# Experiment 3 Lenses and Images

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1 Experiment 3 Lenses and Images Who shall teach thee, unless it be thine own eyes? Euripides (480?-406? BC) OBJECTIVES To examine the nature and location of images formed by es. THEORY Lenses are frequently found in both nature and technology, wherever it is useful to form an image. They are usually made from transparent material with an index of refraction that is different from the surrounding material and have more or less spherical surfaces. Here we will consider only thin es, for which the distance light travels within the is small compared to other distances in the problem. We will also limit ourselves to the paraxial approximation. This means that all the light rays propagate within a small angle of the optical axis, the line extending perpendicularly through the center of the. Not all optical systems can be described in detail within these limits, but they do simplify the problem for an initial study. A. Basic image formation Figure 3- defines the basic nomenclature used for es. The itself can have a positive focal length, in which case it brings parallel light rays together at a common point, or a negative focal length, which causes parallel light rays to appear to diverge from a common point. Either kind of can form real or virtual images from real or s. A, shown in Fig. 3-, emitr reflects light rays that travel toward the, defining the propagation direction for the or group of es. Rays from a also travel in the propagation direction, but away from the. Such an object would be located to the right of the in Fig. 3-. Obviously it cannot be a material object, but it could be an image formed by a previous. A real image, also shown in Fig. 3-, occurs where rays from a particular point on the object converge again to a point. A screen at this location will show an illuminated image of the object. A virtual image is created when rays from a point on the object continue to diverge after passing optical axis ho propagation direction hi so si Fig. 3- Object and image positions for a simple converging. PHYSICS 26 Laboratory Manual 3

2 through the. Extrapolating the rays back to a common point locates the virtual image. Since the rays diverge, a screen will show only a blur, regardlesf where it is placed. Observation of a virtual image requires a camera, eye or similar instrument that can analyze diverging rays and infer the source location. The actual location of the image is related to the focal length and location of the object by + s i = f (3-) where s i is the distance of the image from the, the distance of the object and f the focal length. The magnification, M, of the image is defined to be the ratio of image height to object height. By tracing a ray through the center of the, it is easy to show that the magnification is given by M = h i h o = s i (3-2) which can also be expressed in termf f and using Eq. 3- M = ( / f ) (3-3) We claim that these equations correctly predict image position and magnification within the thin, paraxial approximation, provided we use the following conventions for the signf the various quantities. f > 0 for a converging, convex surfaces (thicker in the middle) f < 0 for a diverging, concave surfaces (thicker at the edges) distances s i ( )> 0 for real images (objects) distances s i ( )< 0 for virtual images (objects) M < 0 indicates an inverted image, relative to the object M > 0 indicates a non-inverted image The resultf Eqs. 3- and 3-3 are summarized in Fig. 3-2 for both converging and diverging es. The solid lines in the image position plot show, for example, that a converging produces a real image of a if the object is farther than f from the. Depending on the object distance, the image will be found somewhere between the focal point and infinity. An object between the focal point and the produces a virtual image located between the and infinity. PHYSICS 26 Laboratory Manual 4

3 real image si f real image upright image M upright image f - + f virtual image virtual image inverted image inverted image Fig. 3-2 Image position and image magnification as a function of object distance. The solid line is for a converging, the dashed line for a diverging. Similar considerations apply to the diverging. The dashed line to the right of the y-axis shows that a diverging always produces a virtual image of a, and that the virtual image is always located between the and the focal point. The dashed line to the left of the y- axis asserts that a placed between the and the focal point would lead to a real image between the and infinity. We will see later that it is possible to use a converging to produce a and create that real image. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The experimental work consistf forming images with converging and diverging es, and determining the location and magnification of the images for comparison with Eqs. 3- and 3 3. By using a second, it is possible to extend the measurements into the virtual-object region. A. Converging Arrange the componentn the optical bench as shown in Fig. 3-3, using the marked +5 cm. To maintain the paraxial approximation, adjust the holder so that the is at the same height as the center of the light-box target and the optical axis is parallel to the long axif the light box screen Fig. 3-3 Optical bench arrangement for finding the real image of a converging. Start with the arrow and cross-line target on the small light box. PHYSICS 26 Laboratory Manual 5

4 optical bench. If you now position the so that the object distance is greater than the focal length, about 5 cm, you should be able to focus an image of the light box onto the screen. Examine the image carefully. Is it inverted or non-inverted with respect to the object? Is it reversed left to right? Since these terms are somewhat ambiguous, be careful to explain what you mean. Next, locate the metal plate with a hole in it at your lab station. Center the hole over the, and examine the image again. What changes? Now use the edge of the plate to cover about half of the. How does the image change? Is a whole needed to form an image? Does the size or shape of the aperture affect the size or shape of the image? Now remove the screen and look back through the toward the light box. You will probably see an image that is more or less blurry, depending on how far you are from the and how strongly your eye can focus. Now move the light box toward the until the separation is less than the focal length, 5 cm. This should allow you to see a sharp virtual image within your range of focus. Is it inverted or non-inverted? Reversed? Again, be clear in your description. Is the change from a real to a virtual image consistent with Fig. 3-2, assuming the focal length is about 5 cm? To quantify the relationships, we will measure, s i, h o, and h i to compare with the predictionf Eqs. 3- and 3-3. Start by putting the screen back in place and locating the real image for as large a range of object positions as you can conveniently measure. The small light box is useful for short distances, but the large box makes a bigger image from longer distances. Be sure to record both the image distance and image height for each object distance. Locating the virtual image is trickier. The classical method is to look through the with one eye, look around the at a movable target with the other eye, and position the target so that both images are in focus. Most people find this difficult, so we will instead use the arrangement of Fig A glass plate positioned near the and at 45º to the optical axis acts as a beam combiner. Some of the light coming from the screen passes through the glass plate, so it is visible to an observer positioned as shown. Some of the light coming through the is reflected from the glass, so the image is also visible to the same observer. Looking through the plate as indicated you will see the image superimposed on the screen. Adjust the distance b so that the grid pattern on the screen is in focus at the same time as the image seen through the. The exact position can be found by parallax: When the screen and image are at the same distance from the observer s eye, small vertical or horizontal motionf the eye will not cause the images to shift relative to each other. Measure the distance from the glass to the screen for several object distances, and obtain the image distance as explained in Fig You can measure the image height by putting a ruler against the screen and reading the height directly. PHYSICS 26 Laboratory Manual 6

5 screen virtual image light box so a b desk lamp d c glass plate eye Fig. 3-4 Top view of the optical arrangement for locating a virtual image. Position the desk lamp so that both images are equally bright. When the screen and light-box images are superimposed they are equidistant from the observer s eye so d + a + c = b + c The image distance from the is therefore s i = -d = -(b - a), with the minus sign included because it is a virtual image. You could compare your data with Eq. 3- and 3-3 by making a plot like Fig. 3-2, but it is easier to rewrite the equations in a linear form as s i = + f M = f + (3-4) The first equation says that if you plot /s i vs / you should get a straight line of slope - and intercept /f. Similarly, a plot of /M vs should give a straight line with slope -/f and intercept +. Are both plots straight lines with the expected slopes and intercepts and consistent valuef f? Be careful with signs, or plotted points will go far astray. B. Diverging Lens Install the -20 cm diverging in place of the converging, adjust the height of the holder as needed, and look through the at the small light box. Do you see a virtual non-inverted image for all positionf the, as suggested by Fig. 3-2? Measure the image distance for a very large and a very small object distance, using the virtual-image technique described above. Is the virtual image located within 20 cm of the in both cases, as claimed? Use Eq. 3- to estimate f from one of your measurements. Do you get approximately -20 cm? Fig. 3-2 claims that a diverging will form a real image of a that falls between the and the focal point. To test this, you can create a using the converging. Set up the arrangement of Fig. 3-5 and adjust the positionf the small light box PHYSICS 26 Laboratory Manual 7

6 light box converging diverging location screen with real image Fig. 3-5 Optical bench arrangement for finding the real image of a. and the converging to form a real image at a convenient location along the optical bench. Clamp down the components, and note the location of this real image, which becomes the for the diverging. Now put a holder with the diverging onto the optical bench, positioned between the converging and the location. You should be able to locate a real image by properly positioning the screen. Knowing the position of the, you can again measure and s i relative to the diverging, this time for a negative. Are your measurements consistent with Eq. 3- and f = -20 cm? (This may not work accurately because it is difficult to determine with sufficient precision.) REPORT Your quantitative results will be summarized in the plotf image distance and magnification. Be sure to respond to all the qualitative questions in the text. PHYSICS 26 Laboratory Manual 8

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