Determine if the expectations/goals/strategies of the firewall have been identified and are sound.

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1 Firewall Documentation Develop background information about the firewall(s) in place: Segment diagrams Software Hardware Routers Version levels Host names IP addresses Connections Specific policies for an overview of the firewall security Determine if the expectations/goals/strategies of the firewall have been identified and are sound. Firewall Logical Access Ensure that logical access to the various components (routers, firewall software) of the firewall solution is appropriately restricted to the individuals with authorized need for such access. Determine the individuals who have log in capability to the firewall components are appropriate. Review access request forms for all personnel with log in capability. Review position descriptions for need to access. Determine password management features in place for applicable firewall components and the shadow password file (etc/security/password) is used. Password management guidelines exist. Passwords are required. Passwords are not displayed. Password is user maintainable. Password parameters comply with defined university standards. Login attempts limited to three and account then locked. Login failures are logged. User ids and passwords are encrypted across the network. Automatice timeout feature exists. Determine logical connections to the firewall components are secured, e.g., encryption, IP restrictions for remote administration needs. Products such as ssh (encryption connection) and TCP wrappers (IP restrictions) may be appropriate. Review for dial in access directly to the firewall server. Determine if modems are automatically disconnected by the system after a specified length of time of inactivity or if the

2 connection is broken. Who has dial in access? Who authorizes and approves dial in access? Is this access reflected on approved access request forms? What security mechanism is used to control dial in or remote access? Is there an audit trail (i.e. any reports) of dial in access and are these reports reviewed? Firewall Configuration The firewall configuration in place should provide for an adequately maintained and effective firewall. Repeat each step as applicable for each firewall component. Determine that the firewall component logical/physical locations agree with the firewall strategy. Determine that the firewall components are on the latest possible version and security patches. Operating System Logs Is there a patch ID that equates to a certain level of applied patches. Determine if patches are applied bi-weekly. If not, why? Determine that active services running on the firewall servers are appropriate. Determine that only justified startup scripts are being utilized. Determine if an appropriate banner is presented during telnet/ftp access. Determine that all server accounts are individual accounts and that any use of ROOT or Administrator account is not initiated directly. Determine the appropriateness of any software on the server that is not part of the default install of the server operating system. Obtain the firewall operating system configuration for rejection and logging of activities. Determine how the configurations were derived. Review to determine the following system activities are logged: Login (unsuccessful and successful), Logout (successful), Use of privileged commands (unsuccessful and successful), Application and session initiation (unsuccessful and successful), Use of print command (unsuccessful and successful), Access control permission modification for users and security parameters (unsuccessful and successful), Unauthorized access attempts to files (unsucessful), System startup and shutdown (unsuccessful and successful),

3 Test The Firewall All system logging and is isolated to its own partition, All attempts to gain root/administrator access (including su), All dropped packets, denied connections, and rejected attempts, Time, protocol, and user name for successful connections through the firewall, IP addresses, Error messages from routers, bastion host, and proxying programs. Are summarization of logs performed? For events that are logged, is the log parameter to record all the information activated? Document logging results are monitored and follow up actions is performed. Determine how the system and firewall logs are rotated to reduce disk space problems. Rotation should be automatic. Document the retention period. If the ports or services are needed to administer the firewall, then a rule should be set up that limits what source Ips can connect to them. Attempt to port scan the firewall from both the internal network and the Internet, scanning for ICMP, UDP, and TCP. There should be no open ports and the firewall should not be able to be pinged. Review and Test The Rule Base Design Determine a lockdown rule has been placed at the beginning of the rule base. The lockdown rule protects the firewall, ensuring that whatever other rules you put in later will not inadvertently compromise your firewall. If administrative access is required, then a rule should be placed before the lockdown rule. All other rules should go after the lockdown rule poing from most restrictive to general rules. Review remaining rules. Obtain and review the connections table for time out limits and number of connections. Timeout should be no longer than 15 minutes (900 secs). Connections table should be set to a number that makes it difficult to fill up. This will vary by placement of the firewall (suggested 50,000?). Identify accessible resources behind the firewall that are to be encrypted and determine that the connections are encrypted. This may require using a sniffer to capture log in data to the firewall and traffic going through the firewall. Determine if there is a change control process in place for the rule base. Note if the following information is included in the rule: Name of the person modifying the rule

4 Firewall Application Logs Physical Security Date/time of the rule change Reason for rule the rule change Determine the use of the firewall's automatic notification alerting features and archiving the detail intruder information to a database for future analysis. Separate partitioning for the firewall logging should be considered. This may be in the form of a separate partition on the same server, a second server drive, mirroring to the disaster recovery site, or centralized logging facility. Physical access to the various components (routers, firewall software) of the firewall solution is appropriately restricted to the individuals with an authorized need for access. Document and explain the lines connected to the firewall hardware for reasonableness. Obtain a schematic of the lines connected to the applicable firewall hardware. Discuss with the appropriate staff the purpose of each line. Determine the physical security of the area where the firewall hardware is located. Continuity of Operations Adequate precautions should exist to minimize the effects of a disaster on the routine business operations and processing. Determine the level, if any, of fault tolerance (e.g. mirroring of data) that has been implemented for the firewall server. Redundant components should be installed where critical failure points exists, or spare parts should be on site. Discuss with the appropriate staff the procedures/components in place. Use the hardware and software configuration information to odentify hardware and software in place which provide redundancy and back up. Identify the firewall's single point of failure, if any, and plans that exist to address the situation(s). Discuss with the appropriate staff the procedures/components in place. Determine that the backed up server software and data files retention and

5 rotation and rotation rationale for the software has been adequately addressed to integrate with any disaster recovery plan. Obtain and review a schedule of the retention periods for the firewall's software components and a schedule of the rotation cycle of the firewall's software. Determine where the tapes are sent for off site storage. Determine the disaster recovery plan includes the firewall server. Obtain and review the disaster recovery plan to determine the firewall is included.

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