1 ENERGY CONSERVATION PRESENTATION BY : PCG CORPORATION
2 ENGINEERING SERVICES:
3 Clients References Energy Projects Bristol Myers Barceloneta Electric Bill Analysis Lilly Guayama Electric Bill Analysis Bristol Myers Manatí Electric Bill Analysis INYX Electric Bill Analysis $ 35k credit Thermoking Electric Bill Analysis $ 817k credit Autoridad de Puertos Electric Bill Analysis $ 70k credit Municipio Vega Baja Electric Bill Analysis Bristol-Myers Energy Audit (Las cuatro plantas en P.R.) Marriott Hotel Energy Audit General Electric Energy Audit Valeant Pharmaceutical Energy Audit Rexnord Energy Audit Pfizer Energy Audit Ryder Hospital Energy Audit San Lucas Hospital Energy Audit IPR Pharmaceutical Energy Audit AAA Energy Audit Baxter/ Maricao Steam System Audit McNeil Consumer Steam System Audit Bristol Barceloneta Steam System Audit BBVA Power Factor Correction Pueblo Xtra Power Factor Correction Biovail Laboratory Power Factor Correction Hospitales San Lucas Power Factor Correction Citibank Power Factor Correction Hotel Conquistador Power Factor Correction Supermercados Grande Power Factor Correction Becton Dickinson Power Factor Correction Plaza Del Norte Power Factor Correction Citibank Re-lamping 17 Citifinancials
4 PERFORMING AN ENERGY AUDIT FROM AN OPERATIONAL POINT OF VIEW
5 What Is Energy Management? The use of Engineering and Economic principles to CONTROL the cost of energy to provide needed services in buildings and industries.
6 NEED FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT IMPORTANT REASONS: 1. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 2. ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS 3. REDUCE COSTS AND CREATE JOBS 4. ENERGY SECURITY 5. CORPORATE REQUIREMENT
7 DRIVING FACTORS IN MAJOR INVESTMENTS FOR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY 1. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 2. PRODUCT QUALITY 3. PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT 4. ENERGY AWARENESS
9 ECO s Energy Conservation Opportunities
10 DEFINITIONS ENERGY: the capacity of doing work Thermal, Electromagnetic, Nuclear, Mechanical, Chemical, etc. ENERGY CONSERVATION LAW Energy is transformed from one form to another and the total amount of energy remains the same.
11 CONT. EFFICIENCY is the ratio of the output of a system in relation with its input. MOTORS a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. GENERATOR converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. TRANSFORMER - Is a device that converts AC electric energy at one voltage level to an AC electric energy at another voltage level. They are classified as step-up or step-down transformers depending of the function they are being used for.
12 CONT. POWER FACTOR : is the ratio of the total power produced between the power used. PF = COS KVA KVAR KW
13 CONT. COGENERATION is the sequential production of thermal and electric energy from a single fuel source. Heat, that would normally be lost, is recovered in the production of one form of energy. The heat is then used to generate the second form of energy.
14 HOW & WHY ENERGY CONSERVATION
15 HOW AND WHY? HOW?: In addition to PdM Energy Audits Fuel Switching Electric Rate Structures Electrical System Utilization PF Correction Lighting Improvements Motors And Applications Insulation HVAC Improvements Waste Heat Recovery; Cogeneration, ETC.
16 WHY?: HOW AND WHY? Most energy savings cost will come from improvements in energy efficiency. Some savings will come from changing the patterns of energy use. Energy leaders will guide others to follow. Our life style depends on it.
17 ENERGY AUDITS
18 ENERGY AUDITS An Energy Audit (or Energy Survey) is a study of how energy is used in a facility and an analysis of what alternatives could be used to reduce energy costs.
19 ENERGY AUDITS This process starts by collecting information of the facility s operation and about its past record of utility bills. This data is then analyzed to get a picture of how the facility uses ( and possibly wastes) energy, and identify ECO s.
20 Types of Energy Audits There is a direct relationship to the cost of the audit (amount of data collected and analyzed) and the number of energy conservation opportunities (ECO s) to be found. Walk-through - is the least costly and identify preliminary energy savings. A visual inspection of the facility is made to determine maintenance and operation energy saving opportunities plus data collection of information to determine the need for a more detailed analysis. Mini-Audit - this type of audit requires tests and measurements to quantify energy uses and losses and determine the economics for changes. Maxi-Audit - this type of audit goes one step further than the miniaudit. It contains an evaluation of how much energy is used for each function such as lighting, process, etc.
21 Nine Major Systems To Consider Building Envelope HVAC System Electrical Supply System Lighting Boilers and Steam System Hot Water System Compressed Air System Electric Motors Special Purpose Equipment
22 What to Look for Lighting - making a detailed inventory of all lighting is important. Type of light fixtures and lamps, wattage of lamps and hours of operation. Take notes of the tasks performed in each area. This will help the auditor select alternative lighting technologies that might be more energy efficient. HVAC Equipment - all heating, air conditioning and ventilation equipment should be inventoried. Size, model numbers, electrical specifications and estimated hours of operation. Inspections to determine the condition of the evaporator and condenser coils, the air filters and the insulation on the refrigerant lines. Water Heaters - Size, age, type, model number, electrical characteristics. What the hot water is used for, how much is used and what time it is used. Also, the temperature of the hot water should be measured.
23 What to Look for Electric Motors - an inventory of all electric motors over 1 hp should be taken. Motor size, use, age, model, estimated hours of operation, electrical characteristics, and possibly the operating power factor. Measures of voltage, current and the use of the motor. Waste Heat Sources - Possible opportunities of waste heat recovery to be used as the substantial or total source needed of hot water. Waste heat sources are: air conditioners, air compressors, boilers, process cooling systems, etc. Steam / Compressed Air Systems - an inspection of the steam pipe lines should be done in order to find leaks. Analysis of the areas required pressure provide a good saving opportunity.
24 What to Look for Peak Equipment Load - look for any piece of electrically powered equipment that is used infrequently or whose use could be controlled or shifted to off-peak times. Electric Rate Analysis - verify the electric rate that your company actually have to look for opportunities in scheduling process.
26 PROBLEMS One of the problems for an energy managers is to trying to reduce cost for a facility when these costs are accounted for as part of general overhead. SOLUTION Allocate energy costs down to cost centers in the company or the facility. Sub-metering readily available and cost effective
28 10 % Theory 90 % Common Sense
31 Energy Balance for a Facility Electricity Natural Gas 2,597,700 kwh 329,863 therms Lighting 130,560 kwh Facility Boilers 329,863 therms Motors 1,516,619 kwh Air Compressor HVAC 34,286 kwh Chillers Miscellaneous 260,000 kwh Electric Heaters 101,100 kwh 116,376 kwh 274,560 kwh
32 Demand Balance for a Facility Electricity KVA Lighting 18 KVA Facility Motors KVA Air Compressor HVAC 17.1 KVA Chillers Miscellaneous 35 KVA Electric Heaters 13 KVA 14.9 KVA 34.3 KVA
33 ENERGY USE INDEX (EUI) BASIC MEASURE OF A FACILITY S ENERGY PERFORMANCE A STATEMENT OF THE NUMBER OF BTU S OF ENERGY USED ANNUALLY PER SQUARE FOOT OF CONDITIONED SPACE. THE EUI IS THE RATIO OF THE TOTAL BTU S TO THE TOTAL NUMBER OF SQUARE FEET OF CONDITIONED SPACE
34 ENERGY COST INDEX (ECI) The ECI adds up all cost of energy and divides result by total square feet of conditioned space.
35 EXAMPLE. A facility has 100,000 square feet of conditioned floor space and uses 1.76 million KWh and 6.5 million cubic feet of natural gas in one year.
36 ENERGY COST INDEX (ECI) The ECI adds up all cost of energy and divides result by total square feet of conditioned space. EXAMPLE: 1.76 Million KWh x $ 0.17 = $ 299,200 / yr 6.5 Million ft 3 natural $7.00/1000 ft 3 = $ 45,500 / yr ECI = ($ 299,200 + $ 45,500) / 100,000 ft 2 = $ 3.45/ ft 2 /year
37 INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS CONSIDERATIONS
38 ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS
39 INVESTMENTS THE BASIC CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING ANY INVESTMENT DECISION IS THAT THE SAVINGS GENERATED BY THE INVESTMENT MUST BE GREATER THAN THE COST INCURRED.
40 Simple Payback Simple Payback (SPB) is the number of years before the savings Payback the investment. SPB = INVESTMENT / NET ANNUAL SAVINGS Example: A project has an investment of $ 100,000. Savings per year are $ 22,000 but added maintenance because of the project is $ 2,000. What is the SPB? Net savings $ 22,000 - $ 2,000 = $ 20,000 SPB = ($ 100,000 / $ 20,000) = 5 YEARS
41 NOTE: SPB does not consider interest and ignores what happens after the payback period. Thus, SPB is not an accurate decision criterion; but everyone understands it (or think they do) and we will likely always have it around. Used in the proper fashion, SPB is not a bad first cut tool.
42 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
43 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM The majority of electrical energy in the United States is used to run electric motor driven systems. More than 50%. Most Frequent Opportunities of Electrical Management Are: 1. Peak Load Reduction 2. Electrical System Utilization 3. Power Quality 4. Harmonics 5. Power Factor Improvement
44 To Improve System Efficiency: 1. Maintain Voltage Levels 2. Minimize Phase Imbalance 3. Maintain Power Factor 4. Maintain Good Power Quality 5. Select Efficient Transformers 6. Chose Replacements Before a Motor Fails 7. Choose Energy Efficient Motors 8. Match Motor Operation Speeds 9. Size Motors for Efficiency 10. Perform Periodic Checks 11. Control Temperatures 12. Lubricate Correctly 13. Maintain Motor Records
45 Power Factor Improvements Benefits Increased plant capacity. Reduced power factor penalty charges for the electrical utility. Improvement of voltage supply. Less power in feeders, transformers and distribution equipment.
47 20% OF THE TOTAL POWER GENERATED IN THE UNITED STATES IS USED IN LIGHTING
48 LIGHTING PRINCIPLES OF EFFICIENT LIGHTING DESIGNS Meet target light levels Efficiently produce light Efficiently deliver light Automatically control lighting operation
49 LIGHTING ENERGY MANAGEMENT STEPS 1. Identify necessary light quantity and quality to perform visual task. 2. Increase light source efficiency if occupancy is frequent. 3. Optimize lighting controls if occupancy is infrequent. 4. Create a lighting maintenance program.
50 ELECTRIC MOTORS
51 50% OF THE TOTAL ELECTRICAL POWER IN UNITED STATES IS USED FOR ELECTRICAL MOTORS MORE THAN 70% IN MANY INDUSTRY
52 MOTORS The purpose of an electric motor is to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Generally, electric motors are efficient at converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. 30% more expensive. Motors efficiency tell us how much of the electrical energy produce by the motor is converted into mechanical energy. The portion used by the motor is the difference between the electrical energy input to the mechanical energy output.
53 DERATING FACTOR Induction Motors Derating Factor due to Unbalance Voltage PERCENT VOLTAGE UNBALANCE
54 Air & Water Heat Flow Problems
55 AIR Sensible Heat Only Q = CFM x 1.08 x ΔT [Btu/h] WATER Sensible Heat Only Q = GPM x 500 x ΔT [Btu/h]
56 EXAMPLE DUCT LOSS 10,000 CFM of air leaves an air handler at 50 ºF. It is delivered to a room at 65 ºF. How much energy was lost in the ductwork? q = CFM x 1.08 x ΔT = 10,000 CFM x 1.08 x (65-50) ºF = 162, 000 Btu/h (13.5 ton)
57 COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM
58 COMPRESSORS BASIC DEFINITION: Mechanical device taking in Ambient Air and Increasing its Pressure
59 COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM It is one of the most expensive utilities created by a plant or facility. Usually more than $ 50,000 are needed to operate a 100 Hp air compressor. Large cost reduction potential (20-50%) Management (Supply Side -Demand Size)
61 SYSTEM ECO s Match Supply to Demand - Pressure Regulators Electric Motors - Efficient Ones Leaks - 20 to 30% Controls Air Distribution - Length, Diameter, Loop, Slope
62 SYSTEM ECO s Watch Pressure Drops - 2 psi Increase (decrease) in Pressure Increase (decrease) Energy use by 1% - Excess Pressure Increases Wear on Equipment (Maintenance) - Insufficient pressure can dramatically impact productivity. - Undersized lines or hoses - Filters, Disconnects, Regulators
63 ENERGY HINT: A good system should have Pressure Drop of Less than 10% of compressor discharge from Receiver Tank Output to Point Of Use.
65 COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY In any closed combustion system such as a boiler, we can measure precisely what occurred at the burner by carefully measuring the exhaust. The goal is to be able to carefully control the fuel and airflow to ensure the complete and efficient combustion. We will see why excess air is important and why too much excess air is expensive.
66 % SAVINGS IN FUEL % Savings = New Eff. Old Eff. New Eff. Savings = (% Savings)(Fuel Consumption)
67 Example 1 Last year a 20 x 10 6 BTU/HR boiler consumed MCF of natural gas at $4.00/MCF. The boiler operates at 6% O 2 and 700 ºF STR. What is the saving to correcting that to 3% O 2?
69 Example 2 Now you can install an economizer that will reduce the stack temperature rise to 400 ºF. What is the % Fuel Saving for that change? Eff. 1 = 77 % Eff. 2 = 83 % % Savings = = 7.2 % 83
70 PROPER % BLOW DOWN PROPER % = A B-A A = Feed Water Impurities B = Boiler Impurities Allowed
71 STEAM TRAPS
72 STEAM TRAPS THE BASIC FUNCTION OF A STEAM TRAP IS TO ALLOW CONDENSATE FORMED IN THE HEATING PROCESS TO BE DRAINED FROM THE EQUIPMENT.
73 BAD STEAM TRAPS If condensate is allowed to back up in the steam chamber, it cools below the steam temperature as it gives up sensible heat to the process and reduces the effective potential for heat transfer. Avoidance of water hammer in steam systems.
75 FUNDAMENTALS The basic function of thermal insulation is to retard the flow of unwanted heat energy either to or from a specific location. The efficiency of an insulation is measured by an overall property called Thermal Conductivity. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, k value - is a measure of the amount of heat that passes through 1 square foot of 1 inch thick material in 1 hour when there is a temperature difference of 1 F across the insulation thickness. The units are: Btu-in / hr Ft 2 F The lower the k value, the more efficient the insulation. The American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) has developed sophisticated test methods that are the standards in the industry.
77 Energy Action Plan Establish an Annual Goal - 3 to 5 % for the first year. Get Management Support Design an Energy Conservation Program Select a team (just 3 or 4) Train your team Buy some equipment Make a Walk-through Audit to find ECO s Show results in company boards - that way you get support to continue with other projects, and other people will start to give you ideas for other ECO s.
78 Energy Audit Toolbox
80 Tools Light meter Thermometers Voltmeter Combustion Analyzer Airflow Measurements Devices Power Factor Meter Ultrasound Equipment Infrared Camera Vibration Analyzer Tachometer
81 The Energy Audit Report The energy audit report details the final results of the energy analyses and provides energy cost savings recommendations. The length and detail of this report will vary depending on the type of the facility audited. An industrial audit should have a detailed explanation of the EMO s (Energy Management Opportunities) and benefit-cost analyses.
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