Energy Audits: Green Schools Baltimore City School Sustainability Day

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1 Energy Audits: Green Schools Baltimore City School Sustainability Day November 12, 2011 USGBC Maryland Keith Madigan, P.E. K.C. Madigan & Associates, LLC

2 Introduction Keith Madigan, P.E. K.C. Madigan & Associates, LLC Engineering and Facilities Management Consultants Member USGBC-MD Schools Committee Member BCPS Green Schools Network Facilities Committee Commercial Building Energy Auditor

3 Energy Audits: Green Schools Overview Energy Audit What Is it? Energy Audit Types Industry Standards/Audit Scope Specifics Energy Use Benchmarking and Trend Analysis Building Envelope Systems Lighting Systems Heating/Cooling/Ventilation (HVAC) Systems Energy Audit Financial Analysis Energy Audit Challenges/Opportunities Resources

4 Energy Audit What is It? An Energy Audit is a systematic study or survey to identify how energy is being used in a building. It includes the identification of potential energy savings opportunities or Energy Conservation Measures (ECM s). Four (4) Phases to the Energy Audit Process: Pre-survey analysis Site walkthrough Data and observation analysis Report

5 Energy Audits - Types Commercial vs. Residential Energy Audits Commercial audits are more rigorous and comprehensive than residential audits. Commercial building systems are typically more complex than residential building systems. Commercial energy consumption patterns are more complex than residential consumption patterns.

6 Energy Audits Industry Standards American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards Commercial/Institutional Buildings (K-12 Schools) Level 1 Audit Walkthrough Audit ** Level 2 Audit Detailed Audit ** Level 3 Audit Investment-grade Audit

7 Energy Audits Walkthrough Audit (Level 1) Interview on-site staff to review building operations and maintenance issues Review utility bills to determine building Energy Use Intensity (EUI) and Building Cost Intensity (BCI) and benchmark to industry standards. Perform review of facility as-built plans to identify critical building envelope and mechanical/electrical systems impacting facility energy use. Perform a walk-through survey of major facility energy consuming systems to: Identify low cost/no cost energy savings opportunities

8 Energy Audits Walkthrough Audit (Level 1) Typical Building Systems Evaluated: Building Envelope -Walls/Windows and Roof Systems Lighting -Indoor and Outdoor Heating/Cooling Equipment and Distribution Systems Outdoor Ventilation Systems and Equipment Hot Water Systems Special Systems -- Elevators, Laundry/Kitchen Equipment Perform an evaluation of the current facility operation and maintenance plan to identify opportunities to implement energy savings best practices. Provide an evaluation of the applicability of utility company rebate/incentive programs to potential facility improvements.

9 Energy Audits Detailed Audit (Level 2) Same scope as a Walkthrough Audit (Level 1) with the following added features: Perform an in-depth review of facility as-built plans to identify critical building envelope, mechanical, and electrical systems impacting facility energy use including a detailed review of mechanical and lighting design. Provide a detailed condition assessment of the primary building systems including an evaluation of remaining useful life. Prepare a detailed mechanical equipment inventory.

10 Energy Audits Detailed Audit (Level 2) Prepare a detailed lighting inventory and illumination assessment. Identify all practical energy savings opportunities including detailed estimates of potential costs and savings with financial payback analysis. Perform a detailed evaluation of the current facility operation and maintenance plan to identify and make detailed recommendations to implement energy savings best practices.

11 Energy Use Benchmarking Many methods available of varying complexity Most Popular : EPA- Portfolio Manager Web-based application- Energy bills for past 12 months required Building data such as size, operating hours, number of PC s, kitchen facilities, etc. required Building Energy Performance Rating (0-100) is automatically generated EPR is calculated through comparison to national database of similar buildings

12 Energy Use Benchmarking Portfolio Manager

13 Energy Consumption Trend Analysis Look for unusual energy consumption patterns. 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 Electricity Use (kwh)

14 Energy Consumption Trend Analysis Look for unusual energy cost patterns. $1, $1, $1, $ $ $ $ $0.00 Electricity Cost ($)

15 Energy Audits Building Systems - Envelope Common Energy Conservation Measures Doors Install/Repair Weatherseals Windows Replace Perimeter Sealants Windows Install Solar Film/Window Coverings Windows Repair/Replace Assemblies Roofs Replace Damaged Roof Insulation (Leaks) Roofs Add Additional Roof Insulation/Roof Replacement

16 Window Perimeter Sealant Replacement Aged sealants permit unconditioned air infiltration into building raising heating and cooling loads.

17 Window Replacement Old single-pane windows provide poor thermal performance.

18 Window/Wall Penetration Un-insulated panel is thermally inefficient.

19 Energy Audits Building Systems - Lighting Common Energy Conservation Measures Replace old inefficient fluorescent lamps/ballasts with new efficient lamps/ballasts (CFL s, T8 s, electronic ballasts). Install occupancy sensors in classrooms, restrooms, and other areas subject to intermittent occupancy. Reduce lighting in areas that are over-illuminated. Install photocell/timer controls on exterior lighting.

20 Corridor Lighting 24/7 full illumination of corridors is not necessary.

21 Stairwell Lighting Bi-level fixtures will reduce illumination when stairwells are empty.

22 De-lamp Fixtures Where Over-Illuminated Lighting assessment to verify suitability of illumination.

23 Energy Audits Building Systems - HVAC Common Energy Conservation Measures Seal/Insulate Leaky Ductwork Insulate Exposed Boiler/Chiller Piping Install High-Efficiency Pump Motors for Chilled and Hot Water Systems Install Variable Frequency Drives to control Chilled and Hot Water Pumps Utilize Demand Controlled Ventilation to modulate outside air ventilation in spaces with intermittent occupancy. Install an Energy Management System/Programmable Thermostats

24 Damaged Ductwork Insulation Exposed ductwork results in thermal losses.

25 Hot/Chilled Water Pumps Application for high-efficiency motors and variable frequency drives.

26 Energy Management System/Controls Thermostats/Controls need to be maintained.

27 Rooftop Exhaust Fans Install timer controls - 24/7 operation not necessary.

28 Energy Audits Financial Analysis Capital cost and projected energy savings for each ECM identified in the audit are determined. Capital cost historical construction/facilities management costs. Energy savings engineering analysis completed. Walkthrough Audits consider primarily no cost/low cost ECM s only. Payback and Lifecycle Savings are evaluated for each ECM to prioritize the ECM s by financial incentive.

29 Energy Audits Financial Analysis

30 Energy Audits Challenges Building energy consumption is dependent on weather. Energy audit results/recommendations should be analyzed in the context of actual weather conditions. Building energy consumption is dependent upon operation and use of facility. Changes in hours of operation or functional use of facility can impact projected savings detailed in an energy audit.

31 Energy Audits Challenges Energy efficiency of existing and improved building systems is dependent on O&M practices. A failure to invest in maintenance will erode the efficiency gains of energy conservation measures. Building envelope, lighting, and HVAC components and performance are an integrated system. Use caution when selecting energy efficiency projects. An improvement or upgrade in one system can adversely impact the performance of another building system. Building improvements should be evaluated from a comprehensive viewpoint.

32 Energy Audits Opportunities Many schools have opportunities to implement multiple low-to-moderate cost energy conservation measures that will provide financial payback in 3 years or less.

33 Energy Audits Opportunities Utility company incentives are readily available to provide a strong financial incentive to proceed with energy efficiency improvements. Grant funding (on a limited basis) is available to assist with the cost of many energy efficiency improvements.

34 Energy Audits: Green Schools Other Resources Environmental Protection Agency US Green Building Council Consortium for Energy Efficiency Collaborative for High Performance Schools

35 Energy Audits: Green Schools Baltimore City School Sustainability Day Keith Madigan, P.E. K.C. Madigan & Associates, LLC Beaver Dam Road, Suite 2 Hunt Valley, MD (410)

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