4 Steps. For Life. to Control Your Diabetes. National Diabetes Education Program NDEP ( )

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1 4 Steps to Cotrol Your Diabetes. For Life. Natioal Diabetes Educatio Program NDEP ( )

2 Cotets Itroductio 1 Step 1: Lear about diabetes. 3 Step 2: Kow your diabetes ABCs. 6 Step 3: Maage your diabetes. 8 Step 4: Get routie care. 11 My Diabetes Care Record 13 Notes 16 Where to get help Iside Back Cover

3 NATIONAL DIABETES EDUCATION PROGRAM 4 Steps to Cotrol Your Diabetes. For Life. This booklet presets four key steps to help you maage your diabetes ad live a log ad active life. Step 1: Lear about diabetes. Step 2: Kow your diabetes ABCs. Step 3: Maage your diabetes. Step 4: Get routie care to avoid problems. 1

4 Diabetes is a serious disease. It affects almost every part of your body. That is why a health care team may help you take care of your diabetes: doctor detist diabetes educator dietitia eye doctor foot doctor metal health couselor urse urse practitioer pharmacist social worker frieds ad family You are the most importat member of the team. The 3 marks i this booklet show actios you ca take to maage your diabetes. 3 lt Help your hea h care t eam make a diabetes care pla that will work for you. 3 to make wise c oice Lear h s for your diabetes care each day. 2

5 Step 1: Lear about diabetes. Diabetes meas that your blood glucose (blood sugar) is too high. These are the mai types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes the body does ot make isuli. Isuli helps the body use glucose from food for eergy. People with type 1 eed to take isuli every day. Type 2 diabetes the body does ot make or use isuli well. People with type 2 ofte eed to take pills or isuli. Type 2 is the most commo form of diabetes. Gestatioal (jes-tay-sho-al) diabetes occurs i some wome whe they become pregat. It raises her future risk of developig diabetes, mostly type 2. It may raise her child s risk of beig overweight ad developig type 2 diabetes. 3

6 Diabetes is serious. You may have heard people say they have a touch of diabetes or that their sugar is a little high. These words suggest that diabetes is ot a serious disease. That is ot correct. Diabetes is serious, but you ca lear to maage it! It s Not Easy, But It s Worth It. All people with diabetes eed to make healthy food choices, stay at a healthy weight, ad move more every day. Takig good care of yourself ad your diabetes ca help you feel better. It may help you avoid health problems caused by diabetes such as: 4 heart attack ad stroke eye problems that ca lead to trouble seeig or goig blid erve damage that ca cause your hads ad feet to hurt, tigle, or feel umb. Some people may eve lose a foot or a leg kidey problems that ca cause your kideys to stop workig gum disease ad loss of teeth

7 Whe your blood glucose is close to ormal you are likely to: have more eergy be less tired ad thirsty ad uriate less ofte heal better ad have fewer ski or bladder ifectios have fewer problems with your eyesight, feet, ad gums 3 r health care team which Ask you type of diabetes you have. 3 Lear wh iabe es is s ious 3 y d t er Lear how carig for your diabe tes helps you feel better today ad i the future.. 5

8 6 Step 2: Kow your diabetes ABCs. Talk to your health care team about how to maage your A1C, Blood pressure, ad Cholesterol. This ca help lower your chaces of havig a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes problems. Here s what the ABCs of diabetes stad for: B for Blood pressure. The goal for most people with diabetes is below 130/80. High blood pressure makes your heart work too hard. It ca cause heart attack, stroke, ad kidey disease. A for the A1C test (A-oe-C). It shows what your blood glucose has bee over the last three moths. The A1C goal for may people is below 7. High blood glucose ca harm your heart ad blood vessels, kideys, feet, ad eyes. C for Cholesterol (ko-les-ter-ol). The LDL goal for people with diabetes is below 100. The HDL for me is greater tha 40. The HDL for wome is greater tha 50. LDL or bad cholesterol ca build up ad clog your blood vessels. It ca cause a heart attack or a stroke. HDL or good cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from your blood vessels.

9 what you ca do to reach your targets 3 Ask your health care team: what your A1C, blood pressure, cholesterol umbers are ad what your A1C*, blood pressure, ad cholesterol umbers should be 3 Write dow all your umb ers o the record card at the b ack of this booklet. * A A1C of less tha 7 is the goal for may people but ot for everyoe. Talk to your health care team about what A1C target is right for you. 7

10 Step 3: Maage your diabetes. May people avoid the log-term problems of diabetes by takig good care of themselves. Work with your health care team to reach your ABC target. Use this self-care pla. Follow your diabetes meal pla. If you do ot have oe, ask your health care team to help you develop a meal pla. Eat healthy foods such as fruits ad vegetables, fish, lea meats, chicke or turkey without the ski, dry peas or beas, whole grais, ad low-fat or skim milk ad cheese. Keep fish ad lea meat ad poultry portios to about 3 ouces (or the size of a deck of cards). Bake, broil, or grill it. Eat foods that have less fat ad salt. Eat foods with more fiber such as whole-grai cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta. 8

11 Get 30 to 60 miutes of physical activity o most days of the week. Brisk walkig is a great way to move more. Stay at a healthy weight by usig your meal pla ad movig more. Ask for help if you feel dow. A metal health couselor, support group, member of the clergy, fried, or family member who will liste to your cocers may help you feel better. Lear to cope with stress. Stress ca raise your blood glucose. While it is hard to remove stress from your life, you ca lear to hadle it. NDEP s Diabetes HealthSese provides olie access to resources that support people with diabetes i makig chages to live well. For more iformatio visit Stop smokig. Ask for help to quit. Call QUITNOW( ). Take medicies eve whe you feel good. Ask your doctor if you eed aspiri to prevet a heart attack or stroke. Tell your doctor if you caot afford your medicies or if you have ay side effects. 9

12 Check your feet every day for cuts, blisters, red spots, ad swellig. Call your health care team right away about ay sores that do ot go away. Brush your teeth ad floss every day to avoid problems with your mouth, teeth, or gums. Check your blood glucose. You may wat to test it oe or more times a day. Use the card at the back of this booklet to keep a record of your blood glucose umbers. Be sure to show it to your health care team. Check your blood pressure if your doctor advises. Report ay chages i your eyesight to your health care team. 3 alth care team a t y r Talk to your he bou ou blood glucose targets. Ask how ad w he to test your blood glucose ad how to us e the results to maage your diabetes. 3 Use this pla as a gu de to y ur sel -care. 3 our self-care pla is Discuss how y workig for you each time yo u v isit your health care team. i o f 10

13 Step 4: Get routie care. See your health care team at least twice a year to fid ad treat ay problems early. At each visit be sure you have a: blood pressure check foot check weight check review of your self-care pla show i Step 3 Two times each year have a: A1C test it may be checked more ofte if it is over 7 Oce each year be sure you have a: cholesterol test triglyceride (try-gliss-er-ide) test a type of blood fat complete foot exam detal exam to check teeth ad gums tell your detist you have diabetes dilated eye exam to check for eye problems flu shot urie ad a blood test to check for kidey problems At least oce get a: peumoia (u-mo-ya) shot hepatitis B shot 11

14 3 l re t am a o Ask your hea th ca e b ut these ad other tests you may ee d. Ask what your results mea. 3 e o Write dow the date ad tim f your ext visit. 3 k o Use the card at the bac f this booklet to keep a record of your diabetes care. 3 If you have Medicare, ask your health care team if Medicare will cover some of the costs for lear ad diabetes self-care ig about healthy eatig special shoes, if you eed them medical supplies diabetes medicies 12

15 My Diabetes Care Record Record your targets ad the date, time, ad results of your tests. Take this card with you o your health care visits. Show it to your health care team to remid them of tests you eed. A1C At least twice each year Goal for may: below 7 My Target: Date Result Blood Pressure (BP) Each visit Goal for most: below 130/80 My Target: Date Result Cholesterol (LDL) Oce each year Usual goal: below 100 My Target: Date Result Cholesterol (HDL) Oce each year Usual goal: above 40 My Target: Date Result Triglycerides Oce each year Usual goal: below 150 My Target: Date Result TEAR HERE Weight Each visit Date Result My Target: NATIONAL DIABETES EDUCATION PROGRAM 13

16 My Diabetes Care Record Date Result Each visit Foot check Review self-care pla Weight check Oce a year Detal exam Dilated eye exam Complete foot exam Flu shot Kidey check At least oce Peumoia shot Hepatitis B shot TEAR HERE NATIONAL DIABETES EDUCATION PROGRAM 14

17 Self Checks of Blood Glucose Record your targets ad the date, time, ad results of your checks. Take this card with you o your health care visits. Show it to your health care team. Before meals: Usual goal 70 to 130 My Target: 1-2 hours after meals: Usual goal below 180 My Target: Bedtime: Usual goal My Target: TEAR HERE NATIONAL DIABETES EDUCATION PROGRAM 15

18 Notes: TEAR HERE NATIONAL DIABETES EDUCATION PROGRAM 16

19 Where to get help: May of these groups offer items i Eglish ad Spaish. Natioal Diabetes Educatio Program NDEP ( ) Natioal Diabetes Educatio Program: Diabetes HealthSese A olie resource for livig well. Academy of Nutritio ad Dietetics America Associatio of Diabetes Educators America Diabetes Associatio DIABETES ( ) America Heart Associatio AHA-USA1 ( ) Ceters for Disease Cotrol ad Prevetio CDC-INFO ( ) Ceters for Medicare & Medicaid Services MEDICARE ( ) diabetes-screeig.aspx Natioal Istitute of Diabetes ad Digestive ad Kidey Diseases Natioal Diabetes Iformatio Clearighouse Natioal Kidey Disease Educatio Program KIDNEY ( )

20 Natioal Diabetes Educatio Program NDEP ( ) The U.S. Departmet of Health ad Huma Services Natioal Diabetes Educatio Program (NDEP) is joitly sposored by the Natioal Istitutes of Health (NIH) ad the Ceters for Disease Cotrol ad Prevetio (CDC) with the support of more tha 200 parter orgaizatios. Participats i research studies ca play a more active role i improvig their ow health ad help others by cotributig to health-related research. See ad www. cdc.gov/diabetes/projects/idex.htm. The NIDDK prits o recycled paper with bio-based ik. Reviewed by Martha M. Fuell, MS, RN, CDE Michiga Diabetes Research ad Traiig Ceter NIH Publicatio No February 2012

4 Steps. For Life. to Control Your Diabetes. National Diabetes Education Program 1-888-693-NDEP (1-888-693-6337) www.yourdiabetesinfo.

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