons residing about 1fm = 10-15m apart