# Reduction of Global Warming By Using Renewable Energy Resources: A Mathematic Approach

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Reduction of Global Warming By Using Renewable Energy Resources: A Mathematic Approach"

## Transcription

2 Munish Kumar Jangra et al. 38 Fig. 1. DFFQT curve III. DFFQT CURV lectrical Demand and Fossil Fuel Quantity v/s Time (DFFQT) curve shows: there is need of renewable energy resources. As per the data of world for consumption of fossil fuel and electrical demand, a curve is drawn as shown in Fig. 1. Curve shown in Fig. 1, is an approximate curve which is only drawn to show that for meeting the future electrical demand, we should now go for renewable energy sources. In Fig. 1, it can be seen that electrical demand curve is increasing, while the fossil fuel quantity curve is decreasing. There is a point of crossing of two curves, M. Up to point, M, electrical demand curve is below fossil fuel curve, and hence electrical demand can be met by fossil fuels alone. After point, M, fossil fuel curve is below the electrical demand curve, and hence electrical demand cannot be met by fossil fuels alone. The time corresponding to point, M, is T C. This time, T C, is expected in next 200 years [2], here problem is how to meet electrical demand after point, T C. To meet this demand we should go for renewable energy sources, which will meet our electrical demand as well as will save us from global warming and pollution. IV. MCHANISM OF AIR FLOW Basically is of two types: A) Global Air B) Local Air A. Global Air Global is that which flows globally. We will explain global mechanism for two cases; one is when earth is assumed stationary and when earth is included with its rotation. When earth is stationary (shown in Fig. 2) solar radiation s the near the equator, in this way density of the ed becomes lower and this low density moves in upward direction. The vacant space (at equator) of the ed and upward moved is occupied by more dense higher pressure cool, which came from poles of the earth. which will also be ed by solar radiation at equator and this will also move in upward direction, and will forces the upper present to move toward poles. Thus at surface flows from poles to equator and in upper atmosphere it is from equator to poles. At surface flows from Poles to equator, Fig. 2. Global, with earth assumed stationary because at poles there is presence of snow, and above this surface will obviously cold. In Fig. 2, it is shown that the direction of the is from poles toward equator (at surface) and in upper space the direction is reverse. The direction of felt in northern hemisphere is from north to south while in southern hemisphere it is from south to north. In above discussion we assumed that earth is stationary now we will discuss flow mechanism when earth s rotation is also included. It is shown in Fig. 3, when a person is at the top (i.e., near equator in northern hemisphere and direct to sun) at that time the near this person will be ed up and its density will become lesser so it will move in upward direction, at the same time earth is rotating (direction shown in Fig. 3), so the person will experience two components of one is toward west and is toward south (in northern hemisphere) (shown in Fig. 3). The net resultant of both the components of is the direction felt by the person. One thing we must keep in mind is that, the direction of the global felt by a person may not necessarily be from north to south (in northern hemisphere) because the surface is not plain but it is rough. It is because of the presence of the trees, buildings, mountains, etc., on the earth. B. Local Air Local Air is that which flows locally. Land and water have unequal solar absorptivities and thermal time constants. arth surface is surrounded by 71% water and 29% land. Fig. 3. Global, with including the rotation of earth

3 International Journal of Computer Science and Telecommunications [Volume 3, Issue 2, February 2012] 39 So if we convert some fraction,, of into electrical energy then will be reduced from its previous value, i.e., Fig. 4. Local During day light the land s up more rapidly as compare to nearby sea or water bodies, and due to this above the land becomes warmer as compare to the above the water. The warmed becomes lighter and moves in upward direction. Vacant space of this upward moved warmed is occupied by the high density cool which came from above water. Thus in day wind flows from water to land. At the night the wind direction reverses, because the land surface cools more rapidly than the water. Local winds are caused by two mechanisms. The first is differential ing of land & water (shown in Fig. 4). As explained above. The second mechanism of local winds is caused by hills & mountain sides. During day the above the slopes s up more rapidly as compare to above low land and at night, cools down more rapidly than the above the low lands. This causes ed lighter in day to rise along the slopes and relatively cool heavy to flow down in night. The net felt by us is the resultant of both global & local. The direction of the changes time to time, this is locally and because of the temperature difference of two or more regions. So we have seen that the reason for flow of is the temperature difference on earth s surface. V. GLOBAL WARMING RDUCTION CONCPT A. Reduction of Global Warming by Using Wind Turbines In this section we will mathematically prove that how global warming can be reduced by using wind turbines. Let in any time interval, t, energy,, enters into the earth s atmosphere, from sun, where, = + light + (1) Where, = + ' (2) Put equation (2) in equation (1). We get, = + ' + light + (3) Where is proportional to, because as energy will large then due to presence of land and water, and temperature difference on earth s surface, production will also be large. α (4) electrical = (5) x Where: 0 1. Now energy in is: ' = (6) ' electrical (1 x ) = (7) Now, higher the value of, lesser will be the left behind energy of,. From equation (3) & (6), we get, = + ' + ' + + (8) electrical light From equation (8), we can see that we have converted some amount of sun energy into electrical energy, and because of this the energy scattered in earth s atmosphere is not, but it is. Where, Now will try to increase its value to by extracting energy out of. Thus further energy is transferred to energy, which will further be converted into electrical energy. In this way energy (coming from sun) is not being scattered in atmosphere of earth, but is converted into electrical energy as well (double benefit of the concept used). So global warming can be reduced if sufficient amount of wind farms are installed. Case: when we are not using wind turbines In this section we will concentrate on the fact that what will happen if we do not use wind turbines. Recall eq. (1) & (3). = + + light = + ' + light + Now if we are not converting this energy,, into any form (either mechanical or electrical) then decrease in will not be at the same rate as it was in the case when we were converting energy into electrical energy, but it will be at a negligible rate. Thus temperature of earth will increase in this case as compare to the case when we were using wind turbines. From discussion, we conclude, if we convert energy into electrical energy then remaining energy,, will try to diminish for getting increase in itself value. Thus as will decrease so naturally the earth s temperature will decrease. NOT: nergy,, entering the atmosphere of earth (in any time interval, t) is very high, i.e., Although the effect of wind turbines all over the earth is small with present installed capacity of the wind farms, but we can make this effect significant and enough for taking over the global warming by increasing the installed capacity of wind farms in world.

5 International Journal of Computer Science and Telecommunications [Volume 3, Issue 2, February 2012] 41 VII. CONCLUSION DFFQT curve is introduced to concentrate on the importance of renewable energy sources. A mathematic approach is presented to show that how can global warming be reduced by using renewable energy resources (especially, WCS and solar PV cells). It is inferred that if we allocate wind turbines and solar systems at proper locations in the world, with enough capacities, we can overcome the problem of global warming. A new idea of directly and indirectly affecting renewable energy resources on global warming is discussed. It is shown that WCS, Solar PV cells and ocean thermal energy conversion systems are both directly and indirectly affecting renewable energy resources on global warming, and renewable energy resources like tidal plants, fuel cells, hydro plants, etc., are indirectly affecting renewable energy resources on global warming. RFRNCS [1] A. H. M. Sadrul Ula, Global warming and electric power generation: what is the connection?, I Transactions on nergy Conversion, vol. 6, no.4, December [2] B. K. BOS, Global Warming: energy, environmental pollution, and the impact of power elecronics, I Industrial lectronics. Magazine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 6-17, March [3] J. Armstrong and H. Bailly, nergy efficiency a strategy for delaying global warming, in Proc. of 25 th Intersociety nergy Conversion ngineering Conference, 1990.ICC-90, vol. 4, pp , [4] S. Pal, Wind energy - An innovative solution to global warming?, in 1 st international Conference on the development in renewable energy technology (ICDRT)- 2009, pp. 1-3, [5] M. Amirthalingam, A novel technology utilizing renewable energies to mitigate pollution, global warming & climate change, in 1 st international Conference on the development in renewable energy technology (ICDRT)- 2009, pp. 1-3, [6] Global warming and its bad effects; [7] Green house gases; [8] Green House effect; nt.about.com/od/globalwarming/a/greenhouse.h tm for about.com Munish Kumar Jangra received the B. Tech. (Hons.) from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India, in He is pursuing M. Tech. in lectrical ngg. from DeenBandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal (Sonepat)-Haryana, India. K. P. Singh Parmar is an Assistant Director (Technical), Centre for Advanced Management and Power Studies, NPTI, Faridabad, India. He has worked as an Assistant Professor with the lectrical ngineering Department, JSS Academy Of Technical ducation, NOIDA (UP), India. He obtained his B(Hons) from Govt. ngineering College Rewa (MP) and M.Tech. from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and has been involved in teaching, training, consultancy and research since He has taught various subjects of lectrical ngineering including lectric machines, Power systems, lectric drives, Control systems, lectric Networks and Systems, Basic System ngineering and Management in Transmission and Distribution System. Mr Parmar is a life member of IST, India and member of IT, India. His research interests include AGC, Power quality, nergy conservation, Unit commitment, wind and solar energy. Naresh Kumar Yadav obtained B.Tech. in electrical engineering from Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (Haryana), India and M.Tech. in electrical engineering from National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India, in 2000 and 2004, respectively. Since August-2006 he has been with Department of lectrical ngineering, Faculty of ngineering and Technology, DeenBandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal (Sonepat)-Haryana, India, where he is currently Assistant Professor. Presently he is pursuing his Ph.D. research at Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi Mr. Yadav is a life time member of Indian Society for Technical ducation. His research interests include power system deregulation, FACTS applications to power system restructuring, Automatic Generation Control etc.

### MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated

### Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Pros:

P a g e 1 Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Generating Electrical Energy Using Moving Water: Hydro-Electric Generation

### Activity 1: 2 butter cartons, scissors, cling film, thermometer, water, a sunny spot and a shady spot.

Equipment: Activity 1: 2 butter cartons, scissors, cling film, thermometer, water, a sunny spot and a shady spot. Activity 2: 3 thermometers, black paper, white paper Suggested Class Level: 3rd 6th Preparation:

### Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

### ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

### Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood

### Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

### Module 7 Forms of energy generation

INTRODUCTION In rich countries like Australia, our standard of living is dependent on easily available energy. Every time you catch a bus, turn on a light or watch television energy is being used up. Over

### Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy

### 12.5: Generating Current Electricity pg. 518

12.5: Generating Current Electricity pg. 518 Key Concepts: 1. Electrical energy is produced by energy transformations. 2. Electrical energy is produced from renewable and non-renewable resources. 4. Electrical

### GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE

DESCRIPTION This lesson plan gives students first-hand experience in analyzing the link between atmospheric temperatures and carbon dioxide ( ) s by looking at ice core data spanning hundreds of thousands

### How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate?

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? In Learning Set 2, you explored how water heats up more slowly than land and also cools off more slowly than land. Weather is caused by events in the atmosphere.

### Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

### Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

### Solar and Wind Energy for Greenhouses. A.J. Both 1 and Tom Manning 2

Solar and Wind Energy for Greenhouses A.J. Both 1 and Tom Manning 2 1 Associate Extension Specialist 2 Project Engineer NJ Agricultural Experiment Station Rutgers University 20 Ag Extension Way New Brunswick,

### The atmosphere has a number of gases, often in tiny amounts, which trap the heat given out by the Earth.

The Earth is wrapped in a blanket of air called the atmosphere, which is made up of several layers of gases. The sun is much hotter than the Earth and it gives off rays of heat (radiation) that travel

### Climate Change and Renewable Energy A Perspective from a Measurements Viewpoint

Climate Change and Renewable Energy A Perspective from a Measurements Viewpoint Regional Workshop on Metrology and Technology Challenges of Climate Change and Renewable Energy Guatemala City, Guatemala

### Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

### Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases Reading Assignment

What is global warming? Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases Imagine you live in a timber shack in Alaska. It's chilly up there, so you build yourself a huge log fire and pile on all the wood you can find.

### California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

### Data Sets of Climate Science

The 5 Most Important Data Sets of Climate Science Photo: S. Rahmstorf This presentation was prepared on the occasion of the Arctic Expedition for Climate Action, July 2008. Author: Stefan Rahmstorf, Professor

### Clouds and the Energy Cycle

August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

### Introduction to Non- Conventional Energy Systems

Introduction to Non- Conventional Energy Systems Dr.L.Umanand L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 1 Why Fossil Fuel Base? Applications need concentrated energy i.e. high energy densities. Extraction, storage, distribution

### S1 Topic 9. Energy and Generating Electricity. Level: S1. Topic: Energy (Unit 4) Introduction:

S1 Topic 9 Energy and Generating Electricity Level: S1 Topic: Energy (Unit 4) Introduction: This set of ELA materials is designed for students whose academic ability is comparatively high. The whole unit,

### 1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 2. How does the amount of heat energy reflected by a smooth, dark-colored concrete

### climate science A SHORT GUIDE TO This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science.

A SHORT GUIDE TO climate science This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science. For more information and to view the full report, visit royalsociety.org/policy/climate-change

### Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 California State Science Content Standards Covered in: Hands-on science labs, demonstrations, & activities. Investigation and Experimentation. Lesson Plans. Presented

### Energy Quiz. Questions:

Energy Quiz Want to have some fun and learn at the same time. This is not a test. You don t have to pass it and it won t give you a grade. It will just help you learn or find out how much you remember

### Renewable Choice Energy

Catawba College Table of Contents About Renewable Choice The Problem: Electricity Production Today The Solutions: Renewable Energy Sources Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) Who can participate in Renewable

### Module 2.2. Heat transfer mechanisms

Module 2.2 Heat transfer mechanisms Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe the 1 st and 2 nd laws of thermodynamics. - Describe heat transfer mechanisms.

### Climate Models: Uncertainties due to Clouds. Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Climate Models: Uncertainties due to Clouds Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography Global mean radiative forcing of the climate system for

### Do-Now. 1.) Get out notebook.

Do-Now 1.) Get out notebook. 2.) Answer the following questions on the first clean sheet in your notebook. 1.) What are renewable resources? 2.) What are nonrenewable resources? Alternative Sources of

### Materials Needed: Time Needed: Adaptations: 2 flyswatters (optional) Vocabulary Definitions (below) Vocabulary Scramble Sheets (below)

Vocabulary Slap Game ( Flyswatter Game ) Directions: Project a Vocabulary Scramble sheet on a projection screen or Smart Board. Divide the class into two teams. Each team sends one person up to the screen.

### AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Some scientists estimate that by 2025 over 60 percent of the global human population will live in urban areas. Urban residents experience a variety

### The Science and Ethics of Global warming. Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of

The Science and Ethics of Global warming Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of our time. It holds a fascination for scientists because of the tremendous complexity

### CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

### Changing Clouds in a Changing Climate: Anthropogenic Influences

Changing Clouds in a Changing Climate: Anthropogenic Influences Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography Global mean radiative forcing of

### The Atmosphere. Introduction Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming

Introduction Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming The Atmosphere The terms Greenhouse Effect, Climate Change, and Global Warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three

### T E A C H E R S N O T E S

T E A C H E R S N O T E S Focus: Students explore energy: its sources, forms, and transformations. Students also consider the benefits of energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation. Learning

### The Earth s Atmosphere

THE SUN-EARTH SYSTEM III The Earth s Atmosphere Composition and Distribution of the Atmosphere The composition of the atmosphere and the way its gases interact with electromagnetic radiation determine

### 6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

### Worksheet A Environmental Problems

Worksheet A Environmental Problems Vocabulary Can you talk about Environmental issues in English? With a partner, try to explain the terms in the diagram below. Why are the words divided into two groups

### CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior

### SPQ Module 3 Solar Power

SPQ Module 3 Solar Power The sun is the source of all life on earth. Yet we sometimes forget how central it is to our every activity. We stumble through our daily routine worrying about the mundane tribulations

### Design and Re-Use Of Shovadans In Today's Architecture "With Due Attention To Have Thermal Energy Of The Earth"

RESEARCH INVENTY: International Journal of Engineering and Science ISBN: 2319-6483, ISSN: 2278-4721, Vol. 1, Issue 8 (November 2012), PP 60-64 www.researchinventy.com Design and Re-Use Of Shovadans In

### Renewable Wind. Wind Basics. Energy from Moving Air. The Daily Wind Cycle. Wind Energy for Electricity Generation

Renewable Wind Wind Basics Energy from Moving Air Wind is simply air in motion. It is caused by the uneven heating of the Earth's surface by the sun. Because the Earth's surface is made of very different

### ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

### Solar Power Analysis Based On Light Intensity

The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES) ISSN (e): 2319 1813 ISSN (p): 2319 1805 Pages 01-05 2014 Solar Power Analysis Based On Light Intensity 1 Dr. M.Narendra Kumar, 2 Dr. H.S. Saini,

### SOLAR PV-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATION SYSTEM

SOLAR PV-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATION SYSTEM J.Godson 1,M.Karthick 2,T.Muthukrishnan 3,M.S.Sivagamasundari 4 Final year UG students, Department of EEE,V V College of Engineering,Tisaiyanvilai, Tirunelveli,

### ENERGY PRODUCING SYSTEMS

ENERGY PRODUCING SYSTEMS SOLAR POWER INTRODUCTION Energy from the sun falls on our planet on a daily basis. The warmth of the sun creates conditions on earth conducive to life. The weather patterns that

### The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System

NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System The Sun is the major source of energy for Earth s oceans, atmosphere, land, and biosphere.

### 8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab)

These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139

### Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions

GIIRS Emerging Market Assessment Resource Guide: What s in this Guide? I. Definition: What Are Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions? II. Why Calculate GHGs? III. How to Calculate Company-wide GHGs IV. Outsourcing

### Systems Thinking and Modeling Climate Change Amy Pallant, Hee-Sun Lee, and Sarah Pryputniewicz

Systems Thinking and Modeling Climate Change Amy Pallant, Hee-Sun Lee, and Sarah Pryputniewicz You know the effects of the proverbial butterfly flapping its wings. But what about an automobile driver?

### Going Green: Installing Solar Panels around the Campus of Widener University

Going Green: Installing Solar Panels around the Campus of Widener University by Andrea Stickley Student at Widener University November 27, 2012 Abstract In recent years, it has come to light about the

### 7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions

Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions 7613-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) Equal quantities of water are placed in four uncovered containers with different shapes and left on a table at room temperature. From which

### Energy: renewable sources of energy. Renewable Energy Sources

Energy: renewable sources of energy Energy Sources 1 It is technically and economically feasible to phase out net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions almost entirely by 2050. A report by energy consulting firm

### Geography affects climate.

KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you

### Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science

Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science with emphasis on aquatic and vegetation canopy media Autumn 2008 Prof. Emmanuel Boss, Dr. Eyal Rotenberg Introduction Radiation in Environmental sciences Most

### STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

### Advancement in Solar Panels and Improvement in Power Production with Indoor Application

Advancement in Solar Panels and Improvement in Power Production with Indoor Application C.Hemalatha 1, A.Archana 2, B.Jayaprakash 2, Parvathi Jayakrishnan 2 Assistant Professor, Dept. of EEE, Gnanamani

### COST OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION [21jun, 10jul 1pm]

5 COST OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION [21jun, 10jul 1pm] Fix of Section 5 tables, but no change needed. EEH 955am 11nov00: The cost of greenhouse gas mitigation using renewable energy technologies depends

### Climate Change Mini-Simulation: Background Guide

Climate Change Mini-Simulation: Background Guide United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to creating

### Example of an end-to-end operational. from heat waves

Example of an end-to-end operational service in support to civil protection from heat waves Paolo Manunta pkt006-11-1.0 1.0_WEBGIS Athens, 8 June 2007 OUTLINE Heat Island definition and causes Heat Island

### Station #1 Interpreting Infographs

Energy Resources Stations Activity Page # 1 Station #1 Interpreting Infographs 1. Identify and explain each of the energy sources (5) illustrated in the infograph. 2. What do the white and black circles

### BRSP-7 Page 1. A Open B Covered C Covered / Water. Two different experiments are presented, each experiment using a different pair of models:

BRSP-7 Page 1 Perhaps you have heard of the greenhouse effect. In a greenhouse, short-wave radiation from sunlight passes freely through the glass and is converted to long-wave radiation inside. But the

### Green Heating. Pupil Research Brief. Teachers Notes. Syllabus Coverage Subject Knowledge and Understanding. Route through the Brief UPIL ESEARCHER

R P UPIL ESEARCHER Green Heating I NITIATIVE Pupil Research Brief Teachers Notes Syllabus Coverage Subject Knowledge and Understanding all types of electromagnetic radiation form a continuous spectrum

### How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit

3D EG REES WH ITE PAPER How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit Using on-site and off-site renewable energy to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions associated with a LEED project s energy use

### CARBON THROUGH THE SEASONS

DESCRIPTION In this lesson plan, students learn about the carbon cycle and understand how concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the Earth s atmosphere vary as the seasons change. Students also learn

### The Greenhouse Effect. Lan Ma Global Warming: Problems & Solutions 17 September, 2007

The Greenhouse Effect Lan Ma Global Warming: Problems & Solutions 17 September, 2007 What to cover today: How do we calculate the Earth s surface temperature? What makes a gas a greenhouse gas and how

### Why is it renewable? Well, the sun will always be there for us, and we can use as much of the sun s energy as we want and it will never run out.

6. Solar Energy So far we have been looking at how to reduce CO 2 emissions by cutting down on our use of fossil fuels. Now let s look at getting renewable energy from the sun. Why is it renewable? Well,

### Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One + Two Volume 3 2010 Fall Issue 1 Article 10 Maximum Power from a Solar Panel Michael Miller University of South Florida Advisors: Gerald Hefley, Mathematics

### Jessica Blunden, Ph.D., Scientist, ERT Inc., Climate Monitoring Branch, NOAA s National Climatic Data Center

Kathryn Sullivan, Ph.D, Acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA Administrator Thomas R. Karl, L.H.D., Director,, and Chair of the Subcommittee on Global Change Research Jessica

### The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering

Section 5: Reflow Oven Heat Transfer The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering There are three different heating modes involved with most SMT reflow processes: conduction, convection, and infrared

### The impact Equation where scientists and engineers fit in the picture

The impact Equation where scientists and engineers fit in the picture In a series of papers in 1970-74, Paul Ehrlich and John Holdren proposed the following equation to estimate the overall impact of our

### Renewable vs. non-renewable energy sources, forms and technologies prepared by. A.Gritsevskyi, IAEA

Renewable vs. non-renewable energy sources, forms and technologies prepared by. A.Gritsevskyi, IAEA Objective of this paper is to provide International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (IRES) with

### degrees Fahrenheit. Scientists believe it's human activity that's driving the temperatures up, a process

Global Warming For 2.5 million years, the earth's climate has fluctuated, cycling from ice ages to warmer periods. But in the last century, the planet's temperature has risen unusually fast, about 1.2

### Physics 1010: The Physics of Everyday Life. TODAY Black Body Radiation, Greenhouse Effect

Physics 1010: The Physics of Everyday Life TODAY Black Body Radiation, Greenhouse Effect 1 Admin Stuff Exams are at back of room, alphabetically in four piles. Please collect AFTER class Grades posted

### Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: 9/30/13 Water Water is a remarkable molecule Water vapor

### The Atmosphere and Winds

Oceanography 10, T. James Noyes, El Camino College 8A-1 The Atmosphere and Winds We need to learn about the atmosphere, because the ocean and atmosphere are tightly interconnected with one another: you

### Renewable Energy Research

Renewable Energy Research Georgia Power and Southern Company have been active in renewable energy research for many years. Over the last five years we have invested six million dollars in renewable energy

### 2 Absorbing Solar Energy

2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2.1 Air Mass and the Solar Spectrum Now that we have introduced the solar cell, it is time to introduce the source of the energy the sun. The sun has many properties that could

### Environmental Science 101 Energy. Web-Based Course. Lecture Outline: Terms You Should Know: Learning Objectives: Reading Assignment:

Environmental Science 101 Energy 1 Web-Based Course Lecture Outline: 5. RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES MODULE 5.1 Improving Energy Efficiency A. Improving Energy Efficiency MODULE 5.2 Geothermal, Hydro and

### The main audience of our project is the undergraduate first year students who can learn a lot about solar power plant & renewable energy.

Project Title Solar Energised Power Plant Project Description In recent years energy crisis has become one of the most talked about issues around the world. Especially in the developing countries, the

### AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 The Fremont School District uses oil to heat school buildings. Go Green! is a new project the district will implement. The superintendent has

### Harnessing the Sun s Energy 1. Harnessing the Sun s Energy: Solar Power for Homes

Harnessing the Sun s Energy 1 Harnessing the Sun s Energy: Solar Power for Homes Dan Tong Cluster 2 July 2008 Harnessing the Sun s Energy 2 Harnessing the Sun s Energy: Solar Power for Homes The use of

### 2- The Top and bottom of the leaf is covered by thin layer of cells called epidermis that allow sunlight to easily pass into the middle of the leaf.

Final exam summary sheet Topic 5, lesson 2 How leaf is adapted to carry on photosynthesis? 1- Waxy layer called the cuticle cover the leaf slow the water loss. 2- The Top and bottom of the leaf is covered

### Materials Needed: Choose one of the following methods depending on how familiar your students are with the internet and how to use it.

Teacher Information Lesson Title: Global Warming, Green House Effect and Climate Changes Lesson Description: This lesson helps students to understand or review their understanding of global warming, the

### Asian Journal on Energy and Environment

As. J. Energy Env. 2005, 6(02), 139-144 Asian Journal on Energy and Environment ISSN 1513-4121 Available online at www.asian-energy-journal.info The Small Hydropower Project as the Important Renewable

### TOPIC 5 (cont.) RADIATION LAWS - Part 2

TOPIC 5 (cont.) RADIATION LAWS - Part 2 Quick review ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Our focus in this class is on: UV VIS lr = micrometers (aka microns) = nanometers (also commonly used) Q1. The first thing

### SIFEM SECTOR FOCUS RENEWABLE ENERGY

SIFEM SECTOR FOCUS RENEWABLE ENERGY 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Renewable Energy 4 Wind Power 6 Solar Power 7 Rural Solar Energy 8 SIFEM: Objectives 9 SIFEM: Renewable Energy Investments 10 3 RENEWABLE ENERGY

### Solar Heating Basics. 2007 Page 1. a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding

2007 Page 1 Solar Heating Basics Reflected radiation is solar energy received by collectorsfrom adjacent surfaces of the building or ground. It depends a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding

### Catching the Sun The Physics of Solar Energy

VEA Bringing Learning to Life Program Support Notes Junior Middle Secondary Catching the Sun The Physics of Solar Energy 18 mins Teacher Notes by Amanda Bianco, B.Sc.Ed. Produced by VEA Pty Ltd Commissioning

### showing you all the benefits of solar thermal and helping you pick a system that is right for your business.

AMERICAN HARNESS SOLAR YOUR WORKS ENERGY SOLAR TO THE RESCUE FOR YOUR BUSINESS SOLAR Thermal Heat from the sun is a great green way to provide clean affordable energy for your business. With solar thermal

### Implications of Abundant Natural Gas

Implications of Abundant Natural Gas JAE EDMONDS AND HAEWON MCJEON APRIL 2013 May 29, 2013 1 Background May 29, 2013 2 The natural gas revolution The application of technologies for accessing unconventional

### Semester 2. Final Exam Review

Semester 2 Final Exam Review Motion and Force Vocab Motion object changes position relative to a reference point. Speed distance traveled in a period of time. Velocity speed in a direction. Acceleration

### MONITORING SCHOOL ENERGY CONSUMPTION

MONITORING SCHOOL ENERGY CONSUMPTION Goal(s): The mains goal of the energy monitoring activity are: To make the pupils and all school staff aware of school energy consumption; and To show how changes in