# Antennas 101 The Basics. Ward Silver NØAX

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1 Antennas 101 The Basics Ward Silver NØAX

2 The Basics - 1 Antennas radiate (or receive) because electrons are accelerated (or are caused to accelerate) in the antenna s elements Radio or electromagnetic waves are both an E- (electric) and H- (magnetic) field Electrons move parallel to E-fields Strongest radiation from accelerating electrons linearly (back and forth) Antennas 101 2

3 The Basics - 2 The orientation of the E-field determines the polarization of the wave because that s what makes the electrons move (current) Antennas transmit & receive radio waves in the same way The radiation pattern shows how antennas distribute energy in space Antennas 101 3

4 The Basics - 3 decibels (db) = 10 log (power ratio) Impedance = ratio of Voltage to Current Feed point - place where power is applied Antennas 101 4

5 The Basics db from the maximum gain reference value Azimuthal Pattern Antennas 101 5

6 The Basics - 5 Elevation Pattern Antennas 101 6

7 The Basics - 6 Front-to-Back, Front-to-Side, and Frontto-Rear ratios Front-to-Rear ratio based on an average across 90 or 180 degrees behind the antenna in the pattern s rear quadrant(s) Antennas 101 7

8 The Basics - 6 Rear Back Front Side Antennas 101 8

9 The Basics - 6 Beamwidth - angular width of main lobe Angle between the two points at which power is ½ that at the peak (-3 db points) Antennas 101 9

10 The Basics db Beamwidth 68 Antennas

11 The Basics - 7 Gain measures re-distribution of energy Gain is a comparison of antennas Gain is always with respect to a reference dbi (isotropic), dbd (free-space /2 dipole) /2 dipole has 2.15 dbi gain Ground-plane gain equivalent to /2 dipole 3-element Yagi may have up to 5 dbd gain Antennas

12 QUESTIONS?? Antennas

13 The Dipole - 1 Oldest and simplest form of antenna Di (two) Pole (voltage polarity) Usually 1/2-wavelength long Similar to a vibrating string s fundamental Current maximum in the middle Voltage maximum at the ends Pattern repeats every 1/2-wavelength Direction or amplitude is reversed Antennas

14 The Dipole - 2 Current maximum (I) feed point Voltage minimum (V) 1/2 wavelength IMPORTANT!!! V I A /2 B C /2 /2 Antennas

15 The Dipole - 3 Free-space wavelength ( ) = c / f or 300 / f in MHz (in meters) /2 = 492 / f in MHz (in feet) Length-to-diameter effect Makes the antenna a little longer electrically Thicker conductors are longer electrically Effect of height on electrical length 460/f to 490/f (rarely 468/f) Antennas

16 The Dipole - 4 Radiated energy is strongest perpendicular to an electron s motion electrons move along the length of a dipole radiation strongest broadside to the dipole Antennas

17 The Dipole - 4 Directions of Minimum Radiation Directions of Maximum Radiation Dipole Axis Radiation Pattern Antennas

18 The Dipole - 5 Feed point impedance varies with position High at the ends and low in the middle Resonance feed point impedance all resistive, no reactance Z = R + j 0 ohms Doesn t matter what R is (any value, not just 50 Ω) Antennas

19 The Dipole - 5 Current Maximum (I) feed point Voltage Minimum (V) 1/2 wavelength High Z Low Z H L H V L I H A /2 B C /2 /2 Antennas

20 The Dipole - 6 Inverted-Vee is a bent dipole Radiation pattern adds the effect of ground gain from reflections Can add as much as 6 db over free space Free-space gain best comparative measure Ground gain varies with height and with ground conductivity Antennas

21 The Dipole /2 ground Inverted-Vee Radiation Pattern /2 Antennas

22 QUESTIONS?? Antennas

23 The Ground Plane - 1 Start with a vertical dipole in free-space Cut off one half of the dipole Replace the missing half with a ground plane or counterpoise Omnidirectional if oriented vertically Also called a monopole Antennas

24 The Ground Plane - 2 Antennas

25 The Ground Plane - 3 Antennas

26 The Ground Plane - 4 Equal radiation broadside Nulls along the axis Antennas

27 The Ground Plane - 5 Length (ft) 234 / f (MHz) 231 / f if #14 wire used, if 5/8 tubing Feed point impedance 35 Ω if radials used, sloping increases feed point impedance approximately 45 of droop gives best match halfway between dipole (72 Ω) and ground plane (35 Ω) Antennas

28 Useful References and Books ARRL Publications Antenna Book, Basic Antennas Compendium and Classics series RSGB Publications Practical Wire Antennas and HF Antennas for all Locations CQ Communications Sevick s and Maxwell s books on xmsn lines, baluns Vertical Handbook, All About Quads Antennas

29 Useful On-Line References ARRL Technical Information Service AC6V.com and Dxzone.com L.B. Cebik s web site - Part of the Antennex.com site (subscription) Antennas and TowerTalk reflectors at Antennas

30 Thank You! Antennas

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