PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX AND SOCIAL

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1 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX AND SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY AND EMPLOYMENT TOMÁŠ SIROVÁTKA, BENT GREVE, ONDŘEJ HORA, PAVEL HORÁK, MARKETÁ HORÁKOVÁ, JIŘÍ WINKLER DATABASE ON FINANCING, EMPLOYMENT AND GOVERNANCE IN SOCIAL SERVICES (DELIVERABLE 7.2) FEBRUARY 28 TH 2012 NEUJOBS Working Documents are intended to give an indication of work being conducted within the NEUJOBS research project and to stimulate reactions from other experts in the field. Texts published in this series are ultimately destined for academic publishing. The views expressed in this paper are those of th Author/Partner institute and do not necessarily represents any institution with which is affiliated. page for more information about the NEUJOBS project. Available for free downloading from the NEUJOBS website (

2 ABSTRACT This State of the Art Report on WP7 has analysed existing studies on the relationships between two issues that are central to the welfare state and labour market development: the financing and governance of social services, and employment in social services (see Sirovátka, Greve, Hora 2011). The second step necessary in WP7 is to prepare new databases that would enable a more focused analysis and help address the research questions. The database covers three areas of information: Financing social services: revenues/resources available and expenditure on social services; Employment in social services: the level and structure of employment; Governance in social services: regulation, financing and service delivery in selected fields of social services: long-term care, child care, employment services. Data for financing and employment in social services cover the period Data for governance in social services cover the most recent information available ( , depending on the resources available). In the final report we will also identify the key developmental trends in governance for the period Information is provided in each of these three areas from two perspectives: first, EU-27 countries are covered by basic data/information concerning the financing of social services and employment in social services, which can help to identify the key developmental trends in the EU. Second, more detailed data are provided on financing, employment, in particular on the governance of social services in four countries that represent examples of different welfare state regimes: Czech Republic (postcommunist/central-east European), Denmark (Scandinavian), Germany (conservative) and UK (liberal).

3 CONTENTS Introduction... 1 Part Database on financing and expenditure on social services... 4 Part Database on employment in social services... 9 Part Database on governance in social services (in four countries)... 24

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5 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY AND EMPLOYMENT DATABASE ON FINANCING, EMPLOYMENT AND GOVERNANCE IN SOCIAL SERVICES TOMÁŠ SIROVÁTKA, BENT GREVE, ONDŘEJ HORA, PAVEL HORÁK, MARKÉTAHORÁKOVÁ AND JIŘÍ WINKLER FEBRUARY 2012 Introduction The purpose of the database WP7 comparatively explores the patterns of employment in social services and the public sector in different EU member states in the broader context of the labour market and welfare state development. The questions under focus are: How do EU countries pursue their fiscal policies in social services? How do they develop modes of governance and the public/private mix in social services? What levels and patterns of employment are emerging in social services? These questions are important for several reasons. First, social services are expected to respond to the changing demography and new social risks: health care, elderly people s services, child care, employment and life-long learning are becoming more important than social transfers in ensuring effective social protection, social justice/equity, social inclusion and social cohesion. Second, since social services are labour intensive, they have great potential for job creation. Nevertheless, job creation is dependent on the sufficient and sustainable financing of social services, which is more difficult under the conditions of globalised economies, ageing societies and fiscal pressures on welfare states, aggravated by the economic crisis. The State of the Art Report on WP7 has analysed existing studies on the relationships between the two issues that are central to the welfare state and labour market development: the financing and governance of social services, on the one hand, and employment in social services, on the other (see Sirovátka, Greve, Hora 2011). Prof. Tomáš Sirovátka, Ondřej Hora, Ph.D., Pavel Horák, Ph.D, Markéta Horáková, Ph.D, Jiří Winkler, Ass.Prof. Jiří Winkler, Ph.D Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic; Prof. Bent Greve Roskilde University, Denmark. 1

6 2 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER The second step necessary in WP7 is to prepare new databases to enable a more focused analysis and help answer the following research questions: 1. What are the methods and trends in financing the welfare state, especially under fiscal pressures emerging from globalisation, demographic changes and financial crises? 2. What are the corresponding trends in the governance of social services associated with changing the fiscal regime and with other substantive policy changes? 3. What are the consequences of the changing fiscal regime and governance for employment in social services and job creation in social services either public or private? A question that is not central for WP7 but highly relevant in the broader context of welfare state development: 4. What are the consequences for the production of services in terms of their innovation and advancement from the substantive perspective (i.e. in meeting social needs and expectations)? The design and structure of the database In relation to the research questions the database covers three areas of information: 1) Financing social services: revenues/resources available and expenditure on social services 2) Employment in social services: the level and structure of employment 3) Governance in social services: regulation, financing and service delivery in selected fields of social services: long-term care, child care, employment services. Data for financing and employment in social services cover the period Data for governance in social services cover the most recent information available ( , depending on the resources available). In the final report we will identify the key developmental trends in governance for the period Information is provided in each of these three areas from two perspectives: first, EU-27 countries are covered by basic data/information concerning the financing of social services and employment in social services, which can help to identify the key developmental trends in the EU. Second, more detailed data are provided on financing, employment and in particular on the governance of social services in four countries that represent examples of different welfare state regimes: Czech Republic (postcommunist/central-east European), Denmark (Scandinavian), Germany (conservative) and UK (liberal). We have mainly used Eurostat, but also OECD and ILO, publicly available databases (in the case of financing and employment) and various resources in the case of governance (MISSOC data, national sources like ministries and statistical offices, academic studies). Here we are typically using Eurostat aggregate quantitative data. In some specific parts of the database (in the area of governance), we combine quantitative and qualitative data and quantify the qualitative data so that a quantitative analysis (like correlations) is possible. Lastly, some part of the database

7 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 3 has been developed with use of the individual data on the Labour Force Survey from Eurostat. This data will enable a detailed analysis of employment structure in social services by education in the four countries in focus. More detailed characteristics of the sources, content and definition of data are provided in three separate sections below. The existing databases are compiled and organised into the new database, which can serve as a source for quantitative and qualitative analyses, guided by the above research questions. The data are combined in new ways, which will enable an analysis and interpretation of the relationships between financing, governance and employment in social services, especially in the four countries involved (and with the help of more detailed case studies). Organisation and presentation of the database The database is presented here in three packages: I Financing of social services (in the EU-27 and the four countries) II Employment in social services (in the EU-27 and the four countries) III Governance in social services (in the four countries) Each package consists of two parts: a) an overview of the data involved, definitions of key concepts/categories of data b) tables in Excel files (data may be easily converted into SPSS and used for crosssectional quantitative analysis). The dataset on governance in social services also contains more qualitative information relevant for the Final Report, where we intend to adopt a more comprehensive interpretative approach.

8 4 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER Part 1 Database on financing and expenditure on social services In this database we are collecting key data on, firstly, public finance receipts from which social services might be financed (indicators of the fiscal capacity of the welfare state and significance of the specific sources of financing) and, secondly, public expenditure on the welfare state and social services (indicators of welfare state effort and support to the specific kinds of social services). Public finance receipts We are bringing evidence here on the EU-27 countries retrieved from the Eurostat taxation database for the years for the following indicators, which we have determined as useful: Total receipts from taxes and social contributions (as percentage of GDP) Taxes on labour (as percentage of GDP) Taxes on capital (as percentage of GDP) Taxes on consumption (as percentage of GDP) Environmental taxes (as percentage of GDP) Implicit tax on labour (all taxes and employer/employee social insurance contributions as a percentage of total gross earnings) Implicit tax on capital (as percentage of total value of capital) Implicit tax on consumption (as percentage of total value of consumption expenditure). For the four countries which are the focus of more detailed analysis, we have added the following indicators: Total personal tax rates (total taxes and employee social insurance contributions as a percentage of total gross earnings) Adjusted top-statutory tax rate on corporate income Private household out-of-pocket pay (as percentage of total expenditure on health care). The above indicators are suited for identifying the total load of individuals and households/tax-payers for financing public expenditures, including social services. The key source of this information is the publication Taxation Trends in the European Union, EU, Data are included in Appendix, file on financing social services, tables 1-8.

9 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 5 Expenditure on social protection and social services We are bringing evidence on the EU-27 countries regarding the expenditure on social protection benefits in total, on social protection cash benefits and social protection benefits in kind (this last category is nearly identical to the expenditure on social services, although some cash benefits are used to finance social services like special benefits provided to the elderly or disabled). Furthermore, for the four countries in focus (CZ, DK, GER, UK), we are bringing information on the benefits in total, cash benefits and in-kind benefits for all the specific functions of social protection (for definitions of the functions and content of the indicators, see the information below). All data here are provided as a percentage of GDP. Finally, we are adding data on the expenditure on social protection (in total and in kind) and expenditure on education. Such expenditures represent the total of the expenditures which are relevant to employment in the welfare state sector (HEW health, education, welfare) and in social services (HEW in kind). The source of data and definition of the categories of data European System of integrated Social Protection Statistics, ESSPROS, Eurostat Definitions of the functions of social protection by Eurostat 1. Sickness/health care Income maintenance and support in cash in connection with physical or mental illness, excluding disability. Health care intended to maintain, restore or improve the health of the people protected, irrespective of the origin of the disorder. 2. Disability Income maintenance and support in cash or in kind (except health care) in connection with the inability of physically or mentally disabled people to engage in economic and social activities. 3. Old age Income maintenance and support in cash or in kind (except health care) in connection with old age. 4. Survivors Income maintenance and support in cash or in kind in connection with the death of a family member. 5. Family/children Support in cash or in kind (except health care) in connection with the costs of pregnancy, childbirth, adoption, bringing up children and caring for other family members. 6. Unemployment Income maintenance and support in cash or in kind in connection with unemployment.

10 6 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER 7. Housing Help towards the cost of housing. 8. Social exclusion Benefits in cash or in kind (except health care) specifically intended to combat social exclusion (where classified) where the individual is not covered by one of the other above-mentioned functions. More detailed classification of benefits in cash and in kind 1. Sickness/healthcare function Cash benefits Paid sick leave Other cash benefits Benefits in kind In-patient health care - Direct provision - Reimbursement Out-patient health care of which: pharmaceutical products - Direct provision - Reimbursement Other benefits in kind 2. Disability function Cash benefits Disability pension Early retirement benefit due to reduced capacity to work Care allowance Economic integration of the handicapped Other cash benefits Benefits in kind Accommodation Assistance in carrying out daily tasks Rehabilitation Other benefits in kind 3. Classification of benefits in the old age function Cash benefits Old age pension Anticipated old age pension Partial pension Care allowance Other cash benefits Benefits in kind Accommodation Assistance in carrying out daily tasks Other benefits in kind

11 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 7 4. Survivors function Cash benefits Survivors pension Death grant Other cash benefits Benefits in kind Funeral expenses Other benefits in kind 5. Family/children function Cash benefits Income maintenance benefit in the event of childbirth Birth grant Parental leave benefit Family or child allowance Other cash benefits Benefits in kind Child day-care Accommodation Home help Other benefits in kind 6. Unemployment function Cash benefits Full unemployment benefit Partial unemployment benefit Early retirement benefit for labour market reasons Vocational training allowance Redundancy compensation Other cash benefits Benefits in kind Mobility and resettlement Vocational training Placement services and job-search assistance Other benefits in kind 7. Housing function Benefits in kind Rent benefit of which: Social housing Benefit to owner-occupiers 8. Social exclusion Cash benefits Income support Other cash benefits Benefits in kind Accommodation

12 8 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER Rehabilitation of alcohol and drug abusers Other benefits in kind. Data are included in Appendix, file on expenditure on social protection, tables 9-23 and file on expenditure on social protection and education, tables 24 and 25.

13 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 9 Part 2 Database on employment in social services This employment database description contains basic information about data location, data sources, data structure (logic) and data characteristics. The Employment in Social Services Database is a digest of the data that are relevant in some way to the goals of WP7. All the data presented here are in contingency tables, aggregated at national (and EU-27) level, and are publicly available. The table thus usually includes the following countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The database provides information on the following employment features in social services in , in the EU-27 countries: - total employment (thousands) - temporary employment (thousands) - full-time employment (thousands) - part-time employment (thousands) - public sector employment (thousands) - employment rates (percent) - unemployment rates (percent) Several analytical (relative) indicators were also created to provide better insight into the data (see below). In analysing employment in social services we use the following sources and data: - Eurostat database (section Population and social conditions/employment) 1 - International Labour Organisation (ILO) database 2 - Original Labour Force Survey microdata (tables 10 and 11, employment in social services by education). The following concepts and classification are adopted in our database, which are taken from international conventions and used by Eurostat, UN, ILO or other authorities:

14 10 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER NACE (rev. 1.1): Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community 3 ( ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q NRP Agriculture, hunting and forestry Fishing Mining and quarrying Manufacturing Electricity, gas and water supply Construction Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods Hotels and restaurants Transport, storage and communication Financial intermediation Real estate, renting and business activities Public administration and defence; compulsory social security Education Health and social work Other community, social and personal service activities Activities of households Extra-territorial organisations and bodies No response NACE (rev. 2): Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community ( ) A B C D E F G Agriculture, forestry and fishing Mining and quarrying Manufacturing Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities Construction Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 3 Eurostat (2008). NACE Rev. 2. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, ( RA EN.PDF).

15 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 11 H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U NRP Transportation and storage Accommodation and food service activities Information and communication Financial and insurance activities Real estate activities Professional, scientific and technical activities Administrative and support service activities Public administration and defence; compulsory social security Education Human health and social work activities Arts, entertainment and recreation Other service activities Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and servicesproducing activities of households for own use Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies No response ISIC (rev. 3): International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities 4 A B C D E F G H I J K L Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry Fishing Mining and Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity, Gas and Water Supply Construction Wholesale and Retail Trade; Repair of Motor Vehicles, Motorcycles and Personal and Household Goods Hotels and Restaurants Transport, Storage and Communications Financial Intermediation Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities Public Administration and Defence; Compulsory Social Security 4 (

16 12 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER M N O P Q X Education Health and Social Work Other Community, Social and Personal Service Activities Private Households with Employed Persons Extra-Territorial Organisations and Bodies Not classifiable by economic activity ISIC (rev. 4): International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U X Agriculture, forestry and fishing Mining and quarrying Manufacturing Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities Construction Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles Transportation and storage Accommodation and food service activities Information and communication Financial and insurance activities Real estate activities Professional, scientific and technical activities Administrative and support service activities Public administration and defence; compulsory social security Education Human health and social work activities Arts, entertainment and recreation Other service activities Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and servicesproducing activities of households for own use Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies Not classifiable by economic activity 5 (

17 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 13 ISCO 88: The International Standard Classification of Occupations 6 ISCO1 Legislators, senior officials and managers ISCO2 Professionals ISCO3 Technicians and associate professionals ISCO4 Clerks ISCO5 Service workers and shop and market sales workers ISCO6 Skilled agricultural and fishery workers ISCO7 Craft and related trades workers ISCO8 Plant and machine operators and assemblers ISCO9 Elementary occupations ISCO0 Armed forces Both classifications of economic activities NACE (EU standard) and ISIC (UN standard) are similar. NACE is derived from ISIC, in the sense that it is more detailed than ISIC. ISIC and NACE have exactly the same items at the highest levels, where NACE is more detailed at lower levels (Eurostat 2008). 7 NACE classification was changed in 2008 from rev. 1.1 to rev 2. There are certain problems with available data, which we need to take account of in our database: - We have to work with partially or fully predefined tables. Eurostat data are mostly aggregated only to the first digit level of NACE categories. Predefined age groups are too wide to provide the required information. - We do not have information about the education of social sector services employees - There are some inconsistencies in data for Estonia (see table EA3, year 2000) - ILO Laboursta data use various units of measurement (see tables) - Eurostat and ILO laboursta data are not provided for all countries or years - The ILO database was changed during the process of our work and some data are no longer available there. The data structure descriptions presented here were prepared in the NEUJOBS project. Definitions of data characteristics are based on original metadata comments by Eurostat and ILO. 6 ( 7 Eurostat (2008), NACE Rev. 2. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, ( RA EN.PDF).

18 14 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER The Employment in Social Services Database contains the following tables: no. name E1 Employment by sex and economic activity ( ) E2 Temporary employment by sex and economic activity ( ) E3 Full-time employment by sex and economic activity ( ) E4 Part-time employment by sex and economic activity ( ) E5 Employment by occupation and economic activity ( ) EA1 EA2 EA3 Share of NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) as % of total Employment ( ) Share of temporary employment as % of total employment in NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) ( ) Share of full-time employment as % of total employment in NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) ( ) EA4 Share of part-time employment as % of total employment in NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) ( ) EA5 Share of ISCO classes in NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) ( ) E6 Employment rates by sex and nationality ( ) (%) E7 Unemployment rates by sex and nationality ( ) (%) E8 Employment by sex, age groups and economic activity ( ) E9 Share of sex and age groups in total employment in NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) ( ) E10 E11 Employment by sex, education groups and economic activity in thousands (2001, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010) Share of sex and education groups in employment in NACE sectors L (O), M (P) and N (Q) in % (2001, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010) E12A,B Public sector employment by type of institution and level of government ( ); Public sector employment by type of institution and level of government and by sex ( ) E13 Total and public employment by sex and economic activity ( ) s E1 E7 provide information on employment in social services and total employment and unemployment in all EU-27 countries, (supplemented by analytical tables EA1-EA5, see below). s E8 E11 contain more detailed data on the composition of employment in social services depending on sex, age, education in the four countries in focus (CZ, DK, GER, UK). s E12A,B and E13 provide information on employment in public sector employment in selected EU countries (members of ILO). s EA1-EA5 are analytical tables which transform absolute data to the relative data (percentage) of total employment, or employment in social services or employment in a specific sector of social services.

19 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 15 For detailed characteristics of the specific tables, see the schemes below. no. E1 name Employment by sex and economic activity ( ) source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 description Eurostat database: statistics/search_database Employment (in thousands) GEO: EU27 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) SEX: Males, Females, Total The table contains data for all EU-27 countries on employment (in thousands) for NACE sectors L, M and N (rev 1.) and O, P and Q (rev. 2). Data are presented separately for males, females and total. Data on employment (thousands) in all three sectors (L+M+N, O+P+Q) and data on total employment in the economy (thousands) are also included. no. E2 name Temporary employment by sex and economic activity ( ) source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 description Eurostat database: statistics/search_database Temporary employment (in thousands) GEO: EU27 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) SEX: Males, Females, Total Employees with temporary contracts are those who declare themselves as having a fixed-term employment contract or a job that will terminate if certain objective criteria are met, such as completion of an assignment or the return of an employee who was temporarily replaced. The table contains data for all EU-27 countries on temporary employment (in thousands) for NACE sectors L, M and N (rev 1.) and O, P and Q (rev. 2). Data are presented separately for males, females and total. Data about temporary employment (thousands) in all three sectors (L+M+N, O+P+Q) and data about total temporary employment in the economy (thousands) are also included.

20 16 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER no. E3 name Full-time employment by sex and economic activity ( ) source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 description Eurostat database: statistics/search_database Full-time employment (in thousands) GEO: EU-27 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) SEX: Males, Females, Total Full-time/part-time distinction in the main job is made on the basis of a spontaneous answer given by respondents in all countries (except for the Netherlands where part-time is determined on the basis of whether the usual hours worked are fewer than 35, while full-time is on the basis of whether the usual hours worked are 35 or more; in Sweden this criterion is applied to self-employed persons as well). The table contains data for all EU-27 countries on full-time employment (in thousands) for NACE sectors L, M and N (rev 1.) and O, P and Q (rev. 2). Data are presented separately for males, females and total. Data on full-time employment (thousands) in all three sectors (L+M+N, O+P+Q) and data on total full-time employment in the economy (thousands) are also included. no. E4 name Part-time employment by sex and economic activity ( ) source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 description Eurostat database: statistics/search_database Part-time employment (in thousands) GEO: EU-27 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) SEX: Males, Females, Total Full-time/part-time distinction in the main job is made on the basis of a spontaneous answer given by respondents in all countries (except for the Netherlands where part-time is determined on the basis of whether the usual hours worked are fewer than 35, while full-time is on the basis of whether the usual hours worked are 35 or more; in Sweden this criterion

21 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 17 is also applied to self-employed persons). The table contains data for all EU27 countries on part-time employment (in thousands) for NACE sectors L, M and N (rev 1.) and O, P and Q (rev. 2). Data are presented separately for males, females and total. Data on part-time employment (thousands) in all three sectors (L+M+N, O+P+Q) and data about total part-time employment in the economy (thousands) are also included. no. E5 name Employment by occupation and economic activity ( ) source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Eurostat database: statistics/search_database Employment (in thousands) GEO: EU-27 Indicator 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) Indicator 3 The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 88) description The table contains data for all EU27 countries about employment (in thousands) for NACE sectors L, M and N (rev 1.) and O, P and Q (rev. 2) cross-tabulated for ISCO-88 categories. no. E6 name Employment rates by sex and nationality ( ) (%) source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Indicator 3 description Eurostat database: statistics/search_database Employment rates (active persons as % of total population) GEO: EU-27 SEX: Males, Females, Total contains data for all EU-27 countries on employment rates of the population aged years. Employment/activity rates represent employed/active persons as a percentage of the same age total population. Data are presented separately for males, females and total.

22 18 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER no. E7 name Unemployment rates by sex and nationality ( ) (%) source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Indicator 3 description Eurostat database: statistics/search_database Unemployment rates (unemployed persons as % of active population) GEO: EU-27 SEX: Males, Females, Total contains data for all EU-27 countries on employment rates of the population aged years. Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the active population. Data are presented separately for males, females and total. no. E8 name Employment by sex, age groups and economic activity ( ) source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 Indicator 4 description Eurostat database: statistics/search_database Employment (in thousands) GEO: Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) SEX: Males, Females, Total AGE GROUPS: years, years, years, 65 years and over The table contains data for the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany and United Kingdom about employment (in thousands) for NACE sectors L, M and N (rev 1.) and O, P and Q (rev. 2). Data are presented separately for males, females and total and for four separate age groups (15-24, 25-49, 50-64, 65 and over).

23 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 19 no. name source E9 Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Share of sex and age groups in total employment in NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) ( ) Own calculations based on Eurostat database (table E8): Percent GEO: Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom. Indicator 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) Indicator 3 SEX: Males, Females, Total Indicator 4 AGE GROUPS: years, years, years, 65 years and over description The table shows share of four age groups of men and women in NACE sectors L, M and N (in percent). no. name source E10 Employment by sex, education groups and economic activity in thousands (2001, 2002, 2005, 2009, 2010) Own calculations based on Eurostat LFS individual data Time specif. 2002, 2005, 2009, 2010 Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Thousand GEO: Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom. Indicator 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) Indicator 3 SEX: Males, Females, Total Indicator 4 Education groups: low, middle, high (ISCED 0-2, 3-4, 5-6) description The table shows numbers of three education groups of men and women in NACE sectors L, M and N.

24 20 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER no. name source E11 Share of sex and education groups in employment in NACE sectors L (O), M (P) and N (Q) in % (2001, 2002, 2005, 2009, 2010) Own calculations based on Eurostat LFS individual data Time specif. 2002, 2005, 2009, 2010 Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Percent GEO: Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom. Indicator 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) Indicator 3 SEX: Males, Females, Total Indicator 4 Education groups: low, middle, high (ISCED 0-2, 3-4, 5-6) description The table shows numbers of three education groups of men and women in NACE sectors L, M and N (in percent). no. E12 (part a, part b) name Public sector employment by type of institution and level of government ( ); Public sector employment by type of institution and level of government and by sex ( ) ILO database: source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 Indicator 4 description Varies: total employment, persons with regular contracts, full time equivalent employment, unknown (thousands) see notes in the table. GEO: EU-27 Type of institution: 1) Government units, 2) Social security funds, 3) Other non-profit institutions, 4) General government sector (1+2+3), 5) Publicly owned enterprises, 6) Public sector (4+5) Level of government: Central, Regional, Local, Total SEX: Males, Females, Total The table contains data about public sector employment (thousands) classifiers by system of National Accounts by type of institution and level of government. Data are presented separately for males, females and total. Category 4 (type of institution) General government sector consists of the following groups of resident institutional units: a) All units of central, state or local government; b) All social security funds at each level of government; c) All non-market Non Profit Institutions (NPIs) that are controlled and mainly financed by government units.

25 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 21 The sector does not include public corporations, even when all the equity of such corporations is owned by government units. It also does not include quasi-corporations that are owned and controlled by government units. However, unincorporated enterprises owned by government units that are not quasi-corporations remain integral parts of those units and must therefore be included in the general government sector. Category 6: Public sector consists of all the above-mentioned categories (includes public corporations). no. E13 name Total and public employment by sex and economic activity ( ) source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 description ILO database: Varies: total employment, persons with regular contracts, full-time equivalent employment, unknown (thousands) see notes in the table GEO: EU-27 International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC-Rev.3, ISIC-Rev.4 for Latvia and Lithuania ) SEX: Males, Females, Total The table contains data on public sector employment (thousands) classifiers by International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities. Data are presented separately for males, females and total. Data on total employment in the economy (thousands) are also included. no. EA1 name Share of NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) as % of total employment ( ) Own calculations based on Eurostat database (table E1): source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Percent GEO: EU-27 Indicator 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) description The table shows the share of workers working in NACE sectors L, M and N on total employment (in percent).

26 22 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER no. name source EA2 Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Share of temporary employment as % of total employment in NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) ( ) Own calculations based on Eurostat database (table E2): Percent GEO: EU-27 Indicator 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) description The table shows the share of temporary employment of total employment in NACE sectors L, M and N (in percent). no. name source EA3 Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Share of full-time employment as % of total employment in NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) ( ) Own calculations based on Eurostat database (table E3): Percent GEO: EU-27 Indicator 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) description The table shows the share of full-time employment of total employment in NACE sectors L, M, N (in percent). no. name source EA4 Time specif Unit of analysis Share of part-time employment as % of total employment in NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) ( ) Own calculations based on Eurostat database (table E4): Percent

27 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 23 Indicator 1 GEO: EU-27 Indicator 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) description The table shows the share of part-time employment of total employment in NACE sectors L, M, N (in percent). no. EA5 name Share of ISCO classes in NACE sectors L, M, N (O, P, Q) ( ) source Time specif Unit of analysis Indicator 1 Own calculations based on Eurostat database (table E5): Percent GEO: EU-27 Indicator 2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R1) Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE R2) Indicator 3 The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 88) description The table shows how workers in NACE sectors L, M and N are divided into ten ISCO categories (in percent).

28 24 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER Part 3 Database on governance in social services (in four countries) This database contains a summary of governance systems in the fields of childcare, elderly care and employment services in four selected EU countries (Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany and United Kingdom). The formation of particular categories and indicators of governance was influenced by two modes of interpretation of this concept and our inclination to the second approach. While the first interpretation perceives and uses governance mainly as a static concept that represents the activities of organisations and actors at supranational and national levels (Rosenau 1995; Salomon 2002, 2005; Potůček et al. 2007; Kaufmann and Kraay 2007; Kaufmann, Kraay and Mastruzzi 2010), the second interpretation grasps governance as a dynamic concept which includes the implementation process and actors engaged in the formation, administration and implementation of particular public programmes and social services, not only at supranational and national levels, but also at regional and local levels (Winkler 2009, 2011; van Berkel, de Graaf and Sirovátka 2011). The governance model that we have designed for the NEUJOBs project includes three dimensions, six sub-dimensions and 24 categories (indicators), which we have established upon considering accessible literature on governance (see note below, s 1 and 2). The major dimensions of governance and their features are, briefly, as follows: 1. Regulation shows governance as the management, coordination and control of social services through law, conventions and standards. In particular, this dimension identifies the effects of political or administrative decentralisation, marketisation and new public management in real-life situations and on laws used by contemporary governments and implementers of social services at regional and local levels. This dimension makes it possible to answer two questions: What rules influence the management of implemented public programmes and social services? (the rules sub-dimension) and Under what conditions, and how, are public programmes and social services regulated? (the management, coordination and control sub-dimension). 2. Delivery is focused on the implementation of social services through the partnership and networks of actors that participate in the administration and implementation of these services at different levels of governance. Particular subdimensions provide answers to three questions: Where are public programmes and social services delivered? (the level of governance sub-dimension), What kind of public programmes and social services are delivered? (the implemented public programmes and social services sub-dimension) and How are public programmes and social services delivered? (the partnership and network of actors sub-dimension). 3. Financing includes both public expenditures on the previous two dimensions (management, coordination, control and delivery of particular public programmes

29 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 25 and social services), and their public consumption. This economic dimension makes it possible to answer the question How are public programmes and social services financed? These categories have been recognised as crucial in the studies on governance in social services. Of all the 24 categories and indicators, three are of a quantitative character (no. 9, 10 and 24 in s 1 and 2); those remaining are of a qualitative nature. While the quantitative categories and indicators are based on OECD and Eurostat databases, the qualitative indicators were taken from different empirical studies, ministerial reports and academic papers focused on governance in the observed EU countries (see table 3). The values of the qualitative categories and indicators represent the result of our analysis and assessment of the studies available. The tables include the newest data available (typically the studies or background materials are from , and are always fixed to the specific year).

30 26 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER 1. Conceptualisation of governance Dimension Subdimension Categories and indicators Value of indicators Regulation Rules 1. Kinds of rules professional requirements quality standards performance standards procedural standards legal obligation of service 2. Obligation to the rules compulsory voluntary 3. Extent of abiding rules high middle low Management, coordination and control 4. Kind of prevailing subject 5. Kind of decision-making state market citizens mix centralised corporatist decentralised mixed 6. Kind of service delivery compulsory voluntary 7. Kind of prevailing controlling subject state municipality mix 8. Kind of subjects guaranteeing service quality 9. Level of service quality: Child care Child-to-staff ratios in formal day-care services, average for 0-3 years olds (OECD) Child-to-staff ratios in pre-school services, average for 3-5 years olds (Eurostat) Elderly care Share of nurses and personal care workers in relation to all long-term care workers (OECD) Long-term care beds in institutions and hospitals, per population aged 65 and over, 2009 (or nearest year) (OECD) Employment services Number of job seekers per agency worker in PES (Eurostat) 10. Accessibility of the services: Childcare Enrolment rates of children under three in childcare (OECD) Enrolment rates of children aged three to five years of age in pre-school educational programmes (OECD) Formal childcare by age group and duration - % over the population of each age group, (SILC) Elderly care Population aged 65 years and over receiving long-term care (OECD) state community nonguaranteed high middle low universal targeted

31 PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIX & SOCIAL INNOVATION IN SERVICE PROVISION, FISCAL POLICY & EMPLOYMENT 27 Employment services unemployed in active labour market measures as share of all unemployed = Number of persons employed through employment activities (Eurostat) Persons registered with Public Employment Services (PES) (Eurostat) 11. Kind of control of programmes and services 12. Kind of incentive mechanisms for contractors 13. Work performance of implementing bodies bureaucratic mbo empowerment of clients none soft strong low middle high Note: particular sub-dimensions were constructed on the basis of the following literature: governance as rules Rosenau, 1995; Nekola 2007; Potůček, 2007; governance as management, coordination and control - Campbell et al, 1991; Hyden and Bratton, 1992; Osborne and Gaebler, 1992; Hilmer, 1993; Hollingworth et al, 1994; Charkhma, 1994; Tricker, 1994; Rhodes, 1997; Casey and Gold, 2000; Veselý, 2004; Winkler, 2009; van Berkel, de Graaf and Sirovátka, 2011.

32 28 T. SIROVÁTKA, B. GREVE, O. HORA, P. HORÁK, M. HORÁKOVÁ AND J. WINKLER 2. Conceptualisation of governance /continuation/ Dimension Subdimension Categories and indicators Value of indicators Delivery Level of governance Partnership and networks of actors Implemented programmes and services 14. Level of governance state local multi-level 15. Predominant kind of providers public private mixed 16. Forms of cooperation none dyadic networks 17. Reciprocal role of providers symmetric asymmetric 18. Role of marketisation low middle high 19. Proportion of contracted services low middle high 20. Scope of particular services low middle high 21. Usage of particular services low middle high Financing Kind and level of financing 22. Modes of public-private mix financing state budget specific funds cross-subsidisation within provider organisation solidarity-based financing market prices cost-sharing by users mixed 23. Methods of financing for particular services vouchers or tax to purchase care from private providers free subsidised services by government 24. Proportion of expenditures by kind of services: Child care Total expenditure in child care as share of GDP Structure of benefits in childcare as share of GDP - social protection benefits, cash benefits, family or child allowance, accommodation (Eurostat) Elderly care Long-term care public expenditure as share of GDP (OECD) Structure of benefits in elderly care as share of GDP (OECD) Employment services Public expenditure on active labour market polisy as share of GDP (OECD) Labour market policy expenditure by type of action (Eurostat) high middle low Note: particular sub-dimensions were constructed on the basis of the following literature: level of governance - UNDP 1997; Kohler-Koch and Eissing, 1999, Sbragia, 2000; Veselý, 2004; governance as partnership and networks of actors - Commission on Global Governance 1995; Kickert et al, 1997; Rhodes, 1997; Pierre, 1998; Veselý, 2004; Winkler, 2009; 2011; van Berkel, de Graaf and Sirovátka, 2011; governance as realised programmes and services; Gray, 1994; Rhodes 1997.

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