Pipeline Routing using GIS and Remote Sensing Tobenna Opara Ocean Engineering Department University of Rhode Island

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1 Pipeline Routing using GIS and Remote Sensing Tobenna Opara Ocean Engineering Department University of Rhode Island Pipelines are utilized by the oil and gas industry to transport various fuel sources including petroleum and natural gas across long distances. Determination of the shortest and most direct and efficient route is a primary objective to minimize fuel travel time and capital expenditure. The distances between the source of petroleum products and their destination for energy transitions can span hundreds of miles with varying terrain. External and environmental variables are the most important factors that need to be taken into account when strategically planning out pipeline routes (Dey and Gupta, 1999). Pipelines are elongated cylindrical linear structures, which immense planning and capital to manufacture and install on the ground or below the earth s surface. The pipeline industry faces a tremendous amount of scrutiny by environmental, government and other international agencies. Reducing these limiting problems for effective route planning can be simplified and methodically organized by using geographic information systems (GIS) technology through vector based data. Determination of the most cost effective and environmentally pleasing route for pipeline placement is one of the most controversial spatial problems encountered in the pipeline manufacturing and engineering industry. The most conventional means of routing pipelines consists of using a hand delineation method, which requires utilization of a manual overlay incorporating (x,y,z) topographic layers. This is one of the rate limiting steps in determining where the topology will allow for pipeline placement. This spatially identifying conventional method for determining proper object placement on the ground, determining buffer zones and determining environmental topology factors pioneered the pipeline planning industry of today. The geographical information system works as a decision support module, which is designed to provide cost effective routing options that can minimize proposed pipeline distances. Use of GIS allows for the end user to be able to interpret areas of concern and develop a site suitability analysis. This allows pipeline engineers to design systems that work to minimize environmental damage, determine locations of existing pipelines features on the ground. In addition, GIS can be applied to compare existing pipeline routes and make sure that they are not parallel or adjacent to high voltage transmission lines or densely populates areas. The themes and variables used as inputs in the GIS rendering process mostly focuses on direct construction cost and overall pipeline efficiency once the pipeline is complete. Important GIS Variables in the Pipeline Planning Process: Shortest distance from source to market Least grading Cost associated with right of way Slope of terrain Number of streams, roads and rail road crossings Wetlands crossing Existing law and regulation Proximity to population centers In essence, the need to raster datasets and reduce spatial or spectral resolutions when mapping new or existing pipelines is essential when designing a geo database. Due to large amount of GIS pipeline datasets, various figures and diagrams, and different types of objects on the ground within the pipeline buffer zones, remote sensing needs to be utilized. Remote sensing can be used to obtain different spatial and spectral resolutions of objects on the ground without the need for in situ data

2 collections. There are many different types of remote sensing satellites, which allow for end users to have gain a scope of the images of the ground through swaths recording imagery over ground cover. Geo databases from various satellite images containing different degrees of spatial and spectral resolutions allow for proposed objects and features to be mapped out on the ground prior to development. The GIS package allows for enhanced rendering maps from remote sensed data from satellites and other platforms, which can allow map makers to provide pipeline corporations with digitized data from real imagery on the ground. Incorporating base maps that contain land use, elevation, geology, soil, roads, streams, sensitive areas and landslide data is key in the site suitability analysis. Landsat satellites can be applied to the short distance pipeline site suitability process using sensors such as thematic mapper, enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) and the multispectral scanner. Each sensor has the ability to obtain different spatial resolutions and spectral bands. Short distance pipeline routing site suitability analyses require higher spatial resolution data while long distance pipelines require both high and low resolutions. When digitizing remote sensed imagery, maps of varying degrees of slope, land use classes, soil classes, road and railway proximity, sensitive area proximity and landslide classes need to be taken into account. These allow the end user pipeline and government agencies to determine limiting restrictions on land use based on pre existing objects, landmarks and land cover on the ground. Restrictions that need to be taken into account when designing pipelines on the ground include relative barrier, cost coherence, cost of proximity, avoidance of building density and station points. These can be embedded into the geo database for end user use in specific attribute tables. The conceptual process for pipeline planning on the ground starts with obtaining data through remote sensing and incorporating it into a geo database through digitizing and geocoding. Calculating and converting raster graphics is the last step in allowing the end user to derive and optimal route. Raster graphics allow for a pixilated data to be rendered in the geo database rather than simply just points, lines and polygons. ArcGIS software can be used in pipeline routing analyses and its core strength is its broad range of powerful spatial modeling and analysis of features. ArcGIS can create, query, map and analyze cell based raster data, perform integrated raster/vector analysis and query information across multiple data layers. It allows cartographers to incorporate elevation into geospatial environment to help solve complex problems. ArcGIS Methodologies: Rasterization of vector layers Reclassification Weighting of routing criteria Generate suitability map Determine optimal route using the generated cost weighted raster It s of great importance to note that the pipeline evaluation factors are location and site specific There are no universal methodologies adopted in determining set of criteria for every pipeline placement analysis. In weighting the given site or route its necessary to rank variables in order of importance, which provides a feasibility structure for where the best possible location for a route may be. Once the best possible route is generated using GIS, the end product is a representation of the optimal route through which the oil or gas pipeline should travel. The major challenge is the reliability of GIS, researchers have expressed concerns that it lacks a more powerful analytical tool. In conclusion using remote sensed data to develop a geo database using GIS for pipeline development can minimize public health hazards, environmental degradation, destruction of the ecosystem. In GIS can help oil, natural gas companies and pipeline manufacturers develop a cost effective and effective routing plan for end users. Other uses of Gis in the oil and Gas industry

3 Area surveying using GPS Leak Detection Workflow automation Mapping transmission of products to a facility Tracking drilling platforms, Annotated Bibliography Abdul Lateef. Balogun, Abdul Nasir. Matori, Dano Umar.Lawal, Imtiaz. Chandio(2012) Optimal Oil Pipe Line Route Selection using GIS: Community participation in Weight Derivation and Disaster Mitigation. ACSIT Press, Singapore. In this paper Abdul et al. use GIS technique to generate an optimal oil pipeline route in Malaysia s oil rich Baram field. This paper shows how ARCGIS software can be integrated with a multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) software in getting the best route. Abdul carefully states that there is no universal methodology adopted to determine the set of criteria for the weight derivation. The strength of this paper lies on the fact that weight derivation of the variables in order of their importance was done by the whole community. Abdul was able to get a realistic and reliable pipeline route, which meets all concerned parties. Abdul weighed the variables based on their vulnerability to environmental degradation, which further shows how GIS can be used to mitigate environmental hazards. 2.Volkan. Yildrirm, Tahshin. Yomuralioglu (2011) NABACCO Pipeline Route Selection through Turkey, Comparison of a GIS Based Approach to a Traditional Route Selection Approach. Oil and Gas European Magazine. In this paper Volkan carefully compares a GIS based approach of routing a pipeline to the conventional traditional route selection approach in turkey. Volkan was able to prove that the cost of a GIS based pipeline route selection would decrease the cost of the project by 14 percent relative to the manual pipeline route approach. He further made emphasis on the friendly interface of the GIS software used. This paper doesn t just show a conceptual model, it shows us a real project, where the pipeline was routed using GIS. Volkan identified the most important aspect of using GIS based approach as, determining the factors that affect the route. In determining the weight of each factor, the author made use of an Analytical hierarchy process. The results showed that weight values determined with this method were in agreement with real land data. He further compared the route formed by using GIS to the route formed by the Pipeline institution; the route formed by the institute was in a first degree earthquake region, which is already an environmental hazard. The GIS route crossed 151 roads, while the institutions route crossed 169 roads. Cheng.Wei, Zhang Yanmei (2012) Research and Implementation of oilfield Basic Platform Based on Integrated 2D with 3D of GIS. School of Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China. In this paper Cheng wei et al. uses 2D and 3D integration technology in pipeline planning. They show how GIS (ArcGis 9.2) and RS (ERDAS IMAGINE 8.7 image processing software) work by generation

4 of parameters (land use, land cover and slopes).the use of false color composite and supervised classification to generate land use and land cover maps was a great example of GIS and RS capacity. This paper presents the versatility of GIS and RS to calculate and manage different variables for instance the vegetation index, DEM, slopes and moreover the ease of operations among layers of information. The review of how GIS and RS help to classify the study zone was very useful because each subzone has a particular management program in function of its properties and risks. Cheng noted that GIS and RS are subject to data limitation. 4.Volkan. Yildirim, Tahshin, Yomralioglu (2007) GID based Pipeline Route Selection by ArcGIS in Turkey. Technical University, GISLab, Trabzon, Turkey. In this paper Volkan et al. use a conceptual model in routing a pipeline in Turkey. He makes use of ARCGIS in creating, querying and doing all spatial analysis on the raster dataset. At the end he gives us a brief result of what the pipeline variables are when using ARCGIS, he shows the number of crossed roads, landslides, pasture and stream crossing. He carefully tried to reduce the environmental hazards associated with pipelines. Their mapping and modeling method is fast, straightforward and principally fed by remote sensing data, i.e. Landsat ETM+, the image was used for land use information by means of supervised classification. The most interesting section was how GIS and RS provide a flexible tool, applicable for a wide variety of regions. 5.William E. Roper, Subijoy, Drama (2007) Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Pipeline Security Assessment. In this paper William et al. merges both GIS and RS tools for pipeline security assessment. This paper is interesting because it depicts how terrain analysis is important in the whole pipeline structure, precisely bathymetry maps which show ocean depths. William illustrates how pipelines flow rate can be affected by poor elevation data. This paper also shows a new dimension to using GIS technology in pipeline routing, which is using Global Positioning systems for locating pipeline characters, detecting pipeline movement and collecting geospatial data. The authors highlights one of the key advantages of using remote sensing approach to pipeline routing and pipeline management as its ability to predict oil spill vaguely. Mohd Zukhari Bin Abd. Lateef, Ruszaidi B Kahar (2008) Oil and Gas Exploration in Ethiopia Using GIS. GIS development, Kaula Lumpur, Malysia Mohd et al. uses digital elevation models, strikes and dips, satellite images to identify the best route of a pipeline and other oil and gas exploration problems in Ethiopia. This material was quiet interesting because data collection from the subsurface was done manually, without the use of satellite imagery. Mohd also shows how GIS helps in storing data in a centralized database for revision in future changes of the pipeline route. Mohd et al. shows how GIS can be used to calculate the components of pipeline laying models faster, with more quality and clarity. According with Mohd et al. GIS provides an efficient way for Pipeline management strategies and reduces the cost from seismic survey design. Mohd et al. is very clear to mention that results of his study are not calibrated or validated.

5 REFERENCES Abdul Lateef. Balogun, Abdul Nasir. Matori, Dano Umar.Lawal, Imtiaz. Chandio(2012) Optimal Oil Pipe Line Route Selection using GIS: Community participation in Weight Derivation and Disaster Mitigation. ACSIT Press, Singapore. Cheng.Wei, Zhang Yanmei (2012) Research and Implementation of oilfield Basic Platform Based on Integrated 2D with 3D of GIS. School of Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China. Mohd Zukhari Bin Abd. Lateef, Ruszaidi B Kahar (2008) Oil and Gas Exploration in Ethiopia Using GIS. GIS development, Kaula Lumpur, Malysia Volkan. Yildrirm, Tahshin. Yomuralioglu (2011) NABACCO Pipeline Route Selection through Turkey, Comparison of a GIS Based Approach to a Traditional Route Selection Approach. Oil and Gas European Magazine. Volkan. Yildirim, Tahshin, Yomralioglu (2007) GID based Pipeline Route Selection by ArcGIS in Turkey. Technical University, GISLab, Trabzon, Turkey. William E. Roper, Subijoy, Drama (2007) Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Pipeline Security Assessment.

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