Whitepaper n The Next Generation in Wireless Technology

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Whitepaper. 802.11n The Next Generation in Wireless Technology"

Transcription

1 Whitepaper n The Next Generation in Wireless Technology

2 Introduction Wireless technology continues to evolve and add value with its inherent characteristics. First came , then a & b, followed by g, and now n. It has taken more than seven years to arrive to the final ratified proposal bringing with it several enhancements. This document describes the new capabilities and summarizes the benefits from the improvements made by n n Technology For the past seven years, the IEEE standards body has been working on a new standard that would standardize an upgrade to the radio while providing a new set of capabilities, dramatically improving reliability of communications, the predictability of wireless coverage, and increasing the overall throughput of devices, all the while keeping backwards compatibility with legacy environments. The initial n work has largely been based on the n Wi-Fi Alliance draft version 2.0 which includes the following key device requirements which the final version now includes: MIMO Describes the use of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology Enhancements Increased channel size, higher modulation rates, and lower overhead MAC Enhancements Modifies the frame formats used by n devices from those of existing devices MIMO Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is the heart of n. This technical discussion of MIMO provides a basis for understanding how n can reach data rates of 600 Mbps. The nature of wireless communications is vulnerable to all sorts of interference, and distortions or noise. Similar to wired technology, signal to noise ratio (SNR) efficiency is crucial to the ability to provide efficient data transmission. The higher the SNR number the more information that can be carried on the signal and be recovered by the receiver n employs two interesting techniques to improve SNR and multipath environments: Beamforming and multipath or spatial diversity. The following sections describe their functionalities and benefits. Transmit Beamforming Beamforming is a technique used when there is more than one transmit antenna and a single receiver in an open or limited obstruction location. When there are more than one transmit antenna, each radio signal being transmitted will have a different angular phase. These differences affect the overall signal to noise ratio. By adjusting these phases so that they match at the receiver, the signal to noise ratio is dramatically increased, and thus adding to the total amount of information that can be carried by the signals and recovered by the receiver. By now, we can see that this particular methodology depends closely on a feedback mechanism between the transmitter and receiver. Information from the received signal is sent back to the transmitter allowing the transmitter to adjust its radio signals. There are several caveats that should be mentioned when implementing beamforming. 1. This particular technique is only available with n transmitters and receivers. 2. It can only be implemented when transmitting to a single receiver. 3. The feedback mechanism between receiver and transmitter is not immediate and short. If either transmitter or receiver moves, the relationship would have to be re-established. Multipath or Spatial Diversity MIMO technology makes use of multiple radio signals where each signal has its own spatial stream sent from its own antenna. In a typical wireless environment, any signal transmitted will without a doubt encounter some type of interference or reflection. As the number of transmitters increase, the number of signals being transmitted increase. As a result, signals are being received from different paths and at different times. This condition is referred as multipath. Since each antenna functions independent from the other, different data streams will source from each. At the receiving end, each data stream from each radio is combined, and after some complex processing, a cleaner or stronger signal is arrived resulting in a higher signal to noise ratio. 2

3 Enhancements Besides the introduction of a more efficient use of antennas, n has made additional changes to the radio to increase the effective throughput of the WLAN. The most important of these changes are increased channel size, higher modulation rates, and reduced overhead. The following section will describe each of these changes and the effect they have on WLAN throughput. 20- and 40-MHz Channels A brief background on spectral efficiency and channel bonding is needed in order to understand how the enhancements on radio frequency contribute to the overall increased performance. In the original standard as well as with b, their spectral efficiency or channel bandwidth is one-half the bits per hertz, with a and g, the spectral efficiency is 2.7 bits per 54Mbps. The higher the spectral efficiency the more efficient the usage of a limited frequency space can be attained. In addition to spectral efficiency, there are some proprietary WLAN systems that use a clever technique that bonds each g channel (54Mbps) into two channels known as Super G or channel bonding providing up to 108Mbps. With channel bonding, the spectral efficiency is the same as a and g, but the channel bandwidth is twice as great. This provides a simple way of doubling the data rate. One of the key enhancements found in the new n standard is its efficient usage of both 20-MHz and 40-MHz channels. Similar to other proprietary products, the 40-MHz channels in n consists of two 20-MHz channels, bonded together. When using the 40-MHz bonded channel, n takes advantage of the fact that each 20-MHz channel has a small amount of the channel that is reserved at the top and bottom, to reduce interference in those adjacent channels. When using 40-MHz channels, the top of the lower channel and the bottom of the upper channel don't have to be reserved to avoid interference. These small parts of the channel can now be used to carry information. By using the two 20-MHz channels more efficiently in this way, n achieves slightly more than doubling the data rate when moving from 20-MHz to 40-MHz channels (see figure 1). Figure MHz and 40 MHz Channels Increased Modulation Rates n uses a well known modulation technique known as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) which divides a radio channel into a large number of smaller channels, each with its own subcarrier signal (see Figure 1 above). Each of these carrier signals conveys information independent of all the other carrier signals. Think of a group of independent radio frequencies bunched together n increases the number of subcarriers in each 20-MHz channel from 48 to 52. This marginally increases the data rate to a maximum of 65 Mbps, for a single-transmit radio n provides a selection of eight data rates for a transmitter to use and also increases the number of transmitters allowable to four. For two transmitters, the maximum data rate is 130 Mbps. Three transmitters provide a maximum data rate of 195 Mbps. The maximum four transmitters can deliver 260 Mbps. In total, n provides up to 32 data rates for use in a 20-MHz channel. When using 40-MHz channels, n increases the number of subcarriers available to 108. This provides a maximum data rate of 135 Mbps, 270 Mbps, 405 Mbps, and 540 Mbps for one through four transmitters, respectively. Similarly, there are eight data rates provided for each transmitter, 32 in total, for the 40-MHz channel. 3

4 Lowered Overhead: Guard Interval OFDM incorporates a safety mechanism that prevents any intersymbol interference found in multipath environments. The intersymbol interference condition takes place when the beginning of a new symbol arrives at the receiver before the end of the last symbol is done (see figure 2). Figure 2. Guard Interval n uses 800 nanoseconds as the guard interval allowing for multipath difference of 800 feet. However, this guard interval can be reduced provided the multipath environment is not too rigid about the 800 feet difference between the receiver and trasnmitter n can configure the guard interval to 400 nanoseconds or 4 microseconds. This small change provides an increase in data rates. For 20-MHz channels, maximum data rates for one to four transmitters with the reduced guard interval are 72, 144, 216, and 288 Mbps, and 150, 300, 450, and 600 Mbps for a 40-MHz channel. MAC Enhancements In the previous sections we can see how improvements in radio data rates have resulted in increased performance. However, these improvements can only do so much. Every packet or frame transmitted has a certain amount of overhead. To be more precise, MAC layer protocol overhead. In addition to this overhead, interframe spaces and acknowledgements contribute in the reduction of the effective maximum throughput n has introduced several changes in the way MAC layer protocol overhead is handled. To reduce this overhead, n introduces frame aggregation. Frame aggregation is essentially putting two or more frames together into a single transmission n introduces two methods for frame aggregation: Mac Service Data Units (MSDU) aggregation and Message Protocol Data Unit (MPDU) aggregation. Both aggregation methods reduce the overhead to only a single radio preamble for each frame transmission (see Figure 3). Preamble MAC Data FCS Figure 3. Aggregation MAC Protocol Data Unit Aggregation MPDU aggregation works differently than MSDU aggregation. Rather than collecting Ethernet frames, MPDU aggregation translates each Ethernet frame to format and then collects the frames for a common destination. The collection doesn't require wrapping of another frame, since the collected frames already begin with an MAC header (see Figure 4). RP = Preamble, RH = Rapid, MH = MAC, MSDU = Ethernet Frame RP RH MH MH 1 Data 1 MH 2 Data 2 MH 3 Data 3 MH N Data N FCS Figure 4. MPDU Aggregation 4

5 MPDU is less efficient because of the extra overhead that is part of the aggregated frame. Figure 4 shows the frame format with a header followed by the data payload. In addition, this efficiency is further reduced when encryption is included. Another interesting feature that is part of MPDU aggregation is the use of block acknowledgement. With block acknowledgement, a single acknowledgement frame is produced by the recipient to the sender as a result of any frames that are not acknowledged. In environments where high number of errors are inevitable, reducing the number of acknowledgment frames is critical. MAC Service Data Unit Aggregation MSDU aggregation is the more efficient of the two types of aggregation. MSDU works by aggregating Ethernet frames with a common destination wraps them into a single frame and then transmits that wrapped collection of Ethernet frames (see Figure 5). MSDU= Ethernet Frame Preamble MAC MSDU 1 MSDU 2 MSDU 3 MSDU N FCS Figure 5. MSDU Aggregation Unlike MPDU where each frame had a header as part of the aggregated frame, MSDU has only one header consisting of the radio preamble, radio header, and MAC header. Furthermore, the aggregated frame is encrypted only once, whereas, with MPDU, each individual frame is encrypted. Similar to MPDU, there are some restrictions in that all of the constituent frames must be of the same quality-of -service (QoS) level. It is not permitted to mix voice frames with best-effort frames. Summary With the ratification of n, wireless technology continues to mature and deliver on key features that translate into increased benefits for today s and tomorrow s businesses. The enhancements brought up by n deliver the following key benefits: Increased area coverage The introduction of MIMO technology and its multipath effect reduces dramatically the chances of dead spots. The same locations that suffered from multipath effects now make use of this condition to enhance area coverage. Increased data transfer reliability Another advantage with MIMO technology is its SNR efficiency increase. This increase translates into greater data transmission and more robust to interference laden environments. Increased throughput The efficiencies made in the 20-Mhz and 40-MHz channel spectrum, channel bonding, and guard interval timing reduction have contributed to an overall increase in throughput. With the benefits that come with n, there is no reason why businesses considering deploying wireless technology should not be looking into n. This new standard has the potential to increase the WLAN capacity and throughput of every client while keeping cost low, turn-up-time short, return on investment fast, and seamless transition 5

6 NETGEAR, the NETGEAR logo, Connect with Innovation and ProSecure are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of NETGEAR, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. Other brand names mentioned herein are for identification purposes only and may be trademarks of their respective holder(s). Information is subject to change without notice NETGEAR, Inc. All rights reserved.

Main Ways to Enhance Throughput

Main Ways to Enhance Throughput 802.11n Sanna Puha Contents 1. Introduction 2. Ways to Enhance Throughput 3. MIMO operation 4. Structure of Operating Channel 5. MIMO Transmission Modes 6. Modulation Rates 7. Physical Transmission, PLCP:

More information

IEEE 802.11n Enterprise Class Wireless LAN?

IEEE 802.11n Enterprise Class Wireless LAN? Introduction Over the last decade Wi-Fi has advanced from a technology offering a maximum 2Mbps over-theair data rate, to 11Mbps and now to 54Mbps. The technology has been improved to include additions

More information

Planning for 802.11ac Adoption with Ekahau Site Survey 6.0

Planning for 802.11ac Adoption with Ekahau Site Survey 6.0 Planning for 802.11ac Adoption with Ekahau Site Survey 6.0 1 P a g e w w w. e k a h a u. c o m / e s s Introduction to 802.11ac The emerging next generation Wi-Fi standard IEEE 802.11ac aims to break the

More information

MIMO Antenna Systems in WinProp

MIMO Antenna Systems in WinProp MIMO Antenna Systems in WinProp AWE Communications GmbH Otto-Lilienthal-Str. 36 D-71034 Böblingen mail@awe-communications.com Issue Date Changes V1.0 Nov. 2010 First version of document V2.0 Feb. 2011

More information

What is 802.11? Why are standards important?

What is 802.11? Why are standards important? What is 802.11? The 802.11 standards are a group of evolving specifications defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Commonly referred to as Wi Fi the 802.11 standards define

More information

Wi-Fi CERTIFIED n: Longer-Range, Faster-Throughput, Multimedia-Grade Wi-Fi Networks

Wi-Fi CERTIFIED n: Longer-Range, Faster-Throughput, Multimedia-Grade Wi-Fi Networks Wi-Fi CERTIFIED n: Longer-Range, Faster-Throughput, Multimedia-Grade Wi-Fi Networks September 2009 The following document and the information contained herein regarding Wi-Fi Alliance programs and expected

More information

IEEE 802.11ac in Service Provider Wi-Fi Deployments: Consider More Than Speed

IEEE 802.11ac in Service Provider Wi-Fi Deployments: Consider More Than Speed White Paper IEEE 802.11ac in Service Provider Wi-Fi Deployments: Consider More Than Speed 2015 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information. Page 1 of 6 Contents

More information

GTER 26 tudo o que você. quer saber sobre 802.11n

GTER 26 tudo o que você. quer saber sobre 802.11n GTER 26 tudo o que você (não) quer saber sobre 802.11n Luiz Eduardo Dos Santos CISSP CWNE CEH GISP GCIH Sr. Systems & Security Engineer Americas hello agenda evolution of wi-fi what makes 11n what actually

More information

IEEE802.11ac: The Next Evolution of Wi-Fi TM Standards

IEEE802.11ac: The Next Evolution of Wi-Fi TM Standards QUALCOMM, Incorporated May 2012 QUALCOMM is a registered trademark of QUALCOMM Incorporated in the United States and may be registered in other Countries. Other product and brand names may be trademarks

More information

Next Generation Gigabit WiFi 802.11ac

Next Generation Gigabit WiFi 802.11ac Next Generation Gigabit WiFi 802.11ac WHITE PAPER NEXT GENERATION GIGABIT WIFI - 802.11AC The first WiFi-enabled devices were introduced in 1997. For the first time, we were liberated from a physical Internet

More information

Document ID: 108184. Contents. Introduction. Prerequisites. Requirements. Components Used. Related Products. Conventions. 802.

Document ID: 108184. Contents. Introduction. Prerequisites. Requirements. Components Used. Related Products. Conventions. 802. Products & Services Configure 802.11n on the WLC Document ID: 108184 Contents Introduction Prerequisites Requirements Components Used Related Products Conventions 802.11n - An Overview How Does 802.11n

More information

Wi-Fi Capacity Analysis for 802.11ac and 802.11n: Theory & Practice

Wi-Fi Capacity Analysis for 802.11ac and 802.11n: Theory & Practice Wi-Fi Capacity Analysis for 802.11ac and 802.11n: Theory & Practice By Timo Vanhatupa, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist at Ekahau Contents Introduction Why capacity matters with Wi-Fi... 3 Part 1: Modeling

More information

Transmit Smart with Transmit Beamforming

Transmit Smart with Transmit Beamforming WHITE PAPER Transmit Smart with Transmit Beamforming Bhama Vemuru Senior Technical Marketing Engineering Marvell November 2011 www.marvell.com Introduction One of the challenges often faced with Wi-Fi

More information

Whitepaper. Next Generation Gigabit WiFi - 802.11ac

Whitepaper. Next Generation Gigabit WiFi - 802.11ac Whitepaper Next Generation Gigabit WiFi - 802.11ac Next Generation Gigabit WiFi - 802. 11ac The first WiFi-enabled devices were introduced in 1997. For the first time, we were liberated from a physical

More information

WLAN 802.11ac Technology White Paper HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Issue V1.0. Date 2014-04-23

WLAN 802.11ac Technology White Paper HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Issue V1.0. Date 2014-04-23 WLAN 802.11ac Technology White Paper Issue V1.0 Date 2014-04-23 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. 2014. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any

More information

The WiMAX 802.16e Advantage

The WiMAX 802.16e Advantage The WiMAX 802.16e Advantage An analysis of WiFi 802.11 a/b/g/n and WiMAX 802.16e technologies for license-exempt, outdoor broadband wireless applications. White Paper 2 Objective WiMAX and WiFi are technologies

More information

Attenuation (amplitude of the wave loses strength thereby the signal power) Refraction Reflection Shadowing Scattering Diffraction

Attenuation (amplitude of the wave loses strength thereby the signal power) Refraction Reflection Shadowing Scattering Diffraction Wireless Physical Layer Q1. Is it possible to transmit a digital signal, e.g., coded as square wave as used inside a computer, using radio transmission without any loss? Why? It is not possible to transmit

More information

White Paper. D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. E-mail: info@dlink.com.sg; Web: http://www.dlink-intl.

White Paper. D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. E-mail: info@dlink.com.sg; Web: http://www.dlink-intl. Introduction to Voice over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN) White Paper D-Link International Tel: (65) 6774 6233, Fax: (65) 6774 6322. Introduction Voice over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN) is a technology involving the use

More information

Wireless LANs vs. Wireless WANs

Wireless LANs vs. Wireless WANs White Paper Wireless LANs vs. Wireless WANs White Paper 2130273 Revision 1.0 Date 2002 November 18 Subject Supported Products Comparing Wireless LANs and Wireless WANs Wireless data cards and modules,

More information

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) vs. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) in Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) and Wireless LAN (WLAN)

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) vs. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) in Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) and Wireless LAN (WLAN) FHSS vs. DSSS page 1 of 16 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) vs. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) in Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) and Wireless LAN (WLAN) by Sorin M. SCHWARTZ Scope In 1997

More information

WiFi. Is for Wireless Fidelity Or IEEE 802.11 Standard By Greg Goldman. WiFi 1

WiFi. Is for Wireless Fidelity Or IEEE 802.11 Standard By Greg Goldman. WiFi 1 WiFi Is for Wireless Fidelity Or IEEE 802.11 Standard By Greg Goldman WiFi 1 What is the goal of 802.11 standard? To develop a Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specification for wireless

More information

DAB Digital Radio Broadcasting. Dr. Campanella Michele

DAB Digital Radio Broadcasting. Dr. Campanella Michele DAB Digital Radio Broadcasting Dr. Campanella Michele Intel Telecomponents Via degli Ulivi n. 3 Zona Ind. 74020 Montemesola (TA) Italy Phone +39 0995664328 Fax +39 0995932061 Email:info@telecomponents.com

More information

HUAWEI Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure

HUAWEI Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure 01 Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure 1 Overview Release of 802.11ac standards has driven wireless technologies to the era of GE Wi-Fi. Enterprise Wi-Fi networks

More information

Testing WLAN Devices According to IEEE 802.11 Standards. Application Note

Testing WLAN Devices According to IEEE 802.11 Standards. Application Note Testing WLAN Devices According to IEEE 802.11 Standards Application Note Table of Contents The Evolution of 802.11... 4 Frequency Channels and Frame Structures... 5 Frame structure: 802.11a... 5 Frame

More information

VOICE OVER WI-FI CAPACITY PLANNING

VOICE OVER WI-FI CAPACITY PLANNING VOICE OVER WI-FI CAPACITY PLANNING Version 1.0 Copyright 2003 Table of Contents Introduction...3 Wi-Fi RF Technology Options...3 Spectrum Availability and Non-Overlapping Wi-Fi Channels...4 Limited

More information

Delivering broadband internet access for high speed trains passengers using the new WiFi. standard 802.11n for train-to-ground communications

Delivering broadband internet access for high speed trains passengers using the new WiFi. standard 802.11n for train-to-ground communications Delivering broadband internet access for high speed trains passengers using the new WiFi standard 802.11n for train-to-ground communications Hassan GHANNOUM 1, David SANZ 1, Bernadette VILLEFORCEIX 2,

More information

HomePlug AV2 Technology

HomePlug AV2 Technology HomePlug AV2 Technology Raising the Bar for Sustained High-Throughput Performance and Interoperability for Multi-stream Networking Using Existing Powerline Wiring in the Home. Copyright 2013, HomePlug

More information

Spring 2014. Final Project Report

Spring 2014. Final Project Report ENSC 427: COMMUNICATIONNETWORKS Spring 2014 Final Project Report Evaluation and Comparison of WiMAX (802.16a) and Wi-Fi (802.11a) http://www.sfu.ca/~tlan/ensc427webpage.html Group #11 Tian Lan tlan@sfu.ca

More information

Understanding the IEEE 802.11ac Wi Fi Standard Preparing for the next gen of WLAN

Understanding the IEEE 802.11ac Wi Fi Standard Preparing for the next gen of WLAN WHITEPAPER Understanding the IEEE 802.11ac Wi Fi Standard Preparing for the next gen of WLAN July 2013 Author: Richard Watson Contributors: Dennis Huang, Manish Rai Table of Contents Executive summary...

More information

Understanding and Optimizing 802.11n

Understanding and Optimizing 802.11n Understanding and Optimizing 802.11n Buffalo Technology July 2011 Brian Verenkoff Director of Marketing and Business Development Introduction: Wireless networks have always been difficult to implement

More information

CSMA/CA. Information Networks p. 1

CSMA/CA. Information Networks p. 1 Information Networks p. 1 CSMA/CA IEEE 802.11 standard for WLAN defines a distributed coordination function (DCF) for sharing access to the medium based on the CSMA/CA protocol Collision detection is not

More information

LTE, WLAN, BLUETOOTHB

LTE, WLAN, BLUETOOTHB LTE, WLAN, BLUETOOTHB AND Aditya K. Jagannatham FUTURE Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Commonwealth of Learning Vancouver 4G LTE LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the 4G wireless cellular standard developed

More information

Demystifying Wireless for Real-World Measurement Applications

Demystifying Wireless for Real-World Measurement Applications Proceedings of the IMAC-XXVIII February 1 4, 2010, Jacksonville, Florida USA 2010 Society for Experimental Mechanics Inc. Demystifying Wireless for Real-World Measurement Applications Kurt Veggeberg, Business,

More information

Wi-Fi and Bluetooth - Interference Issues

Wi-Fi and Bluetooth - Interference Issues Wi-Fi and Bluetooth - Interference Issues January 2002 1 Introduction Because both Wi-Fi and Bluetooth wireless technology share spectrum and will often be located in close physical proximity to one another,

More information

Next Generation 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks

Next Generation 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks Next Generation 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks This is a 2 day course technical course intended to give student a solid understanding of the emerging IEEE 802.11 standards, how it works including

More information

AC1450 Smart WiFi Router - 802.11ac Dual Band Gigabit

AC1450 Smart WiFi Router - 802.11ac Dual Band Gigabit Smart WiFi Router - 802.11ac Dual Band Gigabit Performance & Use Next Generation Gigabit WiFi Speeds Connect more devices throughout your home 1450 DUAL BAND 450+1000 RANGE USB 3.0 port Up to 10 faster

More information

Chapter 3: Spread Spectrum Technologies

Chapter 3: Spread Spectrum Technologies Chapter 3: Spread Spectrum Technologies Overview Comprehend the differences between, and explain the different types of spread spectrum technologies and how they relate to the IEEE 802.11 standard's PHY

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL MODULATION

AN INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL MODULATION AN INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL MODULATION This article provides readers a simple overview of the various popular methods used in modulating a digital signal. The relative merits of each of these modulation

More information

What s The Difference Between Bit Rate And Baud Rate?

What s The Difference Between Bit Rate And Baud Rate? What s The Difference Between Bit Rate And Baud Rate? Apr. 27, 2012 Lou Frenzel Electronic Design Serial-data speed is usually stated in terms of bit rate. However, another oftquoted measure of speed is

More information

Wireless Ethernet LAN (WLAN) General 802.11a/802.11b/802.11g FAQ

Wireless Ethernet LAN (WLAN) General 802.11a/802.11b/802.11g FAQ Wireless Ethernet LAN (WLAN) General 802.11a/802.11b/802.11g FAQ Q: What is a Wireless LAN (WLAN)? Q: What are the benefits of using a WLAN instead of a wired network connection? Q: Are Intel WLAN products

More information

Cloud-based Wireless LAN for Enterprise, SMB, IT Service Providers and Carriers. Product Highlights. Relay2 Enterprise Access Point RA100 Datasheet

Cloud-based Wireless LAN for Enterprise, SMB, IT Service Providers and Carriers. Product Highlights. Relay2 Enterprise Access Point RA100 Datasheet Cloud-based Wireless LAN for Enterprise, SMB, IT Service Providers and Carriers The Relay2 Smart Access Point (RA100) is an enterprise-class access point designed for deployment in high-density environments

More information

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network Wireless Networks Background: # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phone subscribers! computer nets: laptops, palmtops, PDAs, Internet-enabled phone promise anytime untethered Internet

More information

Pointers on using the 5GHz WiFi bands

Pointers on using the 5GHz WiFi bands Pointers on using the 5GHz WiFi bands Legalities In the UK, there are two main types of radio devices that use the 5GHz frequency bands. The most common are those devices that conform to the 11a standard.

More information

IEEE 802.11g New Draft Standard Clarifies Future of Wireless LAN

IEEE 802.11g New Draft Standard Clarifies Future of Wireless LAN Users to benefit from higher data rates, extended reach and backward compatibility with 802.11b, plus forward compatibility to 802.11a William Carney Marketing Manager Wireless Networking Business Unit,

More information

Lecture 17: 802.11 Wireless Networking"

Lecture 17: 802.11 Wireless Networking Lecture 17: 802.11 Wireless Networking" CSE 222A: Computer Communication Networks Alex C. Snoeren Thanks: Lili Qiu, Nitin Vaidya Lecture 17 Overview" Project discussion Intro to 802.11 WiFi Jigsaw discussion

More information

Top Six Considerations

Top Six Considerations Top Six Considerations for Upgrading to table of contents + Section I: Introduction Understanding...2 + Section II: Uses Cases for... 3 + Section III: Top 6 considerations for...5 + Section IV: Conclusion...

More information

WiMax broadband wireless access. Wireless communication is considered one of the big engineering success stories

WiMax broadband wireless access. Wireless communication is considered one of the big engineering success stories WiMax broadband wireless access Introduction Wireless communication is considered one of the big engineering success stories over the last two decades. It is one of the rapidly changing fields that demand

More information

This tutorial has been prepared for readers to help them understand the concepts related to WiFi.

This tutorial has been prepared for readers to help them understand the concepts related to WiFi. About the Tutorial is primarily a local area networking (LAN) technology designed to provide in-building broadband coverage. It is based on IEEE 802.11 specification. This tutorial gives you a basic understanding

More information

WHITE PAPER. Realistic LTE Performance From Peak Rate to Subscriber Experience

WHITE PAPER. Realistic LTE Performance From Peak Rate to Subscriber Experience WHITE PAPER Realistic LTE Performance From Peak Rate to Subscriber Experience Realistic LTE Performance From Peak Rate to Subscriber Experience Introduction Peak data rates are often perceived as actual

More information

LoRaWAN. What is it? A technical overview of LoRa and LoRaWAN. Technical Marketing Workgroup 1.0

LoRaWAN. What is it? A technical overview of LoRa and LoRaWAN. Technical Marketing Workgroup 1.0 LoRaWAN What is it? A technical overview of LoRa and LoRaWAN Technical Marketing Workgroup 1.0 November 2015 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 What is LoRa?... 3 Long Range (LoRa )... 3 2. Where does

More information

R6250 Smart WiFi Router - AC Dual Band Gigabit

R6250 Smart WiFi Router - AC Dual Band Gigabit Smart WiFi Router - AC Dual Band Gigabit Performance & Use AC1600 AC1600 WiFi 300+1300 Mbps speeds Best wireless coverage for large homes 1600 DUAL BAND 300+1300 RANGE Ideal for homes with 10 or more WiFi

More information

Best Practices for High Density Wireless Network Design In Education and Small/Medium Businesses

Best Practices for High Density Wireless Network Design In Education and Small/Medium Businesses Best Practices for High Density Wireless Network Design In Education and Small/Medium Businesses White Paper Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Introduction 3 Determining Access Point Throughput 4 Establishing

More information

The Advantages of SOFDMA for WiMAX

The Advantages of SOFDMA for WiMAX The Advantages of SOFDMA for WiMAX Vladimir Bykovnikov Intel Corporation Abstract SOFDMA has several advantages when used in NLOS wireless networks. The paper outlines these advantages and shows the evolutionary

More information

Expert Reference Series of White Papers. Wireless Bandwidth Not Necessarily as Advertised 1-800-COURSES. www.globalknowledge.com

Expert Reference Series of White Papers. Wireless Bandwidth Not Necessarily as Advertised 1-800-COURSES. www.globalknowledge.com Expert Reference Series of White Papers Wireless Bandwidth Not Necessarily as Advertised 1-800-COURSES www.globalknowledge.com Wireless Bandwidth Not Necessarily as Advertised Ted Rohling, Global Knowledge

More information

Chapter 7 Low-Speed Wireless Local Area Networks

Chapter 7 Low-Speed Wireless Local Area Networks Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications 7-1 Chapter 7 Low-Speed Wireless Local Area Networks At a Glance Instructor s Manual Table of Contents Overview Objectives s Quick Quizzes Class Discussion Topics

More information

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011 HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011 SY_SSS_1026s TRADEMARKS HD Radio and the HD, HD Radio, and Arc logos are proprietary trademarks of ibiquity Digital Corporation. ibiquity,

More information

LTE BACKHAUL REQUIREMENTS: A REALITY CHECK

LTE BACKHAUL REQUIREMENTS: A REALITY CHECK By: Peter Croy, Sr. Network Architect, Aviat Networks INTRODUCTION LTE mobile broadband technology is now being launched across the world with more than 140 service providers committed to implement it

More information

Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. Networks: Fast Ethernet 1

Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. Networks: Fast Ethernet 1 Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet Networks: Fast Ethernet 1 Fast Ethernet (100BASE-T) How to achieve 100 Mbps capacity? MII LLC MAC Convergence Sublayer Media Independent Interface Media Dependent Sublayer

More information

Multihopping for OFDM based Wireless Networks

Multihopping for OFDM based Wireless Networks Multihopping for OFDM based Wireless Networks Jeroen Theeuwes, Frank H.P. Fitzek, Carl Wijting Center for TeleInFrastruktur (CTiF), Aalborg University Neils Jernes Vej 12, 9220 Aalborg Øst, Denmark phone:

More information

Motorola Wireless Broadband. Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) Access Network Solutions

Motorola Wireless Broadband. Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) Access Network Solutions Motorola Wireless Broadband Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) Access Network Solutions Motorola Technology is as Simple as it is Powerful Motorola Wireless Broadband Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) solutions are streamlined,

More information

Throughput for TDD and FDD 4 G LTE Systems

Throughput for TDD and FDD 4 G LTE Systems Throughput for TDD and FDD 4 G LTE Systems Sonia Rathi, Nisha Malik, Nidhi Chahal, Sukhvinder Malik Abstract Long Term Evolution (LTE) has been designed to support only packet-switched services. It aims

More information

802.11ac Power Measurement and Timing Analysis

802.11ac Power Measurement and Timing Analysis 802.11ac Power Measurement and Timing Analysis Using the 8990B Peak Power Analyzer Application Note Introduction There are a number of challenges to anticipate when testing WLAN 802.11ac [1] power amplifier

More information

Module 5. Broadcast Communication Networks. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 5. Broadcast Communication Networks. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur Module 5 Broadcast Communication Networks Lesson 9 Cellular Telephone Networks Specific Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the student will be able to: Explain the operation of Cellular

More information

WLAN MIMO Terminal Test in Reverberation Chamber

WLAN MIMO Terminal Test in Reverberation Chamber WLAN MIMO Terminal Test in Reverberation Chamber NATALIA OLANO Antenna Group Department of Signals and Systems Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden, 2008 WLAN MIMO TERMINAL TEST IN REVERBERATION

More information

R6200 Smart WiFi Router AC1200 Dual Band Gigabit

R6200 Smart WiFi Router AC1200 Dual Band Gigabit Performance & Use AC1200 1200 DUAL BAND 300+900 RANGE AC1200 WiFi 300+867 Mbps speeds Wireless coverage for large homes Ideal for homes with 8 or more WiFi devices NETGEAR genie App Enjoy more of your

More information

Consistent Application delivery for the All Wireless Enterprise.

Consistent Application delivery for the All Wireless Enterprise. WhitePaper Wireless Without Compromise: Consistent Application delivery for the All Wireless Enterprise. Wireless Without Compromise:...1 Executive Summary...3 802.11n Overview...4 Status of IEEE 802.11n

More information

Lab Exercise 802.11. Objective. Requirements. Step 1: Fetch a Trace

Lab Exercise 802.11. Objective. Requirements. Step 1: Fetch a Trace Lab Exercise 802.11 Objective To explore the physical layer, link layer, and management functions of 802.11. It is widely used to wireless connect mobile devices to the Internet, and covered in 4.4 of

More information

ECE 358: Computer Networks. Homework #3. Chapter 5 and 6 Review Questions 1

ECE 358: Computer Networks. Homework #3. Chapter 5 and 6 Review Questions 1 ECE 358: Computer Networks Homework #3 Chapter 5 and 6 Review Questions 1 Chapter 5: The Link Layer P26. Let's consider the operation of a learning switch in the context of a network in which 6 nodes labeled

More information

AC 1900. Wireless Dual Band PCI Express Adapter. Highlights

AC 1900. Wireless Dual Band PCI Express Adapter. Highlights AC 1900 Wireless Dual Band PCI Express Adapter Highlights Easy Installation Upgrade your desktop system easily by plugging the Archer T9E Wi-Fi adapter into an available PCI-E slot Hi-Speed Wi-Fi Up to

More information

Comparing WiMAX and HSPA+ White Paper

Comparing WiMAX and HSPA+ White Paper Comparing WiMAX and HSPA+ White Paper Introduction HSPA+ or HSPA Evolved is the next step in the 3GPP evolution. With 3GPP Rel-7 and Rel-8, several new features are added to this 3G WCDMA technology,

More information

AV1200 TL-PA8030P KIT. 3-Port Gigabit Passthrough Powerline Starter Kit. Highlights

AV1200 TL-PA8030P KIT. 3-Port Gigabit Passthrough Powerline Starter Kit. Highlights AV1200 3-Port Gigabit Passthrough Powerline Starter Kit Highlights AV1200 HomePlug AV2 standard compliant, high-speed data transfer rates of up to 1200Mbps, supports all your online needs MIMO Technology

More information

Analysis of QoS parameters of VOIP calls over Wireless Local Area Networks

Analysis of QoS parameters of VOIP calls over Wireless Local Area Networks Analysis of QoS parameters of VOIP calls over Wireless Local Area Networks Ayman Wazwaz, Computer Engineering Department, Palestine Polytechnic University, Hebron, Palestine, aymanw@ppu.edu Duaa sweity

More information

Virtual Access Points

Virtual Access Points Virtual Access Points Performance Impacts in an 802.11 environment and Alternative Solutions to overcome the problems By Thenu Kittappa Engineer Author: Thenu Kittappa Page 1 Virtual Access Points... 1

More information

How to cable 802.11n Wireless Access Points

How to cable 802.11n Wireless Access Points How to cable 802.11n Wireless Access Points The 802.11n standard is an important advance in wireless Local Area Networks (LANs). In 2007, residential consumers began installing 802.11n products and in

More information

... neither PCF nor CA used in practice

... neither PCF nor CA used in practice IEEE 802.11 MAC CSMA/CA with exponential backoff almost like CSMA/CD drop CD CSMA with explicit ACK frame added optional feature: CA (collision avoidance) Two modes for MAC operation: Distributed coordination

More information

Cooperative Techniques in LTE- Advanced Networks. Md Shamsul Alam

Cooperative Techniques in LTE- Advanced Networks. Md Shamsul Alam Cooperative Techniques in LTE- Advanced Networks Md Shamsul Alam Person-to-person communications Rich voice Video telephony, video conferencing SMS/MMS Content delivery Mobile TV High quality video streaming

More information

It explains the differences between the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy and the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.

It explains the differences between the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy and the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. TECHNICAL TUTORIAL Subject: SDH Date: October, 00 Prepared by: John Rumsey SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. Introduction. The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH). The Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

More information

Networks. Master of Science (Computer Science and Engineering), December 2004, 45 pp.,

Networks. Master of Science (Computer Science and Engineering), December 2004, 45 pp., Park, Sangtae, Optimal Access Point Selection and Channel Assignment in IEEE 802.11 Networks. Master of Science (Computer Science and Engineering), December 2004, 45 pp., 9 tables, 17 figures, 29 titles.

More information

White Paper. Wireless Network Considerations for Mobile Collaboration

White Paper. Wireless Network Considerations for Mobile Collaboration White Paper Wireless Network Considerations for Mobile Collaboration Table of Contents I. Introduction... 3 II. Wireless Considerations... 4 Channel Selection... 4 Interference... 4 Coverage... 5 Covering

More information

CAMPUS WIRELESS UPGRADE

CAMPUS WIRELESS UPGRADE CAMPUS WIRELESS UPGRADE Capital Project Proposal 2015-2017 Active Minds Changing Lives INFRASTRUCTURE Higher Education Project Proposal 2015-17 Biennium Campus Wireless Upgrade Western Washington University

More information

Interference Measurements on Performance Degradation between Colocated IEEE 802.11g/n and IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

Interference Measurements on Performance Degradation between Colocated IEEE 802.11g/n and IEEE 802.15.4 Networks Interference Measurements on Performance Degradation between Colocated IEEE 802.11g/n and IEEE 802.15.4 Networks Marina Petrova, Lili Wu, Petri Mähönen and Janne Riihijärvi Department of Wireless Networks,

More information

NON-LINE OF SIGHT: TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATION

NON-LINE OF SIGHT: TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATION SOLECTEK WHITE PAPER NON-LINE OF SIGHT: TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATION Introduction To many industry insiders, the promise of broadband wireless access (BWA) is clear. Delivery of last mile, enterprise infrastructure

More information

SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference

SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference Publication Date: May 27, 2015 KCF Technologies, Inc. Background The SmartDiagnostics wireless network is an easy to install, end-to-end machine

More information

IEEE 802.11ac: What Does it Mean for Test?

IEEE 802.11ac: What Does it Mean for Test? WHITEPAPER IEEE 802.11ac: What Does it Mean for Test? 2013 LitePoint, A Teradyne Company. All rights reserved. Table of Contents Introduction to 802.11ac... 2 802.11ac: Overview... 3 Market Forecast...

More information

Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. Computer Networks: Fast and Gigabit Ethernet

Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. Computer Networks: Fast and Gigabit Ethernet Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet 1 Fast Ethernet (100BASE-T) How to achieve 100 Mbps capacity? MII LLC MAC Convergence Sublayer Media Independent Interface Media Dependent Sublayer Data Link Layer Physical

More information

Key Features. Multiple Operation Modes ENH500 can operate into four different modes with Access Point, Client Bridge, Client Router and WDS Mode.

Key Features. Multiple Operation Modes ENH500 can operate into four different modes with Access Point, Client Bridge, Client Router and WDS Mode. 802.11a/n Long Range Wireless Outdoor CPE Key Features IEEE 802.11 a/n compliant Up to 300Mbps (5GHz) 24V Proprietary PoE support Waterproof Housing IP65 rated AP/CB/CR/WDS Modes 4 SSIDs support + VLAN

More information

Characterizing Wireless Network Performance

Characterizing Wireless Network Performance Characterizing Wireless Network Performance Ruckus Wireless Black Paper Accurate performance testing for wireless networks requires understanding how to test for worst case scenarios As expensive and inconvenient

More information

WHITE PAPER JULY 2012 WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT 802.11AC DEMYSTIFYING THE BUSINESS AND TECHNICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE NEXT GENERATION OF WLAN

WHITE PAPER JULY 2012 WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT 802.11AC DEMYSTIFYING THE BUSINESS AND TECHNICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE NEXT GENERATION OF WLAN JULY 2012 WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT 802.11AC DEMYSTIFYING THE BUSINESS AND TECHNICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE NEXT GENERATION OF WLAN TECHNOLOGY CONTENTS INTRODUCTION: WLANs IN TRANSITION 3 WHY DO WE NEED

More information

MoCA 1.1 Specification for Device RF Characteristics

MoCA 1.1 Specification for Device RF Characteristics MoCA 1.1 Specification for Device RF Characteristics 20140211 Copyright 2012, 2014 Multimedia Over Coax Alliance. All Rights Reserved. MoCA is a trademark or registered trademark of the Multimedia Over

More information

The Effect of Network Cabling on Bit Error Rate Performance. By Paul Kish NORDX/CDT

The Effect of Network Cabling on Bit Error Rate Performance. By Paul Kish NORDX/CDT The Effect of Network Cabling on Bit Error Rate Performance By Paul Kish NORDX/CDT Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Probability of Causing Errors... 3 Noise Sources Contributing to Errors... 4 Bit Error

More information

EPL 657 Wireless Networks

EPL 657 Wireless Networks EPL 657 Wireless Networks Some fundamentals: Multiplexing / Multiple Access / Duplex Infrastructure vs Infrastructureless Panayiotis Kolios Recall: The big picture... Modulations: some basics 2 Multiplexing

More information

App coverage. ericsson White paper Uen 284 23-3212 Rev B August 2015

App coverage. ericsson White paper Uen 284 23-3212 Rev B August 2015 ericsson White paper Uen 284 23-3212 Rev B August 2015 App coverage effectively relating network performance to user experience Mobile broadband networks, smart devices and apps bring significant benefits

More information

IEEE 802 Protocol Layers. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standard. Protocol Architecture. Protocol Architecture. Separation of LLC and MAC.

IEEE 802 Protocol Layers. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standard. Protocol Architecture. Protocol Architecture. Separation of LLC and MAC. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standard IEEE 802 Protocol Layers Chapter 14 Protocol Architecture Functions of physical layer: Encoding/decoding of signals Preamble generation/removal (for synchronization) Bit

More information

MOBILITY AND MOBILE NETWORK OPTIMIZATION

MOBILITY AND MOBILE NETWORK OPTIMIZATION MOBILITY AND MOBILE NETWORK OPTIMIZATION netmotionwireless.com Executive Summary Wireless networks exhibit uneven and unpredictable performance characteristics which, if not correctly managed, can turn

More information

The Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks. David W. Paranchych IEEE CVT Luncheon January 21, 2003

The Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks. David W. Paranchych IEEE CVT Luncheon January 21, 2003 The Evolution of 3G CDMA Wireless Networks David W. Paranchych IEEE CVT Luncheon January 21, 2003 Outline Past: cdma2000 1xRTT Present: 1xEV-DO What is it? How does it work? How well does it work? What

More information

Chapter 6: Broadcast Systems. Mobile Communications. Unidirectional distribution systems DVB DAB. High-speed Internet. architecture Container

Chapter 6: Broadcast Systems. Mobile Communications. Unidirectional distribution systems DVB DAB. High-speed Internet. architecture Container Mobile Communications Chapter 6: Broadcast Systems Unidirectional distribution systems DAB DVB architecture Container High-speed Internet Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, http://www.jochenschiller.de/ MC

More information

RF Safety Compliance and Duty Cycle for OpenWay CENTRON 4G-LTE Meters December 2015

RF Safety Compliance and Duty Cycle for OpenWay CENTRON 4G-LTE Meters December 2015 RF Safety Compliance and Duty Cycle for OpenWay CENTRON 4G-LTE Meters December 2015 WHITE PAPER EXECUTIVE SUMMARY As a world-leading technology and services company that manufactures products that utilize

More information

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user Orthogonal Sub channels An Insight

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user Orthogonal Sub channels An Insight TEC Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user Orthogonal Sub channels An Insight HP 4/15/2013 A powerful software upgrade leverages quaternary modulation and MIMO techniques to improve network efficiency

More information

A Performance Study of Wireless Broadband Access (WiMAX)

A Performance Study of Wireless Broadband Access (WiMAX) A Performance Study of Wireless Broadband Access (WiMAX) Maan A. S. Al-Adwany Department of Computer & Information Engineering, College of Electronics Engineering University of Mosul Mosul, Iraq maanaladwany@yahoo.com

More information