The Gastrointestinal System It consists of: The digestive tract Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine

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1 The Gastrointestinal System It consists of: The digestive tract Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine The digestive organs Teeth Tongue Salivary glands Liver Gall bladder Pancreas 1

2 The mouth Oral cavity: Is bounded externally by the lips and cheeks. Vestibule: Is the space between the lips/cheeks and the teeth. It is separated from the nasal cavity by the roof of the mouth, which is formed of: Hard palate (Bone) Soft palate (muscle) Uvula (finger like projection from soft palate The teeth: Adults have 32 teeth. In one-half of each jaw: 2 incisors for biting 1 canine for tearing 2 premolars for grinding 3 molars for crushing The last molar, is called the wisdom tooth The deciduous teeth: Also known as milk teeth. Babies have 20 teeth. In one-half of each jaw: 2 incisors (central and lateral) 1 canine 2 molars - The function of the teeth is chewing. This is the process that mechanically breaks food into smaller pieces and mixes it with saliva. The tongue: It is a muscular organ covered with mucus membrane Frenulum, is a fold of mucous membrane attaches the under surface of the tongue to the floor of mouth Papillae, are rough projections from the mucous membrane on its dorsal surface, some carry taste buds - The tongue helps in chewing and swallowing. - The movement of the tongue and the lips helps in formulation of words. 2

3 The main salivary glands: There are 3 pairs of salivary glands (parotid, sublingual, submandibular) They secret saliva to the mouth through their ducts Saliva is mostly water, which is important to dissolve food for tasting and to moisten food for swallowing. Saliva contains bicarbonate and enzyme that begins the process of digesting starch It cleans the mouth and prevents tooth cares The parotid glands: The largest salivary glands Lie anterior and somewhat inferior to the ears Their ducts (one from each gland) open on the vestibule of the mouth opposite upper 2 nd molar. The sublingual glands: Located beneath the tongue under the mucosa of the floor of mouth. Each gland has many ducts Their ducts open under the tongue into the oral cavity The submandibular glands: Lie in the floor of the mouth on the medial surface of the mandible. Each gland has a single duct comes out of it Their ducts open under the tongue into the oral cavity The pharynx: It is formed of 3 parts: Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx No digestion takes place in the pharynx. Its only function is swallowing and allows passage of air The esophagus: It is a muscular tube Passes from the pharynx through the thoracic cavity and diaphragm into the abdominal cavity, where it joins the stomach. A rhythmic contraction called peristalsis pushes the food along it to the alimentary canal. 3

4 The stomach: It is a thick-walled, J-shaped organ Lies on the left side of the abdominal cavity deep to liver and diaphragm. It continues with esophagus above and the small intestine below. - It has the following functions: Reservoir and mix the food Activates some enzymes (converts pepsinogen pepsin) Starts digestion of protein and fats High acidity destroys most of bacteria that enters stomach Makes intrinsic factor that helps in vitamin B12 absorption Absorbs alcohol and water The small intestine: Extends from pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve Divided into (duodenum, jejunum, ileum): Duodenum: C-shaped tubular organ Measuring ~25 cm Extends from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the jejunum Its receives: Bile secretions from the liver and gallbladder through the common bile duct Pancreatic secretions through the pancreatic duct of the pancreas 4

5 Jejunum: Extends from the duodenum to the ileum It forms the proximal 2/5 of the small intestine. Ileum: Forms the distal 3/5 of the small intestine. The terminal portion of the ileum empties into the medial side of the cecum through the ileocecal valve. The large intestine: It is about 1.5 meters in length. It begins at the lower right quadrant of the abdomen. It ascends upwards till the liver. It crosses to the left till the spleen. It descends downwards to the pelvis. Terminates at the anus. It is divided into: Cecum Appendix Colon (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid) Rectum Anal canal It differs from small intestine in that the large intestine has: No villi in their mucosa Taeniae coli (They are thickenings of the longitudinal smooth muscle layer of the wall of the cecum and colon. They form three longitudinal strips, spaced at equal intervals around the circumference of the cecum and colon) Haustration (sacculation) Epiploic appendages (are fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum that hang from the intestine). It receives undigested food from the small intestine Absorbs water and electrolytes Passes feces out of the GIT 5

6 The liver: The largest gland in the body It lies in the upper right part of the abdomen Formed of 4 Lobes Right Left Caudate Quadrate It has hundreds of functions, such as: Makes bile Detoxifies/removes drugs and alcohol out of the body Stores (gycolgen, vitamins (A, D, E, K), cholesterol, iron and other minerals) RBC production in the fetus 6

7 The gall bladder: It is a sac like organ attached to the inferior surface of the liver. It stores and concentrates bile Expels bile into duodenum Bile is a yellowish green fluid that emulsifies fats The pancreas: Soft, lobulated organ. Lies across the posterior abdominal wall It is a mixed gland. The endocrine part through groups of cells called the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans). They secret insulin and glucagon into the blood directly and controls blood glucose level. The exocrine part through the pancreatic acini that secret pancreatic juice which is excreted by pancreatic duct into the duodenum and helps in food digestion. liver oesophagus Gall bladder stomach duodenum pancreas 7

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