Training Guidelines for Maintenance and Support of AFVs

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1 Training Guidelines for Maintenance and Support of AFVs Alternative Fuel Vehicles the PROCURA project Lisbon, 26 January 2007 Deliverable n.º D 2.3 Dissemination Level Work Package Public WP 2 Manual Development Authors Status (F: Final, D: Draft) F Local Coordinator: Lara Moura - Technical University of Lisbon Technical Support: Ana Cardoso - Technical University of Lisbon; Gonçalo Gonçalves - Technical University of Lisbon; Marcos Teixeira - Technical University of Lisbon General Reviewing: Prof. Tiago Farias - Technical University of Lisbon File Name Project Start Date and Duration PROCURA_Deliverable D2.3.doc 1 January 2006, 36 months This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

2 Supported by: Disclaimer: The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

3 Table of Contents 1. Introduction Vehicle Characteristics Biodiesel Ethanol Compressed Natural Gas Guidelines for Maintenance of Biodiesel Vehicles Guidelines for Maintenance of Ethanol Vehicles Guidelines for Maintenance of Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles Conclusions References This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

4 1. Introduction In the framework set by the EU objective of 20% substitution of oil-based motor fuels by 2020, PROCURA Project was designed to facilitate the large-scale procurement of Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFV) by identifying traditional market barriers and furthermore, promoting guidance for their mitigation.. In addition, PROCURA also aims to contribute to intermediate EU goals to substitute 2% of conventional fuels by Biofuels in 2005, and 5,75% in 2010, by providing guidance to potential clients that are willing to adopt AVF to their fleets. PROCURA s strategy consists of developing and testing models for centralized AFVprocurement via: buyer pools (permitting centralized infrastructure and servicing), a focus on private fleet owners (e.g. Greenlease), and the start-up development of second hand markets and certification systems for AFVs. In addition the project also includes the development of manuals and guidelines for the introduction of these new technologies and fuels as well as pilot case studies in Netherlands, Italy, Portugal, Poland and Spain. The main objective of the present deliverable is to produce a manual for Alternative Fuel Vehicles maintenance and support. The present report is organized in the following manner: In chapter 2 it is made a brief description of the Biodiesel, Ethanol and Natural Gas vehicle characteristics; In chapters 3, 4 and 5 there are presented the main guidelines for maintenance of biodiesel, ethanol and compressed natural gas vehicles, respectively, and main differences between light and heavy duty when possible; In chapter 6 the main conclusions are summarized. Data present throughout the report were obtained both from consulting available material from other EU funded project and specialized literature (e.g. BEST, SU:GRE, TRENDSETTER, NICHES, CIVITAS, MIRACLES, ) as well as through the use of questionnaires and interviews with relevant market players. It is understood that only with in depth analysis of the barriers present in the market that one can start to outline possible strategies on how to overcome them. This report is particularly directed to Maintenance Personnel and Fleet Owners who can get an overview of the main guidelines for the maintenance of their vehicles and that until this moment have limited experience with this type of vehicles. These target groups can have a unique role during the development of this primary stage of the procurement activity. This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

5 2. Vehicle Characteristics During the following section a brief review of the main specific characteristics of biodiesel (B100), ethanol (E85) and compressed natural gas (CNG) fuelled vehicles are analysed. 2.1 Biodiesel Biodiesel vehicles are very similar to conventional ones. In fact, most available vehicles only need to be slightly adapted to use B100. In particular, minor engines modifications may be done in order to improve efficiency and achieve some fuel consumption savings as the properties of the biodiesel, namely the viscosity and biodegradability, may affect the operation of the fuel injection system. Actually, the rule of thumb is that B100 can be used in any diesel built between 1990 and 2006 [1]. However, manufacturer guarantee, as well as additional confirmation, is always needed. In terms of official compatibility, despite the majority of diesel vehicles on the road being fine on B100, only a small number of companies will officially approve their vehicles for B100 use. The companies that have approved B100 are VW, Audi, SEAT and Skoda. They approved all their cars built between 1996 and 2004 on B100 use of RME biodiesel (biodiesel made from rapeseed) providing it meets the specification DIN41606 (which was later replaced by EN14214). These companies can still provide some brand new cars warranted on B100 but one has to request it 1 [1]. 2.2 Ethanol Ethanol FlexiFuel vehicles are also very similar to conventional ones. The main difference lays in the materials used in the fuel management and engine calibration systems, as FFV components have to be made of stainless steel, for example. Figure 1: Ethanol FFV vehicle [2] A positive aspect of FFV is that they have little or no additional cost. The introduction of FFV solved problems as the need of producing and marketing different vehicles running with gasoline or ethanol. Yet, compared to pure ethanol vehicles, FFV have the advantages of flexibility of choice between gasoline and ethanol when filling the tank, 1 Manufacturer guarantee can vary from country to country. This situation must always be well checked. This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

6 less engine degradation, increased engine performance in cold weather, and less corrosion. Regarding ethanol vehicles, engine and vehicle manufacturers have voiced concerns regarding the safety of ethanol. However, fuel warranty issues are not a problem for light-duty gasoline vehicles, as all manufacturers have approved blends of up to 10% ethanol for use in their vehicles. 2.3 Compressed Natural Gas The basic difference between a CNG vehicle and a conventional one lays on the feeding and supply system. The feeding system comprises an independent supply source, a CNG tank, a pressure decrease device, a control unit and, in the case of a bifuel vehicle, a selection button CNG/gasoline. In light duty vehicles the natural gas is stored in cylindrical containers, placed under the chassis. In heavy duty vehicles the natural gas is commonly stored on the roof as showed in Figure 2. Figure 2: MAN NL 310 CNG [3] In spite of the engine usage of the gas at a pressure near to the atmospheric, it has to be stored in tanks at 200bar to allow a larger amount of gas in a smaller volume. This way an increase in the vehicle autonomy is assured. The dimension and number of CNG storage cylinders may vary with the type and model of the vehicle. A bus has, usually, between 6 and 8 cylinders which represents a volume of 800 to 1200 litres. Obviously, a greater autonomy is going to be achieved with a larger number of cylinders and fuel stored. However in this situation the cost, as well as the weight and volume of the storage system, is going to increase (e.g. if a system comprised with 6 cylinders went to 8 cylinders its weight would increase from 550 to 780Kg). This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

7 Light duty vehicles have autonomy of ~400km. A heavy duty passenger vehicle, in an urban condition, can reach the autonomy of 200 to 350km depending on the number of cylinders installed. Between refills, the distance made by service vehicles (e.g. goods transportation) can go from 250 to 350km, depending on the model used. CNG tank Supply source Pressure decrease Control unit CNG indicator Selection button CNG/gasoline Source: Fiat Figure 3: CNG/gasoline vehicle This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

8 3. Guidelines for Maintenance of Biodiesel Vehicles Biodiesel works as a replacement fuel for regular diesel, but some chemical characteristics of biodiesel must be considered: - Biodiesel acts as a solvent, that is, it tend do dissolve any deposits present in the fuel system; - Biodiesel reacts with organic materials (e.g. natural rubber) and will degrade them; - Depending on the original feedstock, the gelling point can be high enough to prevent use in high concentrations on cold climates. In this sense, several items must be observed in the practical use of biodiesel to guarantee permanently smooth operation: o It may be necessary to change the fuel filter when changing to biodiesel after a long period in which mineral oil diesel only has been used. Because biodiesel acts as a solvent residues of the diesel fuel can be released. This biodiesel superior detergent characteristics can initially reduce particulate, gum and varnish buildup in engine parts, leading to clogged filters. Continuing to use biodiesel keeps fuel lines clear [4]; o Surfaces which come into contact the biodiesel should be wiped clean immediately as also for conventional diesel; o If biodiesel is used in non-approved vehicles, some rubber and synthetic materials can be damaged under certain circumstances after longer usage. For example, it is possible that fuel hoses will swell. This can be remedied by using the approved materials. An authorised garage can provide information on the type of the employed materials. A regular inspection of the fuel system and replacement of the affected materials can be conducted quickly and economically [5]; o Biodiesel (B100) freezes at higher temperatures than most conventional diesel fuel and this must be taken into account if handling or using B100. Most B100 starts to cloud at between 2ºC and 16 C, so heated fuel lines and tanks may be needed even in moderate climates. As biodiesel begins to gel, the viscosity also begins to rise, and it rises to levels much higher than most diesel fuel, which can cause increased stress on fuel pumps and fuel injection systems. Cold weather properties are the biggest reason many people use biodiesel blends [4]; o The oil change intervals should be upheld as specified by the manufacturer. Regarding the employed engine oil, it is possible that the engine oil of utility vehicles will become diluted with fuel. However, this only usually occurs when the engine runs at low loads for longer periods [5]. In Table 1 an overview of the necessary re-equipment measures for biodiesel are specified, this does however differ according to the vehicle. This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

9 Table 1: Re-equipping program for biodiesel vehicles [6] If you want to use B100 vehicles some recommendations can be made [4]: Contact other B100 users. In case you manage a fleet you can contact your Fleet Management Association to find out if anyone near you has experience with B100. Contact biodiesel associations and look through its news and other outreach material for references to B100 users; Ask your B100 vendor for some recommendations. Ask other users what they did, how they did it, how long it took, how much it cost, what problems (if any) they encountered, how long have they been using B100, and what kind of engines and equipment have they been using it in; Contact your dealership and discuss your needs and ask for advice, including any recommendations from their distributors or other fleet customers. Replace materials you know will be problematic and institute a monitoring program; This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

10 Plan and budget for the time and expense of increased fuel filter changes or cleaning your fuel system when first starting to use B100. This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

11 4. Guidelines for Maintenance of Ethanol Vehicles Because of the modified components in the fuel system and on the engine, vehicles which can be operated on ethanol may require more frequent servicing Km / 1 year: (which ever occurs first) Renew engine oil and filter Km valve clearance check (intake & exhaust). If valve clearance is below 0.2 mm, then proceed to relash the valve clearance as follows: Exhaust valve clearance between 0.3 mm and 0.36 mm (high limit preferred); Intake valve clearance to between 0.25 mm and 0.31 mm (high limit preferred) Km valve clearance check (intake & exhaust). If valve clearance is above 0.2 mm, proceed to the next Km service check. Table 2: Service Schedule Ford Focus 2004 (1.8 DURATEC HE/FFV) Source: Ford Taking the vehicle to the garage Instrument display, warning and control lights Check functioning and horn Clutch Check functioning/adjust, if applicable Window wiper, window cleaner Check functioning/adjust, if applicable Under the vehicle Engine Drain the oil and substitute the oil filter With the tires on, check if the breaks are worn Break system out Outside the vehicle Engine Change engine s oil Maintenance warnings Put the sticker on the driver s side Extension of the maintenance Break system Every two years: change break s oil Every three years: check the evaporator s exit Air conditioner tube temperature. Check if there are damages or leaks on the air conditioner s tubes Every ten years: drain, wash and fill with Cooling system purple Super Plus Change every Km or ten years, which Accessories strings happens first Supplementary services and additional offers (optional) Check/rectify the window washer s liquid, Maintenance service package check if the tire repairing kit and emergency equipment are complete and valid This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

12 Light service package Inner filter substitution Air conditioner maintenance package Check all the inner and outer lights. Check the headlights level and rectify if necessary Check the pollen/odour filters Check the air conditioner system. Apply cleaning product on the air distribution system This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

13 5. Guidelines for Maintenance of Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles The rate of unscheduled repairs is slightly higher for the gasoline vehicles than for the CNG vehicles (on a per mile basis). No differences in the types or frequencies of fuel system or engine-related maintenance and repairs. When compared over similar mileage ranges the gasoline vehicles tended to need slightly more repairs related to brakes and tires than the CNG vehicles, as can be seen in Table 3. Table 3: Maintenance and repair cost summary [7] Scheduled maintenance (average for vehicle type) Unscheduled maintenance (average with accidents) Unscheduled maintenance (average without accidents) Non-mechanical repairs (average for vehicle type) Other costs (average for vehicle type) Total maintenance and repair (average without accidents) Total maintenance and repair: cents per mile (average without accidents) CNG Vehicles Gasoline Vehicles $2354 $3454 $1628 $1499 $519 $769 $711 $634 $46 $123 $3630 $ This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

14 Maintenance of the buses, as the result of NGVeurope-Thermie project in Augsburg, Germany is illustrated in the table below. Table 4: Maintenance measures for diesel and natural gas buses Measures Diesel Natural Gas Changing of motor oil Valve adjustment 30,000 km 60,000 km Manufacturer's recommendation: 30,000 km; expected for the future: 45,000 km. No special motor oil required Manufacturer's recommendation: km (Only necessary for the first motor generation. The new designed lean burn motor operates with lower temperatures longer intervals are expected) Changing of sparking plugs ---- Manufacturer's recommendation: 15,000 km This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

15 6. Conclusions The main objective of the present deliverable was to produce a manual for Alternative Fuel Vehicles maintenance and support. In chapter 2 it was made a brief description of the Biodiesel, Ethanol and Natural Gas vehicle characteristics, in chapter 3, 4 and 5 there were presented the main guidelines for maintenance of biodiesel, ethanol and compressed natural gas vehicles. This report was particularly directed to Maintenance Personnel and Fleet Owners who can get an overview of the main guidelines for the maintenance of their vehicles and that until this moment have limited experience with this type of vehicles. After a detailed analysis, we can conclude that vehicles may need to change the fuel filter when changing to biodiesel after a long period in which mineral oil diesel only has been used, due to the fact that it acts as a solvent and residues of the diesel fuel can be released and block the filter. If biodiesel is used in non-approved vehicles, some rubber and synthetic materials can be damaged under certain circumstances after longer usage, but this situation can be remedied by using the approved materials. The oil change intervals should be upheld as specified by the manufacturer. Vehicles which operate on ethanol may require more frequent servicing because of the modified components in the fuel system and on the engine. On the other hand, the rate of unscheduled repairs is slightly higher for the gasoline vehicles than for the CNG vehicles (on a per mile basis). There are no differences in the types or frequencies of fuel system or engine-related maintenance and repairs. When compared over similar mileage ranges the gasoline vehicles tended to need slightly more repairs related to brakes and tires than the CNG vehicles This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

16 7. References [1] Biodiesel Filling Stations [2] Alternative Fuel Driver Training Companion Manual. US Department of Energy. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, September 2005; [3] Associação Portuguesa do Veículo a Gás Natural (APVGN) [4] Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines. US Department of Energy. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, November 2004; [5] Biodiesel Flowerpower Facts, Arguments, Tips. UFOP, 2004; [6] Biodiesel in Bus Fleets. UFOP; [7] A Review of Comparative Studies. Maintenance Costs for NGVs versus Conventional Vehicles. ENGVA, This product is a result of the PROCURA project n. EIE/05/

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