# Cambridge International AS and A Level Computer Science

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1 Topic support guide Cambridge International AS and A Level Computer Science 9608 For examination from 2017 Topic Project management PERT and GANTT charts

2 Cambridge International Examinations retains the copyright on all its publications. Registered Centres are permitted to copy material from this booklet for their own internal use. However, we cannot give permission to Centres to photocopy any material that is acknowledged to a third party even for internal use within a Centre. Cambridge International Examinations 2015 Version 1

3 Contents Introduction... 2 How to use this guide... 2 Learning objectives... 2 Prior knowledge Key terms Theory and worked examples What are PERT charts? PERT chart worked example What are GANTT charts? GANTT charts worked example Online resources Websites Videos Software Class and homework activities Homework questions Homework solutions... 11

5 Key terms 1. Key terms Word/phrase backward pass critical path method earliest finish time (EF) earliest start time (ES) expected time, T E forward pass GANTT chart latest finish time (LF) latest start time (LS) most likely time (M) optimistic time (O) pessimistic time (P) Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) chart slack Meaning The process to determine the late start or late finish times for activities in the critical path method A mathematical modelling technique used to schedule a set of tasks. The model allows the longest path (the critical path) to be determined which gives the minimum time required for project completion The earliest start time for the activity plus the time required to complete the activity (the earliest an activity can be completed) The earliest time an activity can start once the previous dependent activities are completed Calculated using O, M and P, the expected time is: T E = O+4M+P 6 The process to determine the early start or early finish times for activities in the critical path method A diagram that shows each task in a project as a block of calendar time. Each block is labelled with the task description and the amount of time the block represents. The latest time an activity can be completed without delaying the entire project. The latest finish time minus the time required to complete the activity The project manager should have a high degree of certainty that a task will be completed within this time The shortest time that an activity is likely to take there will be a small probability (less than 5%) of this happening The project manager should be almost certain (e.g. 99%) that the task will be completed within this time An implementation of the Critical Path Method where the time for each task is estimated by using a weighted average based on a probabilistic estimation of the optimal, most likely and a pessimistic time to complete the task The number of spare / float weeks

10 Theory and worked examples 6 Topic support guide 9608 Topic Project management PERT and GANTT charts

11 Online resources 3. Online resources There are numerous resources available that introduce and contain examples of GANTT and PERT charts. The following resources are ones that you and your users should consider using. The content of websites is dynamic and constantly changing. Schools are strongly advised to check each site for content and accessibility prior to using it with learners. Cambridge International Examinations is not responsible for the accuracy or content of information contained in these sites. The inclusion of a link to an external website should not be understood to be an endorsement of that website or the site's owners (or their products/services) Websites General Overview of PERT, GANTT and CPM: why they are needed, advantages and disadvantages of each. anttv1.pdf Covers most of the topic Gantt charts, PERT charts, and includes a worked example of forward and backward pass to find the critical path, although not in the context of software development projects. Explanation of GANTT and PERT charts, including step-by-step instructions on how to construct them and the benefits of each GANTT What a Gantt chart is, and how to create them PERT Comprehensive look at critical path and PERT. Topic support guide 9608 Topic Project management PERT and GANTT charts 7

12 Online resources 3.2. Videos General Project management (eight minutes) how a project manager can use PERT and GANTT charts for project management. This is a generic video, but gives a good overview of the responsibilities of a project manager. _pqh0&annotation_id=annotation_ GANTT Brief summary of GANTT chart purpose (three minutes) PERT The following videos are from an hour-long lecture showing how to construct a PERT chart. It goes through the principles of CPM and PERT. Part 4 is beyond A Level and starts to look at the statistical variables / expectations that can be applied to the models created. Part 1 Part 2https:// Part 3 Part Software Microsoft Visio has a number of templates including PERT and GANTT tools GanttProject is a free package that allows professional quality GANTT charts to be developed 8 Topic support guide 9608 Topic Project management PERT and GANTT charts

13 Class and homework activities 4. Class and homework activities To cover the learning objectives in this topic, learners will need to practise the following: how to construct a PERT / GANTT chart for a set of tasks given the tasks, their relationship (e.g. successor / predecessor) and the time taken for each task how to interpret PERT / GANTT charts to determine the total time for completion, potential blockages and slack periods 4.1. Homework questions The following activities are suggested to consolidate your students learning after they have studied this topic: 1. The probable times (in days) for a number of tasks in a software development project have been estimated. Calculate the weighted expected time, T E, that would be used for estimating the overall task time in a PERT chart. Task Description Optimistic O Most Likely M Pessimistic P Time Expected T E A Produce software specification B Write test plans C Software design D Software code E Developer test F Software test The expected duration of each task has been calculated. The task dependencies are shown in the table below. Task Description Order Duration A Produce software specification To be completed first 1 week Topic support guide 9608 Topic Project management PERT and GANTT charts 9

14 Class and homework activities B Write test plans Start when A is complete 3 weeks C Software design Start when A is complete 2 weeks D Software code Start when B is complete 3 weeks E Developer test Start when C is complete 3 weeks F Software test Start when D and E are complete 4 weeks a. Construct a PERT chart for the project. b. Identify the critical path and hence the minimum time to completion. c. Describe where there is slack time in the system. 3. Construct a GANTT chart for the software development project. Assume that the first task starts on 17 th October Topic support guide 9608 Topic Project management PERT and GANTT charts

15 Class and homework activities 4.2. Homework solutions 1. The time expected is calculated as T E = O+4M+P 6 Task Description Optimistic O Most Likely M Pessimistic P Time Expected T E A Produce software specification B Write test plans C Software design D Software code E Developer test F Software test PERT Chart a. b. The Critical Path is A B D F and it will take a time of 11 weeks to complete the project at best. c. Tasks C and E both have 1 week of slack time since the Latest Start Times are both one week more than the Earliest Start Times. Topic support guide 9608 Topic Project management PERT and GANTT charts 11

16 Class and homework activities 3. (Note the task description should also be displayed, as well as the task ID.) 12 Topic support guide 9608 Topic Project management PERT and GANTT charts

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