Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me."

Transcription

1 Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me. My telescope Has dashed your hope; Your tenets are refuted. Let me be terse: Our Universe Grows daily more diluted! -George Gamow (once again taunting Fred Hoyle in poetry form) Here we discuss the Big Bang, the evidence for it and the early evolution of the Universe.

2 The Evolution of the Universe Above is a general evolutionary view of the Universe. We will covering it throughout these slides.

3 Standard Model of Particle Physics Before looking at the beginning of the Universe, it is worth mentioning that the early Universe had very different conditions than the present. Currently the Standard Model of Particle Physics is as shown above. Details are not important for our discussion here. Suffice it to say the electron and neutrino should be familiar. Particles such as the proton and neutron are made of a combination of 3 quarks. The force carriers are those responsible for the fundamental forces of nature. Photons carry the electromagnetic, gluons the strong nuclear, and the W and Z bosons the weak nuclear. Gravitons are a proposed particle responsible for gravity but it not currently included in the Standard Model.

4 Standard Model of Particle Physics In more extreme conditions the fundamental forces combine to form a single force. Particularly in environments of high temperature. As we will see the early Universe was very hot and very dense and all forces should have been unified. We have succeeded in unifying the electromagnetic and weak forces in particle collider experiments into what we call the electroweak force. The theory that would unify the strong with the electroweak is called the Grand Unified Theory (GUT). The even more difficult of adding gravity to the other 3 is often called the Theory of Everything. Model such as string theory are current attempts at such a theory. Such a model with give valuable information about the early Universe.

5 Fred Hoyle and the Steady State Supported a Steady State Universe Coined the term Big Bang Figured out stellar nucleosynthesis Before the Big Bang Theory was introduced the accepted model of the Universe was an infinite in both time and size, unchanging, non-evolving view with no beginning and no end. When the Big Bang was proposed, Fred Hoyle (and others) solidified this model into what was called the Steady State. Hoyle was a staunch supporter of the Steady State though gave the Big Bang its current name. This was meant as a bit of an insult to theory but it was circulated in the media and the name stuck. While Hoyle s Steady State eventually fell out of favor, he was a tremendous astronomer described stars a nuclear furnaces and explained how heavier elements are made in their interiors and in supernovae.

6 Olbers Paradox One problem with the Steady State is what is called Olbers Paradox. If stars were distributed uniformly in the Universe, infinitely far out, with no expansion, and the light had had an infinite amount of time to reach us, why do we see dark regions of the sky. With both infinite time and space the entire sky should be full. Even interstellar absorption doesn t solve the problem because with all the energy the gas should heat up and begin to glow themselves. While Olbers Paradox doesn t rule out the Steady State it is an intriguing thought.

7 George Lemaitre Derived Hubble s Law First measurement of Hubble s Constant Proposed the Big Bang Theory Astronomer and Catholic priest George Lemaitre was also an accomplished astronomer. Though not named after him, he derived Hubble s Law and gave us the first values of the Hubble Constant. He also noted from Hubble s observations that if everything (outside our galaxy s gravitational influence) is moving away from us, then running time backwards would result in things getting closer. This was his basis for what became the Big Bang. Here it should be said that the Big Bang is NOT a theory about the origin or evolution of life, about the formation of stars, planets or galaxies. In its current form it does not even involve an explosion as we think of it, but rather an expansion of the Universe, possibly from quantum instabilities. In the most simple form The Big Bang states that the Universe had a hot dense beginning.

8 Einstein to Lemaitre Your math is correct but your physics is abominable. At the time of its proposal, the Big Bang was not widely accepted. Einstein himself (a giant even in his own time) dismissed the theory and Lemaitre. Later it was realized that Einstein s general relativity predicts and evolving Universe! Einstein modified GR by adding a cosmological constant that would force the Universe to remain steady. As evidence came in Einstein removed the cosmological constant and admitted it was the biggest blunder of his career. Einstein, and science as a whole, did come to accept the Big Bang.

9 The Evolution of the Universe Now we have seen a hot dense state at the beginning. Shortly after we believe that there was a brief period of very rapid expansion called inflation. As the Universe grows the same amount of energy is spread over a smaller volume and the temperature drops. Matter begins to form and the Universe continues to cool. Eventually the temperature is low enough that atoms begin to form and electrons are captured by nuclei. Before this point the Universe is opaque to light. The afterglow pattern mentioned in the diagram acts as a wall of light that we can not see beyond by observing the electromagnetic spectrum. We will see this pattern again shortly.

10 George Gamow and Ralph Alpher Two of the biggest names in the early Big Bang theory are George Gamow and his student Ralph Alpher. As part of Alpher s graduate work a paper was published which recognized that the early Universe could act like the inside of a star. If we assume virtually all the matter was in hydrogen and allow the early Universe to fuse to helium, what would we expect the composition of the Universe to be? The answer turned out to be ~75% hydrogen, ~25%helium. Just what we see. This Big Bang Nucleosynthesis proved to be one of the big successes to the theory. Secondly Alpher later predicted the existence of the afterglow pattern we discussed. But because of the expansion of the Universe it should have cooled and redshifted; today it should be about 2.7K and be in the microwave range of the EM spectrum. The technology needed to test this did not exist at the time.

11 Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson Two astronomers at Bell Labs nearly 2 decades later built the first radio telescope. They turned it toward the sky and were dismayed to find a noise signal no matter where they pointed. They tried many thing, rewiring the telescope, running roosting pigeons off, pointing other places, all to no avail. Later they ran discovered this lost prediction made nearly 20 years ago of a radio signal that should permeate the entire Universe. They had discovered the afterglow which we call the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation. This was a major success for the Big Bang which predicted it, and a major blow to the Steady State which could not explain it.

12 The COsmic Background Explorer was launched to study the CMB. The all sky maps above of the CMB show an almost uniform distribution of temperatures in the sky. The different colors show hotter or cooler regions. The scale is stretched to highlight differences but it should be noted that the largest temperature differences are about 70 microkelvin (ie tiny). We later launched the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe to further explore this nonuniformities. The result was a higher resolution image that helps to highlight the origin of the large scale structure of the Universe. The red regions are higher temperature regions and thus high concentrations of mass. Try to follow the hotter regions and imagine this image in 3D. Can you see the filamentary structure that we ve seen previously? The large scale structure of the Universe is a result of early temperature fluctuations in the Universe. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

13 COBE Results As another crowning achievement of science is this plot from COBE. The predictions were that the CMB should behave as a blackbody with a temperature of 2.7K. The red line is a plot for the blackbody radiation curve at 2.7K. The points are data collected by COBE. It is also worth stating that the scientists did not forget error bars. They are just so small that they are inside the data points. If ever there was a perfect agreement, this is it.

14 The Evolution of the Universe After the CMB there was a period of gradual expanding and cooling but not much else in the Universe. When the first stars began to form and reionize the Universe, we started to build up the structure that we see today and have covered in the rest of the course. It is worth noting that one of the other pieces of evidence that greatly hurt the Steady State and supported the Big Bang was Fred Hoyle s explanation of the nucleosynthesis of elements in stars. Combined with Big Bang nucleosynthesis this can reproduce the composition that we see today.

Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time

Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time 23.1 The Big Bang Our goals for learning What were conditions like in the early universe? What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? What were

More information

Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe

Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe Name: _Answer key Pretest: _2_/ 58 Posttest: _58_/ 58 Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe Vocab/Matching: Match the definition on the left with the term on the right by placing the letter of the term

More information

Topic 3. Evidence for the Big Bang

Topic 3. Evidence for the Big Bang Topic 3 Primordial nucleosynthesis Evidence for the Big Bang! Back in the 1920s it was generally thought that the Universe was infinite! However a number of experimental observations started to question

More information

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One Chapter Topic Key Points of Discussion Notes & Vocabulary 1 Birth of The Big Bang Theory Activity 4A the How and when did the universe

More information

Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago

Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago Prof. Dr. Harold Geller hgeller@gmu.edu http://physics.gmu.edu/~hgeller/ Department of Physics and Astronomy George Mason University Unity in the

More information

The History and Philosophy of Astronomy

The History and Philosophy of Astronomy Astronomy 350L (Fall 2006) The History and Philosophy of Astronomy (Lecture 23: Steady State vs Big Bang) Instructor: Volker Bromm TA: Jarrett Johnson The University of Texas at Austin Steady State vs

More information

23. The Beginning of Time. Agenda. Agenda. ESA s Venus Express. Conditions in the Early Universe. 23.1 Running the Expansion Backward

23. The Beginning of Time. Agenda. Agenda. ESA s Venus Express. Conditions in the Early Universe. 23.1 Running the Expansion Backward 23. The Beginning of Time Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known. Agenda Announce: Solar Altitude Lab (#2) due today Read Ch. 24 for Thursday Observation make-up next week Project Presentations

More information

Unit 1.7: Earth and Space Science The Structure of the Cosmos

Unit 1.7: Earth and Space Science The Structure of the Cosmos Lesson Summary: This week students will search for evidence provided in passages that lend support about the structure and organization of the Cosmos. Then students will summarize a passage. Materials

More information

Exploring the Universe Through the Hubble Space Telescope

Exploring the Universe Through the Hubble Space Telescope Exploring the Universe Through the Hubble Space Telescope WEEK FIVE: THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD + LIMITATIONS OF HUBBLE, COLLABORATIONS, AND THE FUTURE OF ASTRONOMY Date: October 14, 2013 Instructor: Robert

More information

Big Bang Cosmology. Big Bang vs. Steady State

Big Bang Cosmology. Big Bang vs. Steady State Big Bang vs. Steady State Big Bang Cosmology Perfect cosmological principle: universe is unchanging in space and time => Steady-State universe - Bondi, Hoyle, Gold. True? No! Hubble s Law => expansion

More information

The Universe. The Solar system, Stars and Galaxies

The Universe. The Solar system, Stars and Galaxies The Universe The Universe is everything. All us, the room, the U.S. the earth, the solar system, all the other stars in the Milky way galaxy, all the other galaxies... everything. How big and how old is

More information

The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

The Origin and Evolution of the Universe The Origin and Evolution of the Universe 9.7 People have been wondering about the Universe for a long time. They have asked questions such as Where did the Universe come from? How big is it? What will

More information

3 HOW WERE STARS FORMED?

3 HOW WERE STARS FORMED? 3 HOW WERE STARS FORMED? David Christian explains how the first stars were formed. This two-part lecture begins by focusing on what the Universe was like in its first 200 million years of existence, a

More information

Where is Fundamental Physics Heading? Nathan Seiberg IAS Apr. 30, 2014

Where is Fundamental Physics Heading? Nathan Seiberg IAS Apr. 30, 2014 Where is Fundamental Physics Heading? Nathan Seiberg IAS Apr. 30, 2014 Disclaimer We do not know what will be discovered. This is the reason we perform experiments. This is the reason scientific research

More information

A Century of Paradigm Shifts in our Thinking About the Universe

A Century of Paradigm Shifts in our Thinking About the Universe A Century of Paradigm Shifts in our Thinking About the Universe George R. Blumenthal Chancellor, UC Santa Cruz Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics Why start 100 years ago? Before 1910 there was no

More information

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016 See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Sec 14.5 Expanding Universe Know: Doppler shift, redshift, Hubble s Law, cosmic distance ladder, standard candles,

More information

Part 1 Composition of Earth Composition of solar system Origin of the elements Part 2 Geochronometry: Age of Earth Formation of Earth and Moon.

Part 1 Composition of Earth Composition of solar system Origin of the elements Part 2 Geochronometry: Age of Earth Formation of Earth and Moon. Part 1 Composition of Earth Composition of solar system Origin of the elements Part 2 Geochronometry: Age of Earth Formation of Earth and Moon. Differentiation of core and mantle. Isotope tracing: sequence

More information

WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM??

WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM?? WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM?? In the very beginning, both space and time were created in the Big Bang. It happened 13.7 billion years ago. Afterwards, the universe was a very hot, expanding soup

More information

The Expanding Universe

The Expanding Universe Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

More information

World of Particles Big Bang Thomas Gajdosik. Big Bang (model)

World of Particles Big Bang Thomas Gajdosik. Big Bang (model) Big Bang (model) What can be seen / measured? basically only light (and a few particles: e ±, p, p, ν x ) in different wave lengths: microwave to γ-rays in different intensities (measured in magnitudes)

More information

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

More information

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of

More information

Build Your Own Universe

Build Your Own Universe Build Your Own Universe You will need: At least 10,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000 x Down quarks At least 10,000,000,000,000,000,

More information

The Cosmic Microwave Background and the Big Bang Theory of the Universe

The Cosmic Microwave Background and the Big Bang Theory of the Universe The Cosmic Microwave Background and the Big Bang Theory of the Universe 1. Concepts from General Relativity 1.1 Curvature of space As we discussed earlier, Einstein s equivalence principle states that

More information

Transcript 22 - Universe

Transcript 22 - Universe Transcript 22 - Universe A few introductory words of explanation about this transcript: This transcript includes the words sent to the narrator for inclusion in the latest version of the associated video.

More information

Particle Soup: Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Particle Soup: Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Name: Partner(s): Lab #7 Particle Soup: Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Purpose The student explores how helium was made in the Big Bang. Introduction Very little helium is made in stars. Yet the universe is

More information

REALIZING EINSTEIN S DREAM Exploring Our Mysterious Universe

REALIZING EINSTEIN S DREAM Exploring Our Mysterious Universe REALIZING EINSTEIN S DREAM Exploring Our Mysterious Universe The End of Physics Albert A. Michelson, at the dedication of Ryerson Physics Lab, U. of Chicago, 1894 The Miracle Year - 1905 Relativity Quantum

More information

2. The Universe Is Expanding and Evolving

2. The Universe Is Expanding and Evolving 2. The Universe Is Expanding and Evolving We now know that the entire universe is both expanding and evolving. These two remarkable facts have been established beyond doubt over the past century. The simple

More information

STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves

STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves TEK 8.8C: Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to

More information

1 Introduction. 1 There may, of course, in principle, exist other universes, but they are not accessible to our

1 Introduction. 1 There may, of course, in principle, exist other universes, but they are not accessible to our 1 1 Introduction Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole, its structure, its origin, and its evolution. Cosmology is soundly based on observations, mostly astronomical, and laws of physics. These

More information

Einstein and the big bang

Einstein and the big bang Einstein and the big bang A new perspective on Einstein s universe The Big Bang: Fact or Fiction? Cormac O Raifeartaigh FRAS (WIT) Cosmology: the study of the universe How big is the universe? Is it finite

More information

THE BIG BANG HOW CLOSE CAN WE COME? Michael Dine Final Lecture Physics 171, 2009

THE BIG BANG HOW CLOSE CAN WE COME? Michael Dine Final Lecture Physics 171, 2009 THE BIG BANG HOW CLOSE CAN WE COME? Michael Dine Final Lecture Physics 171, 2009 New York Times: April, 2003 Reports a debate among cosmologists about the Big Bang. lll1.html Dr. Tyson, who introduced

More information

Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers

Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Gillian Wilson http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~gillianw/k12 A cosmologist is.... an astronomer who studies the formation and evolution of the

More information

Modeling the Expanding Universe

Modeling the Expanding Universe H9 Modeling the Expanding Universe Activity H9 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: This activity is produced by the Universe Forum at NASA s Office of Space Science, along with their Structure and Evolution of the

More information

The Big Bang A Community in the Classroom Presentation for Grade 5

The Big Bang A Community in the Classroom Presentation for Grade 5 The Big Bang A Community in the Classroom Presentation for Grade 5 Richard Cupp Engineer STANARDS CONNECTION Grade 5 Physical Science: Elements and their combinations account for all the varied types of

More information

Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram

Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram Mike Montgomery 21 Apr, 2001 0-0 The Herztsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) was independently invented by Herztsprung (1911) and Russell (1913) They plotted

More information

The first minutes of the Universe released energy which changed to matter, forming stars and galaxies. Introduction

The first minutes of the Universe released energy which changed to matter, forming stars and galaxies. Introduction THE COSMIC ENGINE CHAPTER 18 The Universe begins The first minutes of the Universe released energy which changed to matter, forming stars and galaxies Introduction Cosmology, the study of the Universe

More information

Test 2 --- Natural Sciences 102, Professors Rieke --- VERSION B March 3, 2010

Test 2 --- Natural Sciences 102, Professors Rieke --- VERSION B March 3, 2010 Enter your answers on the form provided. Be sure to write your name and student ID number on the first blank at the bottom of the form. Please mark the version (B) in the Key ID space at the top of the

More information

Big bang, red shift and doppler effect

Big bang, red shift and doppler effect Big bang, red shift and doppler effect 73 minutes 73 marks Page of 26 Q. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected.

More information

Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end?

Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end? Cosmology: Will the universe end? 1. Who first showed that the Milky Way is not the only galaxy in the universe? a. Kepler b. Copernicus c. Newton d. Hubble e. Galileo Ans: d 2. The big bang theory and

More information

FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to :

FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to : 1 Candidates should be able to : CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE Describe the principal contents of the universe, including stars, galaxies and radiation. Describe the solar system in terms of the Sun, planets,

More information

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

More information

Big Bang and Steady State Theories - Past exam questions (6 mark)

Big Bang and Steady State Theories - Past exam questions (6 mark) Big Bang and Steady State Theories - Past exam questions (6 mark) (1) * Scientists believe that the Universe is expanding. Describe how careful observation of electromagnetic radiation from distant galaxies

More information

The Crafoord Prize 2005

The Crafoord Prize 2005 I N F O R M A T I O N F O R T H E P U B L I C The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Crafoord Prize in Astronomy 2005 to James Gunn, Princeton University, USA, James Peebles, Princeton

More information

Modeling Galaxy Formation

Modeling Galaxy Formation Galaxy Evolution is the study of how galaxies form and how they change over time. As was the case with we can not observe an individual galaxy evolve but we can observe different galaxies at various stages

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

Einstein s cosmological legacy: From the big bang to black holes

Einstein s cosmological legacy: From the big bang to black holes School of Mathematical and Computing Sciences Te Kura Pangarau, Rorohiko Einstein s cosmological legacy: From the big bang to black holes Matt Visser Overview: 2005 marks 100 years since Einstein discovered

More information

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D.

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D. 1. Most interstellar matter is too cold to be observed optically. Its radiation can be detected in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma ray B. ultraviolet C. infrared D. X ray 2. The space

More information

Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik Neutrinos & Cosmology

Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik Neutrinos & Cosmology Neutrinos & Cosmology 1 Cosmology: WHY??? From laboratory experiment limits can be set ONLY in neutrino mass difference No information if neutrino masses are degenerated From kinematic experiment limits

More information

Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth

Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth Hassen M. Yesuf (hyesuf@ucsc.edu) September 29, 2011 1 Lecture summary Protein molecules, the building blocks of a living organism, are made

More information

A Day Without Yesterday: Georges Lemaitre & the Big Bang

A Day Without Yesterday: Georges Lemaitre & the Big Bang A Day Without Yesterday: Georges Lemaitre & the Big Bang MARK MIDBON In January 1933, the Belgian mathematician and Catholic priest Georges Lemaitre traveled with Albert Einstein to California for a series

More information

Cosmic Journey: Teacher Packet

Cosmic Journey: Teacher Packet Cosmic Journey: Teacher Packet Compiled by: Morehead State University Star Theatre with help from Bethany DeMoss Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Corresponding Standards 2 Vocabulary 4 Sizing up the

More information

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information

thermal history of the universe and big bang nucleosynthesis

thermal history of the universe and big bang nucleosynthesis thermal history of the universe and big bang nucleosynthesis Kosmologie für Nichtphysiker Markus Pössel (vertreten durch Björn Malte Schäfer) Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Heidelberg

More information

Inflationary Big Bang Cosmology and the New Cosmic Background Radiation Findings

Inflationary Big Bang Cosmology and the New Cosmic Background Radiation Findings Inflationary Big Bang Cosmology and the New Cosmic Background Radiation Findings By Richard M. Todaro American Physical Society June 2001 With special thanks to Dr. Paul L. Richards, Professor of Physics

More information

What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey?

What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? Simply put, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is the most ambitious astronomical survey ever undertaken. The survey will map one-quarter of the entire sky in detail, determining

More information

Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt

Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt Instructions: Answers are typed in blue. Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt Crab Nebula What is embedded in the center of the nebula? Neutron star Who first

More information

5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves

5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves 5. The Nature of Light Light travels in vacuum at 3.0. 10 8 m/s Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation Continuous radiation: Based on temperature Wien s Law & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Light has

More information

1 A Solar System Is Born

1 A Solar System Is Born CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

More information

1 Introduction. Name: 1.1 Spectral Classification of Stars. PHYS-1050 Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Solutions Spring 2013

1 Introduction. Name: 1.1 Spectral Classification of Stars. PHYS-1050 Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Solutions Spring 2013 Name: 1 Introduction Read through this information before proceeding on with the lab. 1.1 Spectral Classification of Stars 1.1.1 Types of Spectra Astronomers are very interested in spectra graphs of intensity

More information

The Creation of the World According to Science

The Creation of the World According to Science The Creation of the World According to Science Ram Brustein, Judy Kupferman Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel CAS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Muenchen, 80333 Muenchen,

More information

Nuclear fusion in stars. Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars

Nuclear fusion in stars. Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars Nuclear fusion in stars Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars The origin of structure in the Universe Until the time of formation of protogalaxies,

More information

Session 42 Review The Universe, and its Dark Side

Session 42 Review The Universe, and its Dark Side 95% Session 42 Review The Universe, and its Dark Side Dec 9, 2011 Email: ph116@u.washington.edu Announcements Final exam: Monday 12/12, 2:30-4:20 pm Same length/format as previous exams (but you can have

More information

GRAVITY CONCEPTS. Gravity is the universal force of attraction between all matter

GRAVITY CONCEPTS. Gravity is the universal force of attraction between all matter IT S UNIVERSAL GRAVITY CONCEPTS Gravity is the universal force of attraction between all matter Weight is a measure of the gravitational force pulling objects toward Earth Objects seem weightless when

More information

Lesson Plan G2 The Stars

Lesson Plan G2 The Stars Lesson Plan G2 The Stars Introduction We see the stars as tiny points of light in the sky. They may all look the same but they are not. They range in size, color, temperature, power, and life spans. In

More information

Curriculum for Excellence. Higher Physics. Success Guide

Curriculum for Excellence. Higher Physics. Success Guide Curriculum for Excellence Higher Physics Success Guide Electricity Our Dynamic Universe Particles and Waves Electricity Key Area Monitoring and Measuring A.C. Monitoring alternating current signals with

More information

Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science

Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science Beginning of the Universe Classwork Name: 6 th Grade PSI Science 1 4 2 5 6 3 7 Down: 1. Edwin discovered that galaxies are spreading apart. 2. This theory explains how the Universe was flattened. 3. All

More information

First Discoveries. Asteroids

First Discoveries. Asteroids First Discoveries The Sloan Digital Sky Survey began operating on June 8, 1998. Since that time, SDSS scientists have been hard at work analyzing data and drawing conclusions. This page describes seven

More information

The Sun and Solar Energy

The Sun and Solar Energy I The Sun and Solar Energy One of the most important forces behind global change on Earth is over 90 million miles distant from the planet. The Sun is the ultimate, original source of the energy that drives

More information

Einstein s theory of relativity

Einstein s theory of relativity Department of Mathematics, Institute of Origins, December 5, 2008 Overview UCL Institute of Origins Origins UCL has established the Institute of Origins to promote world leading research in topics related

More information

The Higgs Boson. Linac08 Victoria BC, Canada CANADA S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

The Higgs Boson. Linac08 Victoria BC, Canada CANADA S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS CANADA S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS Owned and operated as a joint venture by a consortium of Canadian universities via a contribution through the National Research Council Canada

More information

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory Chapter 5 History of the Atom & Atomic Theory You re invited to a Thinking Inside the Box Conference Each group should nominate a: o Leader o Writer o Presenter You have 5 minutes to come up with observations

More information

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following:

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following: Unit 4 The Solar System Chapter 7 ~ The History of the Solar System o Section 1 ~ The Formation of the Solar System o Section 2 ~ Observing the Solar System Chapter 8 ~ The Parts the Solar System o Section

More information

Introduction. The activity. Part 1 predictions and outcomes. Part 2 a dialogue concerning the origin of the Universe. And so to the Big Bang.

Introduction. The activity. Part 1 predictions and outcomes. Part 2 a dialogue concerning the origin of the Universe. And so to the Big Bang. Teacher Notes Introduction And so to the Big Bang. The activity Part 1 predictions and outcomes This introduces Big Bang theory by looking at some of its predictions. The first one was a failed prediction,

More information

Lesson 6: Earth and the Moon

Lesson 6: Earth and the Moon Lesson 6: Earth and the Moon Reading Assignment Chapter 7.1: Overall Structure of Planet Earth Chapter 7.3: Earth s Interior More Precisely 7-2: Radioactive Dating Chapter 7.5: Earth s Magnetosphere Chapter

More information

Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered

More information

Exploring Big Bang Evidence Grade Nine

Exploring Big Bang Evidence Grade Nine Ohio Standards Connection: Earth & Space Sciences Benchmark A Explain how evidence from stars and other celestial objects provide information about the processes that cause changes in the composition and

More information

Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster

Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster In In this Activity, we will investigate: 1. How to use photometric data for an open cluster to derive an H-R Diagram for the stars and

More information

Rate Equations and Detailed Balance

Rate Equations and Detailed Balance Rate Equations and Detailed Balance Initial question: Last time we mentioned astrophysical masers. Why can they exist spontaneously? Could there be astrophysical lasers, i.e., ones that emit in the optical?

More information

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

More information

Remodelling the Big Bang

Remodelling the Big Bang Remodelling the Big Bang Dewey B. Larson Unquestionably, the most significant development that has taken place in cosmology in recent years is the replacement of the original Big Bang theory by a totally

More information

The Big Bang: New light on an old theory

The Big Bang: New light on an old theory Physics The Big Bang: New light on an old theory This lesson explores the evidence for the Big Bang theory of the origin of the Universe. In it, you will learn about the following: Using the electromagnetic

More information

Malcolm S. Longair. Galaxy Formation. With 141 Figures and 12 Tables. Springer

Malcolm S. Longair. Galaxy Formation. With 141 Figures and 12 Tables. Springer Malcolm S. Longair Galaxy Formation With 141 Figures and 12 Tables Springer Contents Part I Preliminaries 1. Introduction, History and Outline 3 1.1 Prehistory 3 1.2 The Theory of the Expanding Universe

More information

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Are there any connections between the three types of galaxies? How do galaxies form? How do galaxies evolve? P.S. You

More information

Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

More information

2. The Three Pillars of the Big Bang Theory

2. The Three Pillars of the Big Bang Theory 2. The Three Pillars of the Big Bang Theory The evolution of the Universe can be compared to a display of fireworks that has just ended: some few wisps, ashes and smoke. Standing on a cooled cinder, we

More information

The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete.

The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete. The Scale of the Universe Some Introductory Material and Pretty Pictures The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete. A scientific theory is regarded

More information

cosmology, the study of the origin, content, form, and time evolution of the Universe.

cosmology, the study of the origin, content, form, and time evolution of the Universe. 16 Cosmology Chapter Outline 16.1 Epochs of the Big Bang 16.2 Observation of Radiation from the Primordial Fireball 16.3 Spectrum Emitted by a Receding Blackbody 16.4 Ripples in the Microwave Bath What

More information

Religion and Science

Religion and Science Religion and Science Glossary Cosmology the study of the origins of the universe How did the world come into existence? Theory one Aristotle Taught that the universe has always existed and would always

More information

The Universe Inside of You: Where do the atoms in your body come from?

The Universe Inside of You: Where do the atoms in your body come from? The Universe Inside of You: Where do the atoms in your body come from? Matthew Mumpower University of Notre Dame Thursday June 27th 2013 Nucleosynthesis nu cle o syn the sis The formation of new atomic

More information

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

More information

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe? Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

More information

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees.

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. A panoramic painting of the Milky Way as seen from Earth, done by Knut Lundmark in the 1940 s. The

More information

Activity: Multiwavelength Bingo

Activity: Multiwavelength Bingo ctivity: Multiwavelength background: lmost everything that we know about distant objects in the Universe comes from studying the light that is emitted or reflected by them. The entire range of energies

More information

Lecture 14. Introduction to the Sun

Lecture 14. Introduction to the Sun Lecture 14 Introduction to the Sun ALMA discovers planets forming in a protoplanetary disc. Open Q: what physics do we learn about the Sun? 1. Energy - nuclear energy - magnetic energy 2. Radiation - continuum

More information

Level 3 Achievement Scale

Level 3 Achievement Scale Unit 1: Atoms Level 3 Achievement Scale Can state the key results of the experiments associated with Dalton, Rutherford, Thomson, Chadwick, and Bohr and what this lead each to conclude. Can explain that

More information

Solar Energy Production

Solar Energy Production Solar Energy Production We re now ready to address the very important question: What makes the Sun shine? Why is this such an important topic in astronomy? As humans, we see in the visible part of the

More information

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe

More information

STRING THEORY: Past, Present, and Future

STRING THEORY: Past, Present, and Future STRING THEORY: Past, Present, and Future John H. Schwarz Simons Center March 25, 2014 1 OUTLINE I) Early History and Basic Concepts II) String Theory for Unification III) Superstring Revolutions IV) Remaining

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information