MUS PROJECT IN COLOMBIA

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1 MUS PROJECT IN COLOMBIA Cinara Institute Universidad del Valle Junio, 2006

2 General Objective To mainstream and scale-up a multiple use approach to water supply programmes and policies in the Andean countries that better support the livelihood activities of poor families

3 Scaled-up and sustainable multiple use services for improved livelihoods Inclusive institutions Appropriate technology Services for livelihoods Appropriate financing models Adaptive management management Participatory strategic management Long term Long term support support Coordination Adequate financing financing Coordination of sectors and of sectors and actors actors Support and backstopping Adequate financing Enabling Enabling policy policy and and legislation legislation Conceptual framework Sustainable water use Intermediate level support to to mus National level support to mus

4 Approach and methodology Analyze current practices of multiple use at household community level, through case studies Working through Learning Alliance in order to: Understand perspectives and practices of different stakeholders about multiple use, especially at intermediate level Jointly learn about multiple uses Formulate ideas for change in the legal and institutional framework To promote coordination between institutions and communities

5 Learning Alliances Two learning alliances at the intermediate level in Valle del Cauca and Quindio departments, not at national level Stakeholder analysis Series of meeting, and field trips LA members define research focus and select case studies communication, internet and information sharing

6 Results at Community Level

7 Case studies - Location Quindío microcatchment Quindío Los Sainos (El Dovio) Cajamarca and San Isidro (Roldanillo) Surámerica Colombia La Palma Tres Puertas (Restrepo) Valle del Cauca El Chocho microcachment (Cali)

8 Case studies Some findings Livelihoods based on water with gender perspective Households with productive activities Yes No Animals in homesteads Households (%) 1 100% 80% 60% 0% 52% 48% 49% 51% 85% 15% 82% 18% Montebello Golondrinas La Castilla La Palma - Tres Puertas 95% 98% Los Sainos 5% 2% Cajamarca Households (%) 70% 60% 50% 30% 10% 0% 25% 24% 59% 52% 51% 23% 24% 24% 25% 9% 13% La Palma - Tres Puertas Cajamarca La Castilla 3% 9% Pigs Chickens Cow s Horses Others Cultivated area in hom esteads Households (%) 60% 50% 30% 10 % 0% La Palma - Tres Puertas 48% Cajamarca 28% 29% 24% 19 % 15% 16 % 12 % 5% 3% < > Cultivated area (m 2 ) Many people in rural areas in Colombia develop small scale activities based on water, mainly those are keeping animals (< 5 units except for chickens) and having different crops (< 1 Ha). Women are basically in charge of chicken and pigs

9 Case studies Some findings Relation between income and access to water Households (%) 80% 60% 0% Percentage of the income which depends of the acces to water 30% Cajamarca La Palma - Tres Puertas 12% 3% 61% 38% 38% 6% 12% Ns / Nr Range (%) Activities based on water represent a significance proportion of the family income In places with bigger availability of water during all the year, people can have a wider income range Average monthly income Households (%) 45% 35% 30% 25% 15% 10% 5% 0% % 25% 3% 15% 10% 7% 15% 9% 12% 3% 3% Cajamarca La Palma - Tres Puertas 15% 3% 21% 6% 1% 0 Ns/Nr > 800 Incom e (US$)

10 Case studies Some findings Multiple uses multiple sources Water for domestic uses Water for washing, cleaning and sanitation Households (%) 100% 80% 60% 0% 94% 99% 91% Water supply system 1% 5% La Castilla Golondrinas La Palma - Tres Puertas 9% Rainw ater Springs Bottled water Households (%) 100% 80% 60% 0% 98% 95% 98% Water supply system La Castilla Golondrinas La Palma - Tres Puertas 5% 2% 1% Rainw ater Springs Gray w ater Pipe gravity systems are the main source to supply all the uses of the rural families Households (%) 1 100% 80% 60% 0% Water for keeping animales 97% 100% 96% Water supply system 2% 1% Rainw ater La Castilla Golondrinas La Palma - Tres Puertas Springs 4% Households (%) 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 30% 10% 0% 75% 77% Water for irrigation 59% 34% 19% 23% Water supply system La Castilla Golondrinas La Palma - Tres Puertas 2% 4% 4% 3% Rainw ater Springs Gray w ater There is no interest to use alternative source although they are available

11 Case studies Some findings Water demand Water for domestic use (Los Sainos) 80% 70% 60% 50% 30% 10% 0% 72% 67% Total water consumption 13% 6% 7% 7% 8% > 450 Consumption (lpcd) La Castilla La Palma - Tres Puertas Use Mín Prom. Máx. Toilet Washing dishes Cooking and drinking Taking shower Washing hands and teeth Washing clothes Cleaning house Total The average water consumption for all uses in the researches developed during the project is 213 lpcd, just around 6 lpcd (3%) needs to be of drinking water quality

12 Case studies Some findings Implications for community water supply systems Sustainability Aspects Water supply system Users Quality Faecal Coliforms (UFC/100ml) Quantity (lpcd) Continuity (%) Tariffs (US$/month/sus c) Default rate(%) Villa del Rosario High Las Palmas Cajamarca * La Palma - 3 Puertas High Golondrinas Campoalegre Montebello Non planned consumptions have huge impact on the quantity and continuity of the service Most of the systems evaluated do not supply drinking water to people, although those have been planned for this purpose Systems which have lower and flat tariffs have bigger default rates and can not afford their operational costs

13 Results at Intermediate Level

14 Learning alliances - Development Through meetings, more and more stakeholders got interested and involved: In both cases: many participants, but changing from one event to the other Valle del Cauca: nice mix of different organizations. First, mainly operational staff, now operational staff and decision-makers Quindio: mainly local government, with continuous participation of decisionmakers Members started supporting and participating in case study research

15 Learning alliances Preliminary results PAAR has an inter-disciplinary approach, but with limited community involvement in decision-making Initially PAAR did not see the need to consider multiple uses Changing their implementation practices and breaking the law by designing with higher allocations than set by national standards LA members have submitted a proposal to national policy makers to change the National Regulation to Design and Build Water Supply Systems in Rural Areas and The Water Law Realization of need to use multiple sources and alternative tariff systems Establishing links between PAAR Program and Aquacol to support other community associations LA members identified capacity gaps in Integrated Water Resource Management, which include MUS topics

16 Results at the National level

17 Some findings Analysis of the legal framework under mus approach: Recognition of traditional users of water (domestic, institutional, commercial and industrial), not of small scale productive activities Design standards for rural water supply system are based on domestic consumptions, making no allocation for small-scale productive uses Regulations do not promote using multiple sources for water supply Water quality regulations state that you always need to meet drinking water standards, while not all uses actually need that Tariff regulations reflect an urban bias, not relevant to the rural context, including not considering multiple uses Government departments responsible for health are the main sector investor, hence their focus on drinking water. Irrigation and agricultural departments make lower investments in small-scale irrigation. There is lack of coordination between both

18 Some preliminary results After IV Water World Forum, MUS concepts have taken a space on the agenda of national policy makers The staff of small municipalities and rural areas from the Water and Sanitation Office of the Ministry of Environment invited Cinara to a session about MUS Cinara is sharing all its results as input into the discussion on the inclusion of this issue into national guidelines and policies, especially the Guidelines to Design Rural Water Supply Systems

19 What is next? Summarize the information collected for the project during the period , in order to produce: Reports and case studies Training materials for short courses and MSc programs Training materials for community organisations and local government staff Guidelines which include technical, institutional, social and economic issues in providing mus services Policy briefs Conference papers Advocacy material

20

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