Classifications of animals: ruminant vs non-ruminant carnivore: meat-eating herbivore: plant-eating omnivore: both meat and plant-eating

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1 Digestion and Metabolism Digestive tract one long, continuous tube starting at the mouth and ending at the anus Functions Ingestion Grinding Digestion/absorption of food Elimination of solid wastes Classifications of animals: ruminant vs non-ruminant carnivore: meat-eating herbivore: plant-eating omnivore: both meat and plant-eating General Arrangement of the Digestive Tract Long, continuous tube composed of 4 basic layers Serosa (visceral peritoneum) Muscle (mostly smooth muscle) Submucosa (connective tissue) Epithelial lining of the tube (mucous membrane) Peritoneum A serous membrane that lines the entire abdominal cavity and covers all visceral organs within the abdomen lining of the abdominal cavity is the parietal peritoneum covering organs is the serosa or visceral peritoneum Mesentery double fold of peritoneum that supports the intestine and attaches it to dorsal abdominal wall Omentum refers to peritoneum connecting the stomach with other structures Greater omentum attaches to the greater curvature of the stomach

2 Lesser omentum extends from lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver Ligaments other folds of peritoneum which connect abdominal organs with each other or with the parietal peritoneum Greater Omentum, Mesentery & Mesocolon Lesser Omentum Mouth Reduction of food particle size by grinding or chewing Mixing with saliva Once food is mixed with saliva it is called a bolus Prehension Mastication: mechanical breakdown of food Accessory structures that aid the mouth include Salivary glands Teeth Tongue Lips, cheeks, jaws and palates Salivary Glands Major glands, well-defined Parotid: ventral to the ear in relation to caudal border of mandible Mandibular: also called submaxillary; ventral to parotid gland, just caudal to the mandible (may be deep) Sublingual: deep to mucous membrane along the ventral side of the lateral surface of the tongue near the floor of the mouth

3 Minor glands, lesser defined Labial, buccal, lingual, palatine Dog: zygomatic near the eye Teeth Mechanically reduce size of food by grinding or chewing Also used for cutting Increase surface area of food for chemical and microbiological degradation Parts of tooth Crown: portion above gingiva covered by enamel Neck: connection between crown and root Root: below gingiva; covered in cementum Pulp cavity: roots and blood supply Rest of tooth is composed of dentin teeth with short crown are called Brachydont teeth teeth with long crown are called Hypsodont teeth Two sets of teeth Deciduous: (milk teeth) erupt first and are replaced Permanent: replace deciduous; most accurate way of determining animal s age Types of teeth: Incisors, canines, premolars, molars Incisors (I): front teeth, numbered from the center of mouth (or symphysis) laterally First pair = I 1 or centrals Next pair = I 2 or first intermediates Next pair = I 3 or second intermediates Last and most lateral pair = I 4 or corners Non-ruminants only have one pair of intermediates Canines (C): also called eye teeth, bridle teeth, tusks and tushes normally not more than 1 pair of canine teeth occur in each jaw at a given time may be completely absent in the mare, gelding and ruminant Premolars (P): cheek teeth numbered from front to back P 1, P 2, P 3, and P 4 Dental formulas for cattle Molars (M): caudal to premolars, M 1, M 2, and M 3

4 Deciduous 2(DI 0/4 DC 0/0 DP 3/3) Permanent 2(I 0/4 C 0/0 P 3/3 M 3/3) Numerator: upper teeth Denominator: lower teeth No upper incisors in cattle Have a dental pad

5 Tongue Muscular organ used to maneuver food mass Contains taste receptors; can discriminate between good and bad Cattle use tongue for prehension Covered with stratified squamous epithelial cells that presents large number of papillae on dorsal side Lips, Cheeks, Jaws and Palates Lips sheep, goat and horses are soft and flexible and aid in prehension cattle and hogs are stiff and immobile; serve little except to close mouth Cheeks Aid tongue in positioning food for chewing Jaws opened and closed by powerful muscles that contribute to grinding movement by protruding the jaw and moving it side to side Hard Palate forms roof of mouth Soft Palate caudal portion of hard palate; separates mouth from nasopharynx Pharynx common passageway for both food and air nasopharynx: pharynx connection with nasal nares and 2 eustachian tubes oropharynx: pharynx connection with mouth laryngopharynx: pharynx connection with esophagus and larynx Deglutition: swallowing

6 Esophagus Muscular tube extending from pharynx to the stomach Pierces diaphragm at the hiatus esophagus Upper esophageal sphincter At stomach, folds within lumen keep it closed Function: transport bolus to stomach Peristaltic contractions Muscle changes from striated to smooth muscle occurs: caudal 1/3 in the horse esophagus just in front of diaphragm in pig Muscle remains striated throughout the entire length in Dog and ruminant Non-Ruminant Stomach located just behind left side of diaphragm Subdivided into cardia (entrance) fundus body pylorus (termination) Cardia and pylorus have sphincters: control passage of food Non-glandular region is called the esophageal region Glandular regions include: cardiac fundic pyloric Glandular surface: surface area is increased many times by infolding of epithelium into depressions called gastric pits Gastric pits contain secretory cells that produce gastric juice Parietal cells HCl and intrinsic factor Chief cells pepsinogen and gastric lipase Mucous cells mucus

7 Small Intestine Peristaltic contractions wave-like mixing that mixes bolus with gastric juice and produce chyme Emesis: regurgitation (vomiting); reverse peristalsis or anti-peristalsis horses cannot regurgitate 3 sections duodenum jejunum ileum Duodenum first part of small intestine most absorption and digestion takes place here in animals not requiring extensive fermentation lumen contains villi and microvilli (contains brush border) Jejunum indistinctly separated from duodenum Ileum continuous from jejunum joins Cecum (horse) Colon (dog) Cecum and colon (ruminant and pig) S.I. has concentric and longitudinal contractions Control of movement with S.I. controlled for two reasons: 1. Provide proper mixing time Provide time for digestion and absorption Weak peristalsis in comparison to the stomach---chyme remains for 3 to 5 hours Segmentation---local mixing of chyme with intestinal juices---sloshing back & forth

8 Pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions exocrine produces NaHCO 3 and digestive enzymes secrete product into duodenum via pancreatic duct may also have accessory pancreatic duct Liver produces bile receives nutrient blood from hepatic artery receives blood from digestive absorption sites via portal vein connected to gallbladder (except horse) for storage of bile detoxifies and sorts Liver hepatic duct cystic duct (from gallbladder) common bile duct duodenum Large Intestine Consists of: cecum colon (ascending, transverse, descending) rectum anus large intestine varies from species to species Horse: largest and most complex of domestic animals Pig: begins with cecum; ascending colon is a spiral arrangement of coils, gives a cone-shaped appearance Dog: shortest and simplest short, irregular cecum, short ascending colon Ruminants: cecum, colon and rectum The rectum or final portion of the large intestine joins the anus. Anus: junction of the terminal part of the digestive tract with the skin

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