Distributed Systems. Distributed Systems

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1 Distributed Systems Prof. Steve Wilbur Department of Computer Science University College London 1 Distributed Systems... use of more than one computer connected by communications links to carry out a computational task... includes parallel computing... most contemporary professional systems 2 10/06/98 1

2 Course Objectives to identify special characteristics of distributed systems to identify ways user/programmer view can be simplified to identify protocols, techniques and algorithms which address DS issues 3 Why Distribute? resource sharing physical separation robustness performance cost-effective system evolution 4 10/06/98 2

3 Examples file server, print server, etc. networked management directory and naming services desktop (multimedia) conferences large-scale computation etc. 5 Why are DSs Different? non-zero (and variable) message transmission time probability of partial failure of collaborating components large scale environment is not totally secure 6 10/06/98 3

4 Message Transmission Time processors executing in parallel multi-path links between them same message may arrive at different times at different processors possibility of race situations, i.e. nondeterminism in algorithm execution (or bugs) consistency of data at different sites 7 Partial Failures - 1 not a concept found in single processor programs recovery from failures use of alternative processor migration of services update and propagation of naming/routing information 8 10/06/98 4

5 Partial Failures - 2 Fault tolerant algorithms leadership elections distributed synchronisation 9 Scaling Abstraction Inheritance/object orientation 10 10/06/98 5

6 Security computer hosts may be protectable via architecture and OS etc.... but link is very vulnerable to tapping/message reply hosts faking addresses... and hosts vulnerable to deliberate message overload faked services 11 Distributed Programming Can we arrange for programmer s view of DS to be identical to that for singleprocessor system? Simple answer is no, but we can do quite a lot 12 10/06/98 6

7 Remote Procedure Call - 1 common approach client-server model caller s arguments are marshalled by stubs, put in a packet and sent to remote proc. problems with memory addresses - need args to be sent by value 13 Remote Procedure Call - 2 execution semantics when failure at-least-once (cheap and easy but...) at-most-once (relatively easy) exactly once (expensive protocol) how is server located? name server based on type matching trader includes other attributes e.g. location of device, options, etc. version management too 14 10/06/98 7

8 Remote Procedure Call - 3 parameter security may need to pass encryption keys or other security tokens as parameters Interface Definition Language (IDL) indicates type and order of parameters signature for matching in name server possibly security indication for stubs 15 Real World often termed Middleware support by environments such as DCE, CORBA etc /06/98 8

9 Transparency... is desirable, but may not be achievable: distribution - effects of distribution (delays etc.) should be invisible to user location - location of components should be irrelevant migration - remote objects may relocate during use failure - recovery from faults 17 Security Use of cryptographic techniques to deal with: secrecy authentication of individuals and messages replay and faking attacks can also provide access control to object methods 18 10/06/98 9

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