# Design methods. List of possible design methods. Functional decomposition. Data flow design. Functional decomposition. Data Flow Design (SA/SD)

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1 Design methods List of possible design methods Functional decomposition Data Flow Design (SA/SD) Design based on Data Structures (JSD/JSP) OO is good, isn t it Decision tables E-R Flowcharts FSM JSD JSP LCP Meta IV NoteCards OBJ OOD PDL Petri Nets SA/SD SA/WM SADT SSADM Statecharts / Faculteit Wiskunde en Informatica PAGE 0 / Faculteit Wiskunde en Informatica PAGE 1 Functional decomposition Data flow design Extremes: bottom-up and top-down Not used as such; design is not purely rational: clients do not know what they want changes influence earlier decisions people make errors projects do not start from scratch Rather, design has a yo-yo character We can only fake a rational design process Yourdon and Constantine (early 70s) nowadays version: two-step process: Structured Analysis (SA), resulting in a logical design, drawn as a set of data flow diagrams Structured Design (SD) transforming the logical design into a program structure drawn as a set of structure charts / Faculteit Wiskunde en Informatica PAGE 2 / Faculteit Wiskunde en Informatica PAGE 3

2 Design based on data structures (JSP & JSD) JSP JSP = Jackson Structured Programming (for programming-in-the-small) JSD = Jackson Structured Design (for programming- in-the-large) basic idea: good program reflects structure of its input and output program can be derived almost mechanically from a description of the input and output input and output are depicted in a structure diagram and/or in structured text/schematic logic (a kind of pseudocode) three basic compound forms: sequence, iteration, and selection) / Faculteit Wiskunde en Informatica PAGE 4 / Faculteit Wiskunde en Informatica PAGE 5 Difference between JSP and other methods Functional decomposition, data flow design: Problem structure functional structure JSP: program structure Problem structure data structure program structure JSD: Jackson Structured Design Problem with JSP: how to obtain a mapping from the problem structure to the data structure? JSD tries to fill this gap JSD has three stages: modeling stage: description of real world problem in terms of entities and actions network stage: model system as a network of communicating processes implementation stage: transform network into a sequential design SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet,

3 JSD s modeling stage OOAD methods JSD models the UoD as a set of entities For each entity, a process is created which models the life cycle of that entity This life cycle is depicted as a process structure diagram (PSD); these resemble JSP s structure diagrams PSD s are finite state diagrams; only the roles of nodes and edges has been reversed: in a PSD, the nodes denote transitions while the edges edges denote states Three major steps: 1 identify the objects 2 determine their attributes and services 3 determine the relationships between objects SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, (Part of) problem statement Candidate objects Design the software to support the operation of a public library. The system has a number of stations for customer transactions. These stations are operated by library employees. When a book is borrowed, the identification card of the client is read. Next, the station s bar code reader reads the book s code. When a book is returned, the identification card isnot needed and only the book s code needs to be read. software library system station customer transaction book library employee identification card client bar code reader book s code SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet,

4 Carefully consider candidate list Relationships eliminate implementation constructs, such as software replace or eliminate vague terms: system computer equate synonymous terms: customer and client client eliminate operation names, if possible (such as transaction ) be careful in what you really mean: can a client be a library employee? Is it book copy rather than book? eliminate individual objects (as opposed to classes). book s code attribute of book copy From the problem statement: employee operates station station has bar code reader bar code reader reads book copy bar code reader reads identification card Tacit knowledge: library owns computer library owns stations computer communicates with station library employs employee client is member of library client has identification card SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, Result: initial class diagram Usage scenario sequence diagram SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet,

5 OO as middle-out design OO design methods First set of objects becomes middle level To implement these, lower-level objects are required, often from a class library A control/workflow set of objects constitutes the top level Booch: early, new and rich set of notations Fusion: more emphasis on process RUP: full life cycle model associated with UML SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, Booch method Fusion identify classes and objects Analysis object model identify semantics of classes and objects interface model identify relationships between classes and objects Design object interaction graphs visibility graphs identify interface and implementation of classes and objects class descriptions inheritance graphs SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet,

6 RUP Classification of design methods Nine workflows, a.o. requirements, analysis and design Four phases: inception, elaboration, construction, transition Analysis and design workflow: First iterations: architecture discussed in ch 11 Next: analyze behavior: from use cases to set of design elements; produces black-box model of the solution Finally, design components: refine elements into classes, interfaces, etc. Simple model with two dimensions: Orientation dimension: Problem-oriented: understand problem and its solution Product-oriented: correct transformation from specification to implementation Product/model dimension: Conceptual: descriptive models Formal: prescriptive models SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, Classification of design methods (cnt d) Characteristics of these classes problem-oriented product-oriented I: understand the problem conceptual I ER modeling Structured analysis II Structured design II: transform to implementation III: represent properties formal III JSD VDM IV Functional decomposition JSP IV: create implementation units SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet,

7 Caveats when choosing a particular design method Familiarity with the problem domain Designer s experience Available tools Development philosophy Object-orientation: does it work? do object-oriented methods adequately capture requirements engineering? do object-oriented methods adequately capture design? do object-oriented methods adequately bridge the gap between analysis and design? are oo-methods really an improvement? SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, Complexity intra-modular measure certain aspects of the software (lines of code, # of if-statements, depth of nesting, ) use these numbers as a criterion to assess a design, or to guide the design interpretation: higher value higher complexity more effort required (= worse design) two kinds: intra-modular: inside one module inter-modular: between modules attributes of a single module two classes: measures based on size measures based on structure SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet,

8 Sized-based complexity measures Structure-based measures counting lines of code differences in verbosity differences between programming languages a:= b versus while p^ <> nil do p:= p^ Halstead s software science, essentially counting operators and operands based on control structures data structures or both example complexity measure based on data structures: average number of instructions between successive references to a variable best known measure is based on the control structure: McCabe s cyclomatic complexity SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, Object-oriented metrics OO metrics WMC: Weighted Methods per Class DIT: Depth of Inheritance Tree NOC: Number Of Children CBO: Coupling Between Object Classes RFC: Response For a Class LCOM: Lack of COhesion of a Method WMC, CBO, RFC, LCOM most useful Predict fault proneness during design Strong relationship to maintenance effort Many OO metrics correlate strongly with size SE, Design, Hans van Vliet, SE, Design, Hans van Vliet,

9 Techniques for making good design decisions Using priorities and objectives to decide among alternatives Step 1: List and describe the alternatives for the design decision. Step 2: List the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative with respect to your objectives and priorities. Step 3: Determine whether any of the alternatives prevents you from meeting one or more of the objectives. Step 4: Choose the alternative that helps you to best meet your objectives. Step 5: Adjust priorities for subsequent decision making. Software Architecture (Chapter 11) What is it, why bother? Architecture Design Viewpoints and view models Architectural styles Architecture asssessment Role of the software architect / Faculteit Wiskunde en Informatica PAGE 32 SE, Software Architecture, Hans van Vliet, The Role of the Architect Pre-architecture life cycle client, users requirements architect solutions developers stakeholders (few) requirements quality assess creates assess agreement visualises prescribes development appearance, behaviour architectural design construction, co-operation SE, Software Architecture, Hans van Vliet, SE, Software Architecture, Hans van Vliet,

10 Characteristics Adding architecture, the easy way Iteration mainly on functional requirements Few stakeholders involved stakeholders (few) requirements quality No balancing of functional and quality requirements agreement architecture detailed design development implementation SE, Software Architecture, Hans van Vliet, SE, Software Architecture, Hans van Vliet, Architecture in the life cycle Characteristics stakeholders (many) Iteration on both functional and quality requirements Many stakeholders involved requirements quality Balancing of functional and quality requirements architecture agreement development SE, Software Architecture, Hans van Vliet, SE, Software Architecture, Hans van Vliet,

11 Why Is Architecture Important? Architecture is the vehicle for stakeholder communication Architecture manifests the earliest set of design decisions Constraints on implementation Dictates organizational structure Inhibits or enable quality attributes Architecture is a transferable abstraction of a system Product lines share a common architecture Allows for template-based development Basis for training SE, Software Architecture, Hans van Vliet,

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