Ocean Floor Continental Slope Begins at the Continental Shelf Very sharp drop to depths over 2 miles Covered with thick layers of sand, mud, and rocks

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1 Ocean Floor Continental Shelf Begins at the shoreline Gently slopes underwater Average depth of 430 feet Thick layers of sand, mud, and rocks The beach is part of the Continental Shelf

2 Ocean Floor Continental Slope Begins at the Continental Shelf Very sharp drop to depths over 2 miles Covered with thick layers of sand, mud, and rocks

3 Ocean Floor Continental Rise Begins at the Continental Slope Gently slops to the ocean floor Covered in thick layers of sand, mud, and rocks

4 Ocean Floor Abyssal Plain Begins at the Continental Rise Flat area of the ocean floor Covered with sand, mud, and plant and animal remains

5 Ocean Floor Parts of the Abyssal Plain Seamounts n Undersea Mountains n Formed by erupting volcanoes Ocean Trenches n Very deep canyons on the ocean floor n Deepest ocean trench is the Marianas Trench in the Pacific Ocean

6 Continental Shelf Motion of the Ocean Water Line Ocean Trenches Continental Slope Very deep canyons on the ocean floor Seamount Deepest ocean trench is the Marianas Trench in the Pacific Ocean Continental Rise Abyssal Plain Abyssal Plain Ocean Trench

7 Motion of the Ocean All the oceans are really one big World Ocean The oceans are always moving Three basic forms of motion Waves Tides Currents

8 Motion of the Ocean Currents Ocean waters that travel in huge circular patters Mix the ocean waters of the world together Impact where ocean plants and animals live Impact movement of ships around the world Three things cause currents: n Wind Patterns n Temperature n Salinity

9 Motion of the Ocean Wind Patterns Winds that blow the same direction all year can impact currents Corollas Effect: The impact the rotation of the earth has on wind patterns and ocean currents

10 Motion of the Ocean Temperature Currents can be created by changes in water temperature As water heats up, it become lighter and rises As water cools off, it sinks to the bottom This up and down movement of hot and cold water creates currents

11 Motion of the Ocean Salinity Salinity is the amount of salt in the water The heat from the sun indirectly impacts the amount of salt in the ocean At the equator, where the sun has a greater impact on the ocean, the water becomes hotter and more water evaporates The more water that evaporates, the higher the salinity of the remaining water Salty water is heavier and sinks Less salty water rises This sinking and rising creates ocean currents

12 Motion of the Ocean Examples of Currents Gulf Stream n Runs along the east coast of the United States n Located in the Atlantic Ocean n One of the strongest currents n It is like a river of warm water flowing on top of deeper colder ocean water n It is the reason for Europe s warm and mild temperatures

13 Tiny Creatures Big Impact Plankton Tiny free-floating organisms that live in water Two Types Zooplankton Animal Like Phytoplankton Plant Like Phytoplankton carry out most of the photosynthesis on the planet, which means they provide much of the Earth s oxygen Phytoplankton form the base of the ocean food web

14 Tiny Creatures Big Impact Phytoplankton carry out most of the photosynthesis on the planet, which means they provide much of the Earth s oxygen Phytoplankton form the base of the ocean food web Plankton live in areas where nutrient-rich water upwells from the deep

15 Types of Rock There are three different kinds of rock The are classified (labeled) by how they are formed 1. Sedimentary: Layers of sediment cemented together 1. Coal 2. Iron Ore 3. Flint 4. Sandstone 5. Shale

16 Types of Rock There are three different kinds of rock The are classified (labeled) by how they are formed 1. Sedimentary: Layers of sediment cemented together 2. Igneous: Melted and cooled 1. Obsidian 2. Pumice 3. Pegmatite

17 Types of Rock There are three different kinds of rock The are classified (labeled) by how they are formed 1. Sedimentary: Layers of sediment cemented together 2. Igneous: Melted and cooled 3. Metamorphic: Changed by heat and pressure 1. Marble 2. Quartzite 3. Slate 4. Soapstone

18 Rock Cycle Rocks do not spend their entire lives as one type of rock They transition from one type to another over long periods of time

The concepts developed in this standard include the following: Oceans cover about 70% of the surface of the Earth.

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