MIS S S t S ru r ct u ur u e r & & Pl P a l nn n i n n i g

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1 MIS Structure & Planning

2 Introduction Management information system is a system consisting of people, machines, procedures, databases and data models, as its elements. The MIS is defined as a system which provides information support for decision making in the organization. The MIS is defined as a computer based information system. The MIS defined as a system based on the database of the organization evolved for the purpose of providing information to the people in the organization.

3 Structure of MIS Organization and Management Technique of Management Function of Management 1. Behavioral Science Technique 2. Quantitative Technique 3. Décision Technique 4. Experience Rule Planning Organization Directing Staffing Controlling Man Power Resource Flows Money Material Facilities MIS

4 Structure of MIS: Structure of MIS is a difficult concept to understand because there is no standard or universally accepted framework for describing management information system. MIS structure be described by following a variety of different approaches. Physical components, Information system processing functions, Decision support, Levels of management activities, Organizational functions.

5 MIS Structure Based on Physical components: Structure of MIS may be understood by looking at the physical components of the information system in an organization. Hardware: Hardware refers the physical data processing equipment and peripheral devices. Software: software is broad term given to the instruction or program that direct the operation of the hardware. Database: the database consist of all data utilized by application software. Input and output: various physical input and output from the information system, existing in the form like printout, report etc.

6 Information system processing functions: The main processing functions of information system are described below: To Process Transactions: Information systems process transaction may be defined as an activity taking place in an organization. To Maintain Master files: Information systems create and maintain master files in the organization. A master file stores the historical data about the organizational. To Produce Reports: Reports are significant products of an information system. Many reports are produces on a regular basis, which are called scheduled reports. To Process Interactive Support Applications.

7 Decision Support: Decisions vary with respect to the structure that can be provided for making them. A highly structure decision can be pre--planned. A structured decision, because of its well defined nature can be said to be programmable. Level of management activities: The structure of an information system can be categorized in terms of level of the management activities Strategic planning deals with long-range considerations. The decisions include the choice of business directions, market strategy, product etc. Management control level includes acquisition and organization of resource, structuring of work and training of personnel. Operational control is related to short-term decision for current operations. Pricing,,inventory level etc.

8 Organizational functions: The structure of management information system can also be described in terms of the organizational functions

9 MIS may be describe as an information in the form of standard reports and displays to managers. MIS is a broad class of information system that are designed to provide information needed for effective decision making by managers, so the term MIS may be used in many organization as the title of their computer services.

10 MIS is design to provide accurate timely and relevant information needed for effecting decision making by managers. MIS is a general purpose integrated system that monitor and control the internal operation of an organization. MIS provides vital information to middle managers to take the tactical decision for the daily operations as well as for the long rang goal of the company.

11 The input to the MIS comes from T.P.S and may come from the other source also( different changes in environment). The out of MIS is in two forms 1. summary reports. 2. Special reports. A summary report accumulates data from several transaction and presents the result in compact form. For Ex. A bank manger may get a summary report listing the total money deposited and withdraw made on the previous day. A special report is a report that outline any deviator from expected results. The primary purpose of these special report is to draw the attention to any significance difference between actual performance ad expect performance.

12 MIS Processing Environment Summary Reports Transaction Data TPS MIS Special Reports

13 Major difference between TPS and MIS The primary goal of TPS is to record and process transaction that takes place in the company while the primary goal of MIS is to produce summary and special report used in tactical decision making. Output of TPS becomes the input to the MIS although TPS is not only the one source for the MIS. The TPS helps managers day to day operation, while the MIS help managers to make tactical decision over a large period of time such as year or six month.

14 Fundamental Components of MIS Database management system (DBMS). A DBMS serves as a data bank for the MIS. It stores large quantities of data that are relevant to the class of problems for which the MIS has been designed and provides logical data structures with which the users interact. A DBMS separates the users from the physical aspects of the database structure and processing. It should also be capable of informing the user of the types of data that are available and how to gain access to them.

15 Examples of Database Applications Purchases from the supermarket Purchases using your credit card Booking a holiday at the travel agents Using the local library Taking out insurance Renting a car Using the Internet Studying at university

16 File-Based Systems Collection of application programs that perform services for the end users (e.g. reports). Each program defines and manages its own data.

17 File-Based Processing

18 Limitations of File-Based Approach Separation and isolation of data Each program maintains its own set of data. Users of one program may be unaware of potentially useful data held by other programs. Duplication of data Same data is held by different programs. Wasted space and potentially different values and/or different formats for the same item.

19 Limitations of File-Based Approach Data dependence File structure is defined in the program code. Incompatible file formats Programs are written in different languages, and so cannot easily access each other s files. Fixed Queries/Proliferation of application programs Programs are written to satisfy particular functions. Any new requirement needs a new program.

20 Database Approach Arose because: Definition of data was embedded in application programs, rather than being stored separately and independently. No control over access and manipulation of data beyond that imposed by application programs. Result: the database and Database Management System (DBMS).

21 Database Shared collection of logically related data (and a description of this data), designed to meet the information needs of an organization. System catalog (metadata) provides description of data to enable program data independence. Logically related data comprises entities, attributes, and relationships of an organization s information.

22 Database Management System (DBMS) A software system that enables users to define, create, maintain, and control access to the database. Database application program: a computer program that interacts with database by issuing an appropriate request (SQL statement) to the DBMS.

23 Database Management System (DBMS)

24 Roles in the Database Environment Data Administrator (DA) Is responsible for the management of the data resource including database planning, development and maintenance of standards, policies and procedures, and conceptual logical database design. Database Administrator (DBA) Is responsible for the physical realization of the database, including physical database design and implementation, security and integrity control, maintenance of the operational system, and ensuring satisfactory performance of the applications for users.

25 Database Designers (Logical and Physical) Is concerned with identifying the data (that is, the entities and attributes), the relationships between the data, and the constraints on the data that is to be stored in the database. Application Programmers Typically, the application developers work from a specification produced by systems analysts. Each program contains statements that request the DBMS to perform some operation on the database. This includes retrieving data, inserting, updating, and deleting data. End Users (naive and sophisticated) The end-users are the clients for the database, which has been designed and implemented, and is being maintained to serve their information needs

26 MIS Planning key steps in the MIS planning. The problem statement :-- The problem statement must be made clear to those who will design and implement the MIS. The problem statement will first determine the user need in specific terms. The statement of the problem may be give to a computer specialist, for analysis (Expert Analysis).

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