Driving Towards Sustainable Mobility: GM s Role in Biofuels Development and View on E20 Dr. Candace S. Wheeler

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1 Driving Towards Sustainable Mobility: GM s Role in Biofuels Development and View on E20 Dr. Candace S. Wheeler Global Energy Systems Center General Motors Corporation 1

2 Key Message General Motors believes biofuels are the most significant near-term solution to offset rising vehicle energy demands and reduce greenhouse gas emissions Next-generation biofuels Provide a clean, renewable alternatives to petroleum Are fast approaching The production, accumulation and processing of sustainable feedstocks such as woody biomass, agricultural waste and purposefully grown energy crops for these future fuels is critical Sustainable biofuels made from non-grain sources could offset up to 35 percent of future vehicle energy demand by

3 World Population and Global Vehicle Parc 8 Population Global Vehicle Parc 16% 12% 6 12% Billions 4 10% Percent 2 8% Sources: U.S. Census Bureau International Population Database, GM Global Market & Industry Analysis 0% 3

4 Global Energy Demand MBDOE 1.3% % Global: 2.0%/yr 70% over 2003 MBDOE Non-OECD OECD OECD North America 0.7% OECD Europe 1.8% Non- OECD Europe- Eurasia 1.0% OECD Asia 39 Non- OECD Asia 2.4% 2.6% 2.8% 9 18 Middle East 6 Africa Central & South America % % Source: DOE-EIA

5 Industry Challenges Energy Environment Safety Congestion Affordability 5

6 U.S. Petroleum Consumption by Automobiles Issues today Energy security Emissions Global climate change Gallons per Year Issues grow larger over time Growth driven by increased economic growth and growing populations More autos More miles per auto Today Time Need to displace petroleum and diversify energy for automobiles 6

7 Composite Effect of New Technologies (Ethanol, plug-ins and FCVs) Petroleum Displaced by Hydrogen Growth Petroleum Displaced by Recharge Petroleum Displaced by Ethanol Petroleum Consumed Petroleum Use Graph is shown for illustrative purposes only Displacements dominate future increase in vehicle activity and establish a strong downward trend in petroleum consumption 7

8 EISA Renewable Fuel Standard Technology-neutral Advanced Biofuel: Billion gallons per year Biomass-based Diesel: Corn Ethanol: maximum 15 bgy Biofuel from Cellulose: 16 bgy,

9 2005 DOE Study Concludes 1.3 Billion Tons of Biomass Available in U.S. Per Year Total: 998 mil. Dry tons Total: 368 mil. Dry tons 9

10 GM s Own Internal Study Closely Confirms Biomass Potential GM s University of Toronto study estimates the biomass potential at B tons enough to produce B gal of ethanol US DOE billion ton study estimates the annual biomass potential at 1.33 B tons by 2030 with an ethanol potential of 97.5 B gallons Also not a lack of biomass issue many sources including waste materials but purposely grown energy crops are critical It is a timing issue - based on technology improvements and implementation and economics Miscanthus tons/acre Annual Cellulosic Feedstock Supply (million dry tons) US Con. US Opt. Canada Con. Forest/Mill Residues MSW Agricultural Residues Energy Crops Canada Opt. 10

11 Energy Diversity, Increased Efficiency, and Reduced Environmental Impact For GM, the keys to developing sustainable transportation are Energy alternatives that help reduce our dependency on petroleum Advanced technologies that improve fuel economy and reduce emissions GM is focused on displacing petroleum through energy efficiency and energy diversity We are committed to being a global leader in advanced propulsion technology 11

12 Gas-Friendly to Gas-Free

13 Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy Promote and execute a Blended Energy Carrier Strategy that incorporates the use of liquid fuels, electricity, and hydrogen Improved Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Fuel Infrastructure Reduced Petroleum Consumption Bio Fuels IC Engine and Transmission Improvements Cleaner HC Fuels, Renewable Fuels Hybrid Electric Vehicles Hydrogen Fuel Cell Near-Term Mid-Term Long-Term Petroleum (Conventional and Alternative Sources) Bio and Synthetic Fuels Electricity & Hydrogen Reinvent the automobile through the design, development and validation of a production viable automotive fuel cell system Support the electrification of the vehicle (hybrid vehicles, plug in hybrids, and state of the art Electric Drive systems) Accelerate the exploitation of biomass with E85 and also bio-diesel capable propulsion systems Implement advanced propulsion technologies that optimize fuel efficiency and minimize emissions 13

14 What is GM Doing Vehicle GM has built more than 3 M FFVs of the almost 7 M FFVs on the road today in the US Building >500,000 more each year GM is offering 18 Flex Fuel models for 2009 and is committed to having 50% of our models E85 capable by 2012 Infrastructure Partnering to increase the availability of E85 by promoting the expansion of E85 stations Our NGA partnership is a major step in helping make that happen Currently, fewer than 1,700 fueling stations in the US, or less than 1 percent, offer E85, and more than 60 percent of those are concentrated in Midwest states Technology Working with the best researchers in this area (consortiums, universities, etc.) Partnering with the best companies (cutting edge technologies) around the globe 14

15 GM has announced strategic alliances with two leading cellulosic ethanol start-ups, Coskata and Mascoma, that cover the biothermal and biochemical spectrum in advanced biofuel technology Partnership is about accelerating putting next generation of cellulosic ethanol on the market GM is committed to the rapid commercialization of The Next Generation of Ethanol 15

16 Three Step Process is efficient, affordable, and feedstock flexible: 1. Incoming material is converted into a synthesis gas by gasification 2. The synthesis gas is fermented to ethanol using bacteria 3. Ethanol is separated and recovered using membrane technology Produces ethanol for less than US $1.00 a gallon Returns up to 7.7 times as much energy Uses less than one gallon of water/gal of ethanol 16

17 Consolidated Bioprocessing Mascoma uses advanced genetic engineering to create microorganisms capable of converting cellulose into ethanol in a single-step process called consolidated bioprocessing 17

18 Benefits of Ethanol Clean-burning, renewable fuel Minimal cost to modify the vehicle Reduces green house gas CO 2 emissions Will reduce oil demand as much as 30% by 2030 CO2 Savings from Different Ethanol Processes & Inputs Ethanol from Corn Dry Mill Processing Ethanol from Corn Wet Mill Processing Ethanol from Sugarcane Cellulosic Ethanol (29)% (21)% (56)% (70-86)% * Argonne National Labs & UCAR

19 Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Issues with ethanol gasoline blends stem from two properties characteristic of ethanol Lower heating value More ethanol by volume is required to give the same heating value as gasoline Chemical polarity Ethanol is more like water than gasoline It is a million times more electrically conductive It will dissolve ions with increases its conductivity further and can promote localized corrosion Ethanol dissolves into and can dissolve many polar sealing materials 19

20 Effects of Lower Heating Value More ethanol is required to achieve stoichiometry, where the fuel and air are perfectly matched Engines that are calibrated for gasoline will run lean on ethanol blends unless they can adapt Historically, engines were calibrated to run slightly rich (more fuel) Since engines were adjusted rarely this was the safest option Running lean causes hot exhaust and potential engine damage Running rich does not damage engine but does increase hydrocarbon (HC) and CO emissions 20

21 Effects of Lower Heating Value Most engines are required to meet emissions standards They are calibrated closer to stoichiometric to minimize HC and CO emissions This means that engines may run lean on ethanol blends Engines will run hotter, damage depends on design and duty cycle NOx emissions will go up, HC and CO emissions will go down Sophisticated control systems that can adapt to fuel variations are a function of rigorous emissions controls Three-way catalysts require stoichiometric operation to eliminate regulated emissions An oxygen sensor in the exhaust allows the controller to modulate fuel to keep the mixture correct, closed loop control 21

22 Orbital Engine Company Phase 2B Final Report to the Australian Department of the Environment and Heritage 50,000 miles on E20 Emissions exceed the ADR37/01 Standard 50,000 miles on E0 Emissions OK 40% of the vehicles tested on E20 showed catalyst deterioration The increases in tailpipe emissions have occurred due to degradation of the catalyst, the primary cause of which is the increase in the exhaust temperature caused by the use of the 20% ethanol blend during particular modes of operation. 22

23 Effects of Chemical Polarity Gasoline does not conduct electricity Fuel systems are electrically powered and not insulated electrically Increasing the conductivity of the fuel promotes electrolysis and plating Connectors need to be insulated Shunt wire material needs protection 23

24 Ethanol Solvency Ethanol dissolves into and can dissolve many polar sealing materials Excessive seal and polymer swelling Particularly with the economical materials used with in older vehicles and non-automotive applications Ethanol will dissolve additives like plasticizers out of some polymers Leads to deposits Nylons Polyesters 24

25 Need to Understand the Effects of Mid-Level Blends Before a customer puts an alternative fuel nozzle in the tank, we want to know what will happen Need to understand any potential unintended consequences of introducing mid-level ethanol blends Assess the effect of mid-level ethanol blends Test range of ethanol blends Topics of interest and the collaborative test program 25

26 Properties of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Requiring Testing Durability Tailpipe (health-based) emissions Evaporative emissions Drivability Materials compatibility Emissions inventory On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) Integrity 26

27 Mid-level Blends Summary Mid-level ethanol blend testing is underway Results will not be available for about a year Initial tests are confirming results in literature Testing protocols for the DoE or USCAR test plans are not fully developed Funding for some testing is not identified Automobile manufactures, the small engine community, oil companies, DoE, and EPA are working cooperatively towards an answer 27

28 Task V1- Vehicle Pilot Study Plan developed in collaboration with EPA and CRC 11 popular late-model vehicles under test, 5 more to be acquired (increasing to 16) E0, E10, E15, and E20 splash-blended fuels Triplicate LA92 drive cycle on each fuel Preliminary V1 results to date show some latemodel, high-sales volume vehicles are potentially sensitive 28

29 Example Vehicle that Appears to Use Learned Fuel Trim during WOT Lambda curves offset in time for clarity 29

30 Use of E20 Has Little Effect on WOT Catalyst Temperature in This Vehicle (due to use of learned fuel) Temperature curves offset slightly in time for clarity 30

31 Example of a Vehicle that Does Not Use Learned Fuel Trim during WOT Lambda curves offset in time for clarity E20 Lambda Less rich during WOT 31

32 Catalyst Core 30 C Higher with E20 WOT in Vehicle without Learned Fuel Curves offset in time for clarity 32

33 Summary GM s Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy will Reduce fuel consumption and GHG emissions Be sustainable through energy diversity Displace petroleum Alleviate the issue of demand outgrowing limited supply Reduce our dependence on a supply subject to uncontrollable risks 33

34 Summary By Incorporating Continued improvement of conventional powertrains Gas & diesel engines and transmissions will be the primary propulsion systems for the foreseeable future Alternative fuels Biofuels such as E85 ethanol and Biodiesel (i.e. B20) Increased electrification of the automobile Rapid expansion of hybrid portfolio, including plug-ins EV range extenders Ultimately, hydrogen fuel cells 34

35 Thank You for Your Attention

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