TERMINOLOGY OF KOGNITIVE LINGUISTICS: CONCEPTUAL SYSTEM AND CONCEPTUAL PICTURE OF THE WORLD

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1 UDC ' 1(082) M. V. PIMENOVA (Kemerovo, Russia) TERMINOLOGY OF KOGNITIVE LINGUISTICS: CONCEPTUAL SYSTEM AND CONCEPTUAL PICTURE OF THE WORLD The article deals with the determination of the terms concept, conceptual system and conceptual picture of the world. Cognitive linguistics helps to analyze knowledge covered by the language picture of the world. K e y w o r d s : language picture of the world, concept, conceptual system and conceptual picture of the world. The modern linguistics accepted some terms which are actively used in the metalanguage something about for last ten years. We are speaking about such terms language picture of the world, conceptual picture of the world, concept, conceptual system, etc. Two terms conceptual system and conceptual picture of the world aren t synonyms. Conceptual picture of the world is all prescientific and scientific knowledge about the world which saved up for the history of the people speaking language existence. The meaning of the term conceptual picture of the world doesn t coincide with the meaning of the term language picture of the world. Conceptual picture of the world consists of many levels of signs. There are arkhaization and desemantization processes which are peculiar to language. In a conceptual picture of the world everything accumulates that was once learned, called and mastered. Knowledge archaic, relic (prescientific) forms the first level in it, it is knowledge of the preliterate period. Further there is a level of knowledge which is partially fixed in any texts. The following levels are knowledge of different sciences, both systematized, and unsystematized. Language remembered and kept this knowledge in the signs and categories (for example, category of the live world in the Russian conceptual picture treat not only animals and the person, but also plants which live and die; this category is connected with category of an animateness).

2 Conceptual system is set of all concepts entering into mental fund of language which were in different types among themselves. They are realized in the represent form language signs. It is possible to call conceptual system a mental framework of a language picture of the world. Conceptual system is formed by conceptual subsystems, such, for example, as concepts of the heavenly world (солнце (sun), звезды (stars), луна (moon), комета (comet), планета (planet), небо (sky) etc.), landscape concepts (земля (ground), море (see), река (river), луг (field), лес (forest), океан (ocean), озеро (lake), etc.), zooconcepts (птица (bird), зверь (animal), хищник (beast of prey), бабочка (butterfly), божья коровка (ladybird), стрекоза (dragonfly), etc.), anthropoconcepts (властитель (sovereign), правитель (regent), воин (warrior), путник (traveler), музыкант (musician), учитель (teacher) and so on), social concepts, such as: political concepts, ideological concepts, interpersonal concepts, religious concepts, ethical concepts, etc. Each people have the mythology, the way of prescientific knowledge of the world, we call it the culture. This knowledge also is displayed on conceptual system: The culture can be defined somehow that this society does and thinks. Language is how we are thinking [4, p ]. The term of conceptual system includes all models of judgment and the description of the world and its fragments. It is possible to call such system traditional since it functions in the form of steady forms of language. The conceptual system is conservative. And at the same time this conceptual system cumulative; it develops and supplemented with new signs since language has property of selfupdating, possesses ability to generation of new language forms for expression of new knowledge. The conceptual system is holographic. The essence of this principle is that the concepts making this system, represent set of the signs necessary and sufficient for identification of fragments standing behind them of the world. Thus each sign of a concept is an independent concept, i.e. every sign has its signs. Language picture of the world is the system of knowledge imprinted in language signs about the world, and also ways of receiving and interpretation of new

3 knowledge. At such approach language is considered as a certain conceptual system and as means of registration of conceptual system of knowledge of the world [2, c. 9]. Linguality of the world consists first of all that existence of the world of events organized by language, that is existence performative lingvalic life of society and the subject [5, p. 26]. According to Sapir-Worf s hypothesis, their existence is caused by that the structure of language defines thinking and a way of knowledge of reality. However for other scientists a large number of cases of provoking by language signs of the wrong assessment of the situation is the basis for the statement about representation in semantic structure of language of two worlds ontologic, reference, that is the world of extra language signs and the events recorded in language, and lingvalny, that is the world created by language. In other words, not language defines thinking, and the world created by language, is the world of our human existence. Our behavior is caused by laws of this world, though has, at the same time, an ontologic framework. Both of these worlds are in close interaction. On crossing of these worlds also there is a person as the personality, on the one hand, defining forms of existence of ontologic and lingualic life, and with another, defined, formed by these worlds [5, p. 27]. The person learns not the objective reality existing out of it and irrespective of it, and that language which knows. Character and development of thinking is defined by its immanent development therefore any thinking has purely national features. In various concepts of modern linguistics attempts to resolve one question become: defines language outlook or it isn t primary way of a categorization of reality and outlook. These theories postulate a sufficient relativity of knowledge of the world which directly depends on that is a source of this knowledge: reality or its conceptualization recorded in value of language signs. The first attempts to reveal and give definition to the main unit of mentality to a concept appeared in the 21 st century. Foggy something came across philosophers and the linguists writing about the rounded-off object and an internal form (G. G. Shpet), an internal form (A. A. Potebnya), the timeless contents (S. L. Franc), basic value (A. F. Losev) and even about a concept (S. A. Askoldov-

4 Alekseev). We determine a concept as units of conceptual system in their relation to language expressions in which knowledge of the world consists. This knowledge belongs to an actual or virtual state of the world. A concept is that the individual knows, thinks, represents about objects of the external and internal worlds. The concept is an idea of a world fragment. Such representation (an image, concept, symbol) is formed by national signs which are supplemented with signs of individual experience and personal imagination. For Russian national image is, for example, Русь (Russ) or мать (mother), an example of idea is социализм (socialism) and коммунизм (communism), as a symbol сокол (falcon) and лебедь (swan) (look this symbols in the Russian folklore) act. Each native speaker has individual the associations. The meaning of the concept concept includes a certain idea of a fragment of the world or part of such fragment, having the not common structure expressed by different groups of signs, realized in the various language ways and meanings. Conceptual sign is represented in the fixed and free forms of combinations of the corresponding language units. The concept reflects valuable characteristics of knowledge about some fragments of the world. Signs, consisted in a concept, functionally significant for the corresponding culture. The complete description of concept s structure, significant for a certain culture, is possible only at total research of its representation means [3, p. 76]. The frame a concept the word expresses the most important situation on which it is necessary to pay special attention. A concept is represented mostly by the word. Conceptualization of the world happens through language, and the image of the world, existing in consciousness, is possible to track through the figurative signs fixed in language. A concept is possible to investigate only by language. Language helps us to investigate the conceptual system. The conceptual system is a framework of language system and its base. A concept has the mental nature; we can learn a concept and describe its structure and cognitive signs only with language. It is possible to argue on nonverbal concepts, however, when we speak about them, we describe them and use language resources. It means that these concepts can be

5 verbalyzed. Not only in a word, and in descriptive form. Therefore the question of nonverbalyzed concepts disappears by itself. The conceptual system of each person is individual. Research of individual conceptual systems while is reduced to the analysis of author s language pictures of the world, with a support on texts oral or written. I.e. ways of an embodiment of conceptual signs in language forms are analyzed. All knowledge of the world belongs to fund of the general for all native speakers of information. The characteristic on which likening (comparison / analogy) of one concept to another is based, allows to approve similarity between known and unknown. Such similarity we determine by the term sign of a concept as the general basis on which some not similar phenomena are compared. Reconstruction of structure of a concept is carried out by the fullest identification of possible signs which can be integrated on the general for them to the specific or patrimonial associative characteristic. The investigation of conceptual signs and comparison of fragments of the world pictures in different languages is one of main objects of conceptual researches. The surprising regularity which characterized language is the ability of the language to store and accumulate for ages that what was fixed in a type of set expressions and cognitive models. The signs of concepts representing a national picture of the world, are conservative. And at the same time the picture of the world changes, the structure of concepts signs extends at the expense of proceeding knowledge of the world. Science development, cultural processes supplement data on the world. These scientific and cultural representations are affected by changing religious and scientific views of society. It is considered that the language completely fixes conceptual system, however it not absolutely so. Language reflects conceptual systems of native speakers in their set, i.e. the national conceptual system doesn t coincide with the individual. Thus the national conceptual system is an abstract phenomenon, something average, relating to ethical level of language. Individual conceptual system is an embodiment of consciousness of the specific person, relating to ethical level.

6 The words апологет (apologist), валоризация (valorization), монетаризм (monetarism) mean nothing for many native speakers of Russian: these words are in language, but their contents internal form simply are not known for everyone, the differential signs expressed as semes don t participate in figurative system of language aren t compared to the corresponding reviewers and aren t identified with other phenomena of the world. It could be explained with the simple fact of loan of these words from other language but if валоризация (valorization) and монетаризм (monetarism) appeared recently in Russian, and there was no enough time for their judgment, but апологет (the apologist) is known from 11 th century, and this word still is actively used in a political discourse. Contexts of this word directly indicate its negative connotation, but word s meaning is not clear from these contexts. If the world is shown to the native speaker in the form of a categorical grid in which each cell represents a generic, specific or concrete concept, on each cell at further understanding and the description of the world all categorical grid assigned to this language is imposed. To this fragment of the world all categories existing in language are tried on ; however not all categories will be commensurable with cognizable concept. The consciousness of the person such is that any word and a concept being behind the word usually joins in some cells of a categorical grid that provides its existence in the form of a set of associative communications. In other words, the described fragment of the world assimilates to something other, similar any quality, property, the relation or functional transfer of signs from other conceptual areas. The main role of concepts in thinking is the categorization, allowing to group the objects having some similarities in certain classes. The system of knowledge of the world conceptual system is expressed in language, including in the form of categories hidden (conceptual) and grammatical (fixed in forms of continuous expression of the corresponding categorical sign). The system of people knowledge of the world doesn t coincide. First of all it is noticeable as a part of grammatical categories. Often say that the reality is unequally reflected in various languages owing to nonidentical conditions of material and public life of people. But it influences not only on conceptual systems of the different nations. Each

7 nation has the mythology, the way in prescientific knowledge of the world, i.e. the culture. Let s offer some terms demanded in connection with emergence of new researches. P a i r c o n c e p t s. Pair concepts are represented by the words that considered as full or partial synonyms. Existence of words-doublets is caused by historical factors of development of language: there are double name of the same reviewer at any stage in one language. The concept луна (moon) represents in Russian with the full synonym месяц (month). The word месяц (month) is primary on time of emergence. The word месяц (month) is forced out by the word луна (moon) later in Russian. The words истина and правда, ложь and обман, горе and злосчастье, жизнь and живот, мечта and грѐза, etc. are examples of pair concepts. B i n a r y c o n c e p t s. Binary concepts are represented by the words which are antonyms. These concepts are also possible to call appositive. For example, любовь (love) and ненависть (hatred), свет (light) and тьма (darkness), друг (friend) and враг (enemy), строить (to build) and разрушать (to destroy), много (it is a lot of) and мало (a little), etc. will be binary concepts. E q u i v a l e n t c o n c e p t s. The equivalent concepts have wholly or partly coincided structures, especially in motivating and definition parts, and their representations are equivalent when translating. Comparative conceptual researches allow to find the general and specific in structures of equivalent concepts. The examples of equivalent concepts are душа and soul, сердце and heart, мудрость and wisdom, дух and spirit, ум and mind, воображение and imagination, etc. Two various historical traditions meet in consciousness of the individual. The first reflects values, ideals and the representations of people developed as forms of historical experience of life in the world and forming a kernel of consciousness of the person because this kernel is a conceptual picture of the world which the person masters with language. Other historical tradition is caused by system of scientific knowledge which didn t appear in one stage, and developed during the whole period of formation of the people. The system of scientific knowledge is accustoms

8 consciously, this knowledge is given to the person from the school. The conceptual system disappears in a language subsoil, it is learned spontaneously, unconsciously, its assimilation happens from the moment of the birth. The person uses these or those forms of language because it is so accepted without reflecting. The cognitive linguistics is promptly replenishing with new terms at the present stage. It is caused by need to differentiate the objects and subjects of research. Unification of terms of cognitive linguistics is one of the immutable purposes of the modern terminology science. 1. Пименова М. В. Концептуальная система // Колесов В. В., Пименова М. В. Концептология: Учеб. пос.; отв. ред. М. В. Пименова. Кемерово: КемГУ, Серия «Концептуальные исследования». Вып. 18. С Пименова М. В. Этногерменевтика языковой наивной картины внутреннего мира человека: Монография. Кемерово; Landau: Кузбассвузиздат, Verlag Empirische Pädagogik, Серия «Этногерменевтика и этнориторика». Вып с. 3. Пименова М. В. Концептуальная картина мира // Пименова М. В. Языковая картина мира: Учеб. пос. Изд. 3-е доп. Санкт-Петербург: СПбГУ, Серия «Славянский мир». Вып. 7. С Сепир Э. Избранные труды по языкознанию и культурологии. М.: Изд. группа «Прогресс», «Универс», с. 5. Теркулов В. И. О природе лингвального мира // Образ мира в зеркале языка: Сб. науч. ст.; отв. соред. В. В. Колесов, М. В. Пименова, В. И. Теркулов. М.: ФЛИНТА, Серия «Концептуальный и лингвальный миры». Вып. 1. С М. В. Пименова ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЯ КОГНИТИВНОЙ ЛИНГВИСТИКИ: КОНЦЕПТУАЛЬНАЯ СИСТЕМА И КОНЦЕПТУАЛЬНАЯ КАРТИНА МИРА Раскрывается значение терминов концепт, концептуальная система и концептуальная картина мира. Когнитивная лингвистика с помощью этих терминов позволяет дать интерпретацию знаний, скрытых в языковой картине мира. К л ю ч е в ы е с л о в а : языковая картина мира, концепт, концептуальная система и концептуальная картина мира.

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