Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System"

Transcription

1 Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System Systems, Structures, and Cells That Make Up Your Nervous System 1 General Layout of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain (in the skull) Spinal Cord (in the spine) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Located outside of the skull and spine Serves to bring information into the CNS and carry signals out of the CNS 2 General Layout of the Nervous System Continued Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Afferent nerves (sensory) Efferent nerves (motor) Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves Both are efferent 3 1

2 FIGURE 3.2 The major divisions of the nervous system. 4 Autonomic Nervous System All nerves are efferent Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves generally have opposite effects Two-stage neural paths, neuron exiting the CNS synapses on a second-stage neuron before the target organ 5 CourseSmart - Instructors - Print 1/23/12 1:42 PM User name: Robert Crutcher Book: Biopsychology, Eighth Edition Page: 491. No part of any book may be reproduced or transmitted by any means without the publisher's prior permission. Use (other than qualified fair use) in violation of the law or Terms of Service is prohibited. Violators will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. Autonomic Nervous system 6 Page 2 of 7 2

3 User name: Robert Crutcher Book: Biological Psychology: An Introduction to Behavioral, Cognitive, and Clinical Neuroscience, Sixth Edition Page: 39. No part of any book may be reproduced or transmitted by any means without the publisher's prior permission. Use (other than qualified fair use) in violation of the law or Terms of Service is prohibited. Violators will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. Autonomic Nervous System Continued Sympathetic Thoracic and lumbar Fight or flight Second stage neurons are far from the target organ Parasympathetic Cranial and sacral Rest and restore Second stage neurons are near the target organ 7 CourseSmart - Instructors - Print Autonomic Nervous System 2 1/28/12 9:55 PM 8 Page 7 of 10 Meninges, Ventricles, and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) CNS encased in bone and covered by three meninges Dura mater tough outer membrane Arachnoid membrane web-like Pia mater adheres to CNS surface Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Fluid serves as cushion 9 3

4 FIGURE 3.3 The cerebral ventricles. 10 Protecting the Brain Chemical protection The blood-brain barrier tightly-packed cells of blood vessel walls prevent entry of many molecules Physical protection Skull Meninges Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 11 Absorption of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space (blue) into a major sinus. 12 4

5 Cells of the Nervous System: Anatomy of Neurons Neurons Specialized cells for the reception, conduction, and transmission of electrochemical signals Many sizes and shapes 13 FIGURE 3.5 The major external features of a typical neuron. 14 FIGURE 3.6 The major internal features of a typical neuron. 15 5

6 FIGURE 3.7 The cell membrane is a lipid bilayer with signal proteins and channel proteins embedded in it. 16 FIGURE 3.8 A unipolar neuron, a bipolar neuron, a multipolar neuron, and an interneuron. 17 Glial Cells: The Forgotten Cells Glial cells Outnumber neurons 10:1 Support neurons Recent evidence for glial communication and modulatory effects of glia on neuronal communication Four classes of Glial cells: Oligodendrocytes extensions rich in myelin create myelin sheaths in CNS Schwann cells similar to function of oligodendrocytes but in PNS, can guide axonal regeneration Astrocytes largest glia, star-shaped, many functions Microglia involved in response to injury or disease 18 6

7 FIGURE 3.9 The myelination of CNS axons by an oligodendrocyte and the myelination of PNS axons by Schwann cells. 19 Terminology Note Myelin-providing glia CNS Oligodendrocytes PNS Schwann cells Clusters of cell bodies Nuclei (singular nucleus) Ganglia (singular ganglion) Bundles of axons Tracts Nerves 20 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions Golgi stain allows for visualization of individual neurons Nissl stain selectively stains cell bodies Electron microscopy provides information about the details of neuronal structure 21 7

8 FIGURE 3.11 Neural tissue that has been stained by the Golgi method. (Ed Reschke Peter Arnold, Inc.) 22 FIGURE 3.12 The Nissl stain. (Courtesy of Carl Ernst and Brian Christie, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia.) 23 FIGURE 3.13 A color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph of a neuron cell body (green) studded with terminal buttons (orange). Courtesy of Jerold J. M. Chun, M.D., Ph.D. 24 8

9 Neuroanatomical Tracing Techniques Anterograde (forward) tracing to where axons project away from an area Retrograde (backward) tracing from where axons are projecting into an area 25 FIGURE 3.14 Anatomical directions in a representative vertebrate (cat). 26 FIGURE 3.15 Anatomical directions in a human. 27 9

10 Directions in the Vertebrate Nervous System Continued Anatomical directions ignore the fact that humans walk upright. Therefore, top of the head is both dorsal (back) and superior (top) Other directions: Medial toward the middle Lateral toward the side Proximal close Distal far 28 Sections of the Brain Horizontal a slice parallel to the ground Frontal (coronal) slicing bread or salami Sagittal a midsagittal section separates the left and right halves 29 FIGURE 3.16 Horizontal, frontal (coronal), and sagittal planes in the human brain and a cross section of the human spinal cord

11 CourseSmart - Instructors - Print 1/28/12 9:55 PM User name: Robert Crutcher Book: Biological Psychology: An Introduction to Behavioral, Cognitive, and Clinical Neuroscience, Sixth Edition Page: 42. No part of any book may be reproduced or transmitted by any means without the publisher's prior permission. Use (other than qualified fair use) in violation of the law or Terms of Service is prohibited. Violators will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. 3 Views of the Brain 31 Page 10 of 10 Spinal Cord Gray matter inner component, primarily cell bodies White matter outer area, mainly myelinated axons Dorsal afferent, sensory Ventral efferent, motor 32 FIGURE 3.17 The dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord. FIGURE 3.18 A schematic cross section of the spinal cord

12 FIGURE 3.19 The early development of the mammalian brain illustrated in schematic horizontal sections. 34 FIGURE 3.20 The divisions of the adult human brain. 35 Major Structures of the Brain Myelencephalon = medulla Composed largely of tracts Origin of the reticular formation Metencephalon Many tracts Pons ventral surface Cerebellum coordination 36 12

13 FIGURE 3.21 Structures of the human myelencephalon (medulla) and metencephalon. 37 Major Structures of the Brain Continued Mesencephalon = midbrain tectum has inferior and superior colliculi tegmentum has periaqueductal gray, substantia nigra, and red nucleus Diencephalon thalamus hypothalamus 38 FIGURE 3.22 The human mesencephalon (midbrain)

14 FIGURE 3.23 The human diencephalon. 40 CourseSmart - Instructors - Print 1/23/12 1:42 PM User name: Robert Crutcher Book: Biopsychology, Eighth Edition Page: 495. No part of any book may be reproduced or transmitted by any means without the publisher's prior permission. Use (other than qualified fair use) in violation of the law or Terms of Service is prohibited. Violators will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. Nuclei of the Thalamus 41 Telencephalon Cerebral Cortex Page 6 of 7 Convolutions serve to increase surface area Longitudinal fissure a groove that separates right and left hemispheres Corpus callosum largest hemisphere-connecting tract 42 14

15 FIGURE 3.25 The major fissures of the human cerebral cortex. 43 FIGURE 3.26 The lobes of the cerebral hemishphere. 44 Telencephalon Subcortical Structures Limbic system regulation of motivated behaviors Mammillary bodies, hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, cingulate, septum Basal ganglia motor system Amygdala, striatum (caudate nucleus + putamen), globus pallidus 45 15

16 FIGURE 3.28 The major structures of the limbic system: amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate cortex, fornix, septum, and mammillary body. 46 FIGURE 3.29 The basal ganglia: amygdala, striatum (caudate plus putamen) and globus pallidus. 47 FIGURE 3.30 Summary of major brain structures

17 CourseSmart - Instructors - Print 1/28/12 9:56 PM User name: Robert Crutcher Book: Biological Psychology: An Introduction to Behavioral, Cognitive, and Clinical Neuroscience, Sixth Edition Page: 43. No part of any book may be reproduced or transmitted by any means without the publisher's prior permission. Use (other than qualified fair use) in violation of the law or Terms of Service is prohibited. Violators will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. Divisions of the Human Nervous System in Embryo and Adult 49 Page 1 of 10 17

CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling. Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy

CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling. Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling Lect02: BOSS Discrete Event Simulator Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy Appendix of Purves et al., 4e Larry Wittie Computer Science, StonyBrook

More information

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology Dr. Chris Doumen Week 7 2401 : Anatomy/Physiology The Brain Central Nervous System TextBook Readings Pages 431 through 435 and 463-467 Make use of the figures in your textbook ; a picture is worth a thousand

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System I. Organization of the Nervous System Objectives: List the general functions of the nervous system Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system

More information

Unit 2 - Subcortical systems, neurochemistry and brain function

Unit 2 - Subcortical systems, neurochemistry and brain function Unit 2 - Subcortical systems, neurochemistry and brain function Subcortical anatomy: Most of the five major subdivisions of the brain are subcortical. I. Telencephalon (cortical - part of forebrain) -

More information

DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP'S BRAIN

DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP'S BRAIN DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP'S BRAIN Introduction The purpose of the sheep brain dissection is to familiarize you with the threedimensional structure of the brain and teach you one of the great methods of studying

More information

Nervous System: PNS and CNS

Nervous System: PNS and CNS Nervous System: PNS and CNS Biology 105 Lecture 10 Chapter 8 Outline I. Central Nervous System vs Peripheral Nervous System II. Peripheral Nervous System A. Somatic Nervous System B. Autonomic Nervous

More information

Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology by Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.)

Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology by Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.) BRAIN ANATOMY Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology by Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.) The anatomy of the brain is often discussed in terms of either the embryonic scheme or the medical scheme. The embryonic

More information

Parts of the Brain. Chapter 1

Parts of the Brain. Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Parts of the Brain Living creatures are made up of cells. Groups of cells, similar in appearance and with the same function, form tissue. The brain is a soft mass of supportive tissues and nerve

More information

Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization

Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization Jeanette J. Norden, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Course Outline Lecture 1: Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain

More information

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz 1. The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves

More information

Chapter 9 - Nervous System

Chapter 9 - Nervous System Chapter 9 - Nervous System 9.1 Introduction (p. 215; Fig. 9.1) A. The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. 1. Neurons transmit nerve impulses along nerve fibers to other neurons. 2. Nerves

More information

Nervous System Organization. PNS and CNS. Nerves. Peripheral Nervous System. Peripheral Nervous System. Motor Component.

Nervous System Organization. PNS and CNS. Nerves. Peripheral Nervous System. Peripheral Nervous System. Motor Component. Nervous System Organization PNS and CNS Chapters 8 and 9 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects CNS to sensory receptors, muscles and glands Central Nervous System (CNS) control/integrating center brain

More information

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sensory Pathway (PNS) OVERVIEW OF SPINAL CORD ANATOMY OF THE SPINAL CORD FUNCTIONS OF THE SPINAL CORD

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sensory Pathway (PNS) OVERVIEW OF SPINAL CORD ANATOMY OF THE SPINAL CORD FUNCTIONS OF THE SPINAL CORD CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord enclosed in bony coverings Functions of the spinal cord spinal cord reflexes integration ti (summation of inhibitory and excitatory)

More information

Chapter 9 Nervous System

Chapter 9 Nervous System Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory

More information

THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES

THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES The Brain - made up of a trillion neurons - weighs about 3 lbs - has four principle parts 1. Brain stem - medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain (mesencephalon) 2. Diencephalon

More information

Slide 4: Forebrain Structures. Slide 5: 4 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex. Slide 6: The Cerebral Hemispheres (L & R)

Slide 4: Forebrain Structures. Slide 5: 4 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex. Slide 6: The Cerebral Hemispheres (L & R) Slide 1: [Film Clip: The Brain #2- Phineas Gage] Integrated Bodily Communications Within Brain (Hemispheres and structures) The remaining Nervous System Endocrine System (Hormonal communication) Our bodies-

More information

3) Cerebral Cortex & Functions of the 4 LOBES. 5) Cranial Nerves (Nerves In the Cranium, i.e., Head)

3) Cerebral Cortex & Functions of the 4 LOBES. 5) Cranial Nerves (Nerves In the Cranium, i.e., Head) Lecture 5 (Oct 8 th ): ANATOMY and FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Lecture Outline 1) Basic Divisions (CNS vs. PNS, Somatic vs. Autonomic) and Directional Terms 2) The Brain (Hindbrain/ Midbrain/ Forebrain)

More information

Nervous System sensor input integration motor output sensory organs central nervous system

Nervous System sensor input integration motor output sensory organs central nervous system Nervous System Nervous system performs three overlapping functions of sensor input, integration, and motor output. This process is generally the same even at a very primitive level of nervous system, but

More information

CHAPTER 11: NERVOUS SYSTEM II: DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OBJECTIVES: 1. Outline the major divisions of the nervous system.

CHAPTER 11: NERVOUS SYSTEM II: DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OBJECTIVES: 1. Outline the major divisions of the nervous system. CHAPTER 11: NERVOUS II: DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS OBJECTIVES: 1. Outline the major divisions of the nervous system. NERVOUS CENTRAL NERVOUS (BRAIN & SPINAL CORD) (INTERNEURONS) PERIPHERAL NERVOUS (CRANIAL

More information

NEURONS NEUROGLIAL CELLS.

NEURONS NEUROGLIAL CELLS. 1 THE NERVOUS TISSUE Definition: The nervous tissue is an assemblage of cells and supportive elements (materials) in which there is a predominance of cells which are highly specialized in the property

More information

http://abcnews.go.com/politics/video/obama-says-brain-initiative-will-be-transformative-18861944

http://abcnews.go.com/politics/video/obama-says-brain-initiative-will-be-transformative-18861944 http://abcnews.go.com/politics/video/obama-says-brain-initiative-will-be-transformative-18861944 What are the nervous system s functions? The nervous system organizes and controls an individual s appropriate

More information

Sheep Brain Dissection Picture Guide

Sheep Brain Dissection Picture Guide Sheep Brain Dissection Picture Guide Figure 1: Right Hemisphere of Sheep s Brain Figure 2: Underside of Sheep s Brain Figure 3: Saggital cut of Sheep s Brain to reveal subcortical structures Figure 4:

More information

Mini-atlas of the Marmoset Brain

Mini-atlas of the Marmoset Brain Mini-atlas of the Marmoset Brain http://marmoset-brain.org Aya Senoo Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Hironobu Tokuno Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science Charles Watson Curtin

More information

組 織 學 實 驗 : 神 經 系 統 Histology Lab : Nervous system

組 織 學 實 驗 : 神 經 系 統 Histology Lab : Nervous system 組 織 學 實 驗 : 神 經 系 統 Histology Lab : Nervous system 實 驗 講 義 : 謝 侑 霖 老 師 Yu-Lin Hsieh, PhD. 劉 俊 馳 Chun-Chih Liu 李 怡 琛 Yi-Chen Lee 張 昭 元 Chao-Yuah Chang 張 瀛 双 Ying-Shuang Chang :07-3121101 ext 2144-18 :littlebu@kmu.edu.tw

More information

Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow

Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow 13.01.2015 Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow Introduction Property of irritability and conductivity Respond to various types of stimuli Distributed

More information

Sheep Brain Dissection

Sheep Brain Dissection Sheep Brain Dissection http://www.carolina.com/product/preserved+organisms/preserved+animals+%28mammal s%29/sheep+organs/preserved+sheep+dissection.do Michigan State University Neuroscience Program Brain

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Nervous System Introduction Chapter 11 Section A Sequence 4.1 DB Nervous system 1 Intro Presentations 4.2,

More information

Diagram 2(i): Structure of the Neuron

Diagram 2(i): Structure of the Neuron Diagram 2(i): Structure of the Neuron Generally speaking, we can divide the nervous system into different parts, according to location and function. So far we have mentioned the central nervous system

More information

The brain structure and function

The brain structure and function The brain structure and function This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding brain tumours. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 5. Contents Introduction

More information

Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves (Chapter 13) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College

Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves (Chapter 13) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves (Chapter 13) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Primary Sources for figures and content: Eastern Campus Marieb,

More information

3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d.

3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d. Chapter Test 1. A cell that receives information and transmits it to other cells via an electrochemical process is called a(n) a. neuron b. hormone c. glia d. endorphin Answer: A difficulty: 1 factual

More information

Brain Power. Counseling and Mental Health

Brain Power. Counseling and Mental Health Brain Power Counseling and Mental Health TEA COPYRIGHT Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. These Materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Somatic Reflexes 13-1

Human Anatomy & Physiology Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Somatic Reflexes 13-1 Human Anatomy & Physiology Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Somatic Reflexes 13-1 Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Somatic Reflexes Spinal cord Spinal nerves Somatic reflexes 13-2 Overview of Spinal Cord Information

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define

More information

Human Neuroanatomy. Grades 9-12. Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today?

Human Neuroanatomy. Grades 9-12. Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today? Human Neuroanatomy Grades 9-12 Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today? Objectives: Students will be able to Describe the basic parts and

More information

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information

More information

Exercise 5 Nervous Tissue

Exercise 5 Nervous Tissue Exercise 5 Nervous Tissue Objectives After completing the laboratory exercise for nervous tissue you should be able to: Introduction Identify a "typical" multipolar neuron in the light microscope. Identify

More information

BIO130 Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves Lecture Outline

BIO130 Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves Lecture Outline BIO130 Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves Lecture Outline Brain structure 1. Cerebrum Hemispheres: left & right Cerebral cortex Gyri Sulci Fissures Longitudinal fissure Corpus callosum Lobes Central

More information

Psychology 3625 Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience. Dr Darren Hannesson

Psychology 3625 Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience. Dr Darren Hannesson Psychology 3625 Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience Dr Darren Hannesson Lecture 6 Cells of the nervous system Neurons Glia Other cell types Blood-brain barrier Types of nervous system cells Neurons The

More information

Name Date Hour. Nerve Histology Microscope Lab

Name Date Hour. Nerve Histology Microscope Lab Name Date Hour Nerve Histology Microscope Lab PRE-LAB: Answer the following questions using your reading and class notes before starting the microscope lab. 1. What is the difference between the functions

More information

FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY The Internal Environment

FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY The Internal Environment FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY The Internal Environment Physiology is the study of function in living matter; it attempts to explain the physical and chemical factors that are responsible for

More information

PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY

PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION B Sc COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY (2011 Admission Onwards) I Semester Complementary Course PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY QUESTION BANK 1. are the basic units of

More information

An Introduction To Human Neuroanatomy

An Introduction To Human Neuroanatomy An Introduction To Human Neuroanatomy Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478, 1-800-BRAIN BANK. Created by Tim Wheelock, Assistant Director of Neuropathology/Instructor

More information

18. What is limbic system? A. The inner parts of cerebral hemispheres associated with deep structures and from a complex structure. 19.

18. What is limbic system? A. The inner parts of cerebral hemispheres associated with deep structures and from a complex structure. 19. CHAPTER 21 NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION One mark Questions: 1. Name the structural and functional unit of nervous system? A. Neuron. 2. What does central Nervous System consists of? A. Brain and spinal

More information

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour:

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that

More information

THE SPINAL CORD AND THE INFLUENCE OF ITS DAMAGE ON THE HUMAN BODY

THE SPINAL CORD AND THE INFLUENCE OF ITS DAMAGE ON THE HUMAN BODY THE SPINAL CORD AND THE INFLUENCE OF ITS DAMAGE ON THE HUMAN BODY THE SPINAL CORD. A part of the Central Nervous System The nervous system is a vast network of cells, which carry information in the form

More information

Lab Exercise 9. Nervous Tissue. Brain. Cranial Nerves. Spinal Cord. Spinal Nerves

Lab Exercise 9. Nervous Tissue. Brain. Cranial Nerves. Spinal Cord. Spinal Nerves Lab Exercise 9 Nervous Tissue Brain Cranial Nerves Spinal Cord Spinal Nerves Textbook Reference: See Chapter 11 for histology of nerve tissue and spinal cord See Chapter 12 for brain and spinal cord anatomy

More information

What is the basic component of the brain and spinal cord communication system?

What is the basic component of the brain and spinal cord communication system? EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY David Myers The Biology of Mind Chapter 2 Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The

More information

Introduction to Neurophysiological Psychology (PSY 451)

Introduction to Neurophysiological Psychology (PSY 451) Portland State University Physiological Psychology Page 1 Introduction to Neurophysiological Psychology (PSY 451) Bill Griesar, Ph.D., Adjunct Instructor, bgriesar@pacifier.com OFFICE HOURS: Mondays, 11:30

More information

Anatomy of the Brain > 1. Figure 1. Eight bones form the skull and fourteen bones form the face.

Anatomy of the Brain > 1. Figure 1. Eight bones form the skull and fourteen bones form the face. Anatomy of the Brain Overview The human brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind

More information

Anatomy and Terminology of the Spine. Bones of the Spine (Vertebrae)

Anatomy and Terminology of the Spine. Bones of the Spine (Vertebrae) Anatomy and Terminology of the Spine The spine, also called the spinal column, vertebral column or backbone, consists of bones, intervertebral discs, ligaments, and joints. In addition, the spine serves

More information

Chapter 4. The Brain

Chapter 4. The Brain Chapter 4 The Brain The Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) receives, processes, interprets and stores info (taste, sound, smell, color etc.) Sends information to muscles, glands and internal organs

More information

Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes

Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes I. General Organization of the Nervous System, p. 422 Objectives 1. Describe the basic structural and organizational characteristics of the

More information

Chapter 15. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes. general properties Anatomy. Autonomic effects on target organs

Chapter 15. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes. general properties Anatomy. Autonomic effects on target organs Chapter 15 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes general properties Anatomy Autonomic effects on target organs Central control of autonomic function 15-1 Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

Human Physiology Study Questions-2

Human Physiology Study Questions-2 Human Physiology Study Questions-2 Action potentials: Handout-8, Chapter 8 1. Explain the positive feedback component of an action potential that is, how the opening of one voltage-gated sodium (or calcium)

More information

MITOCW MIT9_14S09_lec33-mp3

MITOCW MIT9_14S09_lec33-mp3 MITOCW MIT9_14S09_lec33-mp3 The following content is provided under a Creative Commons License. Your support will help MIT OpenCourseWare continue to offer high quality educational resources for free.

More information

1. Which of the following is NOT part of the diencephalon? a. Pineal gland b. Tectum c. Interthalamic adhesion d. Hypothalamus e.

1. Which of the following is NOT part of the diencephalon? a. Pineal gland b. Tectum c. Interthalamic adhesion d. Hypothalamus e. 1. Which of the following is NOT part of the diencephalon? a. Pineal gland b. Tectum c. Interthalamic adhesion d. Hypothalamus e. Thalamus 2. The is the primary relay station for sensory information coming

More information

THE BRAIN, SPINAL CORD, AND CRANIAL NERVES

THE BRAIN, SPINAL CORD, AND CRANIAL NERVES THE BRAIN, SPINAL CORD, AND CRANIAL NERVES I. BRAIN ANATOMY A. Meninges (coverings) of the brain and spinal cord (Fig. [13.120 p. 452 [457]) Use text illustrations to study these. Note that the singular

More information

BIOL 1108 Vertebrate Anatomy Lab

BIOL 1108 Vertebrate Anatomy Lab BIOL 1108 Vertebrate Anatomy Lab This lab explores major organs associated with the circulatory, excretory, and nervous systems of mammals. Circulatory System Vertebrates are among the organisms that have

More information

Basic Brain Information

Basic Brain Information Basic Brain Information Brain facts Your brain weighs about 3lbs, or just under 1.5Kg It has the texture of blancmange Your brain is connected to your spinal cord by the brain stem Behind your brain stem

More information

CHAPTER 9 BODY ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER 9 BODY ORGANIZATION CHAPTER 9 BODY ORGANIZATION Objectives Identify the meaning of 10 or more terms relating to the organization of the body Describe the properties of life Describe the function for the structures of the

More information

General A&P Nervous Tissues, Nerves, Spinal Cord and Reflexes Lab Exercises

General A&P Nervous Tissues, Nerves, Spinal Cord and Reflexes Lab Exercises 1 General A&P Nervous Tissues, Nerves, Spinal Cord and Reflexes Lab Exercises Have someone in your group read the following out loud, while the others read along: In this "Lab Guide", we will be looking

More information

What role does the nucleolus have in cell functioning? Glial cells

What role does the nucleolus have in cell functioning? Glial cells Nervous System Lab The nervous system of vertebrates can be divided into the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which contains nerves,

More information

Adrian Owens Research

Adrian Owens Research *Classic View: Not entirely correct Nervous System Central Nervous System is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System is broken down into a component called the somatic division.

More information

Spine Anatomy and Spine General The purpose of the spine is to help us stand and sit straight, move, and provide protection to the spinal cord.

Spine Anatomy and Spine General The purpose of the spine is to help us stand and sit straight, move, and provide protection to the spinal cord. Spine Anatomy and Spine General The purpose of the spine is to help us stand and sit straight, move, and provide protection to the spinal cord. Normal List Kyphosis The human spine has 7 Cervical vertebra

More information

Peripheral Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System Nervous system consists of: Peripheral Nervous System CNS = brain and spinal cord ~90% (90 Bil) of all neurons in body are in CNS PNS = Cranial nerves and spinal nerves, nerve plexuses & ganglia ~10% (10

More information

The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture

The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture Review basic nervous system anatomy before you begin this lecture. The lecture touches on a few of the major characteristics, but you are expected to have already been

More information

LECTURE 16 NEUROPATHOPHYSIOLOGY (HEAD INJURY)

LECTURE 16 NEUROPATHOPHYSIOLOGY (HEAD INJURY) LECTURE 16 Copyright 2000 by Bowman O. Davis, Jr. The approach and organization of this material was developed by Bowman O. Davis, Jr. for specific use in online instruction. All rights reserved. No part

More information

Transverse Sections of the Spinal Cord

Transverse Sections of the Spinal Cord Transverse Sections of the Spinal Cord The spinal cord is perhaps the most simply arranged part of the CNS. Its basic structure, indicated in a schematic drawing of the eighth cervical segment (Figure

More information

Behavioral Neuroscience Lecture Notes

Behavioral Neuroscience Lecture Notes 1 Behavioral Neuroscience Lecture Notes PSYC/NRSC 4052/5052 Daniel Barth Created by: Dr. Daniel Barth Updated but undoubtedly outdated: 2013 2 3 TO THE STUDENT About these notes: These notes show a rough

More information

Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Central Nervous System

Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Central Nervous System CHAPTER 3 Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Central Nervous System GENERAL TERMINOLOGY AN OVERVIEW OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Major Divisions

More information

D.U.C. Assist. Lec. Faculty of Dentistry General Physiology Ihsan Dhari. The Autonomic Nervous System

D.U.C. Assist. Lec. Faculty of Dentistry General Physiology Ihsan Dhari. The Autonomic Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System The portion of the nervous system that controls most visceral functions of the body is called the autonomic nervous system. This system helps to control arterial pressure,

More information

Chapter 3 The Brain and Behavior

Chapter 3 The Brain and Behavior Chapter 3 The Brain and Behavior Learning Goals 1. Discuss the nature and basic functions of the nervous system. 2. Explain what neurons are and how they process information. 3. Identify the brain s levels

More information

Rosen Educational Services materials copyright 2011 Rosen Educational Services, LLC. All rights reserved.

Rosen Educational Services materials copyright 2011 Rosen Educational Services, LLC. All rights reserved. Published in 2011 by Britannica Educational Publishing (a trademark of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.) in association with Rosen Educational Services, LLC 29 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010. Copyright

More information

NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS The Great Diseases A collaborative approach to real world science in the classroom Infectious Diseases Neurological Disorders Metabolic Disease Cancer NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS Katherine Malanson and Karina

More information

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential 2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool

More information

CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM NEURONS AND GLIA CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Glia Insulates, supports, and nourishes neurons Neurons Process information Sense environmental changes Communicate changes to other neurons Command body response

More information

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue 12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue I. Introduction to the Nervous System General functions of the nervous system The nervous system has three basic functions: 1. Gather sensory input from the environment

More information

UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015 COGNITIVE & BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES MODULE NO: PSC4003

UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015 COGNITIVE & BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES MODULE NO: PSC4003 [EDP 005] UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015 COGNITIVE & BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES MODULE NO: PSC4003 Date: Wednesday 21 st January, 2015 Time: 2.00pm

More information

Motor dysfunction 2: Spinal cord injury and subcortical motor disorders ANATOMY REVIEW: Basal Ganglia

Motor dysfunction 2: Spinal cord injury and subcortical motor disorders ANATOMY REVIEW: Basal Ganglia Motor dysfunction 2: Spinal cord injury and subcortical motor disorders ANATOMY REVIEW: Basal Ganglia A group of subcortical nuclei caudate, putamen, globus pallidus Caudate & Putamen = Neostriatum caudate

More information

Brain Matters: Brain Anatomy

Brain Matters: Brain Anatomy 1 : Brain Anatomy Lesson Overview Students share what they already know about brain structure and function, and then, guided by descriptions of brain regions explore the G2C Online 3-D Brain to learn more

More information

1 Cornea 6 Macula 2 Lens 7 Vitreous humor 3 Iris 8 Optic disc 4 Conjunctiva 9 Ciliary muscles 5 Sclera 10 Choroid

1 Cornea 6 Macula 2 Lens 7 Vitreous humor 3 Iris 8 Optic disc 4 Conjunctiva 9 Ciliary muscles 5 Sclera 10 Choroid Anatomy and Physiology Quiz 1 Sample Question Answers Use the following table to answer Questions 1 2. 1 Cornea 6 Macula 2 Lens 7 Vitreous humor 3 Iris 8 Optic disc 4 Conjunctiva 9 Ciliary muscles 5 Sclera

More information

BIOLOGY STUDY PACKET THE BRAIN

BIOLOGY STUDY PACKET THE BRAIN BIOLOGY STUDY PACKET THE BRAIN SC.912.L.14.26 AA Spring 2012 The intent of this packet is to supplement regular classroom instruction, not to replace it. This also supposes that the students have access

More information

The Human Nervous System

The Human Nervous System The Human Nervous System S tructure and Function S ixth Ed ition The Human Nervous System Structure and Function S ixth Edition Charles R. Noback, PhD Professor Emeritus Department of Anatomy and Cell

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C.

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food

More information

NEUROANATOMY 6 Limbic System

NEUROANATOMY 6 Limbic System NEUROANATOMY 6 Limbic System The Limbic System The part of the brain involved with learning, memory and emotion. It is affected in many neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, Alzheimer s disease

More information

To understand the nervous system, start by thinking of your

To understand the nervous system, start by thinking of your Chapter The Nervous System 6 To understand the nervous system, start by thinking of your body as a biological machine that runs on electricity. In fact, this is true; your body does run on electricity!

More information

You can t turn on the television or radio, much less go online, without seeing something

You can t turn on the television or radio, much less go online, without seeing something 11 Introduction to the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue You can t turn on the television or radio, much less go online, without seeing something to remind you of the nervous system. From advertisements

More information

Please read chapter 15, The Autonomic Nervous System, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class.

Please read chapter 15, The Autonomic Nervous System, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class. Please read chapter 15,, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class. I. Introduction to the autonomic nervous system: Briefly describe the autonomic nervous system.

More information

Chapter 15 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture

Chapter 15 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 1 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Chapter 15 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 2 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) regulates the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and certain

More information

Nerves and Nerve Impulse

Nerves and Nerve Impulse Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released

More information

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html NAME Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html On the left side, click on Explore, then click on The Neuron, then click on Millions

More information

Barbara St. Marie, PhD Candidate Nurse Practitioner Supervisor Pain and Palliative Care Fairview Ridges Hospital Minneapolis, MN

Barbara St. Marie, PhD Candidate Nurse Practitioner Supervisor Pain and Palliative Care Fairview Ridges Hospital Minneapolis, MN Barbara St. Marie, PhD Candidate Nurse Practitioner Supervisor Pain and Palliative Care Fairview Ridges Hospital Minneapolis, MN Pain Physiology Objectives: Explain how pain is transmitted through the

More information

Introduction. I. Objectives. II. Introduction. A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location.

Introduction. I. Objectives. II. Introduction. A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location. E X E R C I S E Introduction I. Objectives A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location. B. To become familiar with different types of planes and sections. C. To learn the names and locations

More information

Introduction to the Nervous System

Introduction to the Nervous System SENSORY PROCESSES Introduction to the Nervous System Introduction to the Nervous System he world is mostly unknown. This statement immediately emphasizes the point that we are not conscious of most of

More information

Chapter 15. Sympathetic Nervous System

Chapter 15. Sympathetic Nervous System Chapter 15 Sympathetic Nervous System Somatic versus Autonomic Pathways Somatic efferent innervation ACh Myelinated fiber Somatic effectors (skeletal muscles) Autonomic efferent innervation ACh ACh or

More information

Anatomy Review. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

Anatomy Review. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function.

More information

PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR, 6/e

PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR, 6/e PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR, 6/e 2007 Neil R. Carlson, University of Massachusetts, Amherst C. Donald Heth, The University of Alberta Harold Miller, Brigham Young University John W. Donahoe, University

More information

Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc).

Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc). Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function. One part of the cell receives incoming signals. Another part generates outgoing signals. Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission

More information

HEAD INJURY WITH HELMET USE

HEAD INJURY WITH HELMET USE HEAD INJURY WITH HELMET USE by Greg Doc TrojanIntroduction While motorcycling has been targeted as a public burden and garners most of the public attention concerning head injury, it is actually a minor

More information