RATES OF CONCEPTION BY ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OF. 1 Miss. Rohini Paramsothy Faculty of Agriculture University of Jaffna

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1 RATES OF CONCEPTION BY ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OF DAIRY COWS IN JAFFNA DISTRICT 1 Miss. Rohini Paramsothy Faculty of Agriculture University of Jaffna

2 INTRODUCTION Conception rates of dairy cows are influenced by a variety of factors. Management and environmental factors account for 96% of the variation in conception rates of cows Significant differences in conception rates of dairy cows is due to: Herd differences in nutrition Metabolic disorders Reproductive health Heat detection Climate 2

3 The remaining 4% of variation in conception rates of dairy cows is due to genetic factors 3% for the cow 1% for the service bull These small values indicate that improvement in conception rates due to genetic selection will occur at a relatively slow rate Conception rate is the percentage of cows that have become pregnant through artificial insemination 3

4 Optimum conception rates will only be achieved: Farmers must detect the oestrus periods of their cows accurately Ensure that insemination is done at the correct time Detect any cows that later return to oestrus Quality of semen used is good AI technicians have adequate training and skills 4

5 In Jaffna district, pregnancy diagnosis was used to detect whether the animal is pregnant or non pregnant. Objective : To study the factors affecting conception rate of dairy cows by AI in Kopay and Karaveddy veterinary ranges of the Jaffna district. 5

6 MATERIALS AND METHOD The present study was carried out in the Kopay and Karaveddy veterinary surgeon s ranges of the Jaffna district Available breeds of cattle o Jerseycrosses Thapakar o Sahiwal Local o Friesian Ayrsire o Redsindhi Jersey 6

7 Kopay veterinary division The range consists of one Divisional secretary division i.e; Vali East (Kopay) The office is situated in Point Pedro Road, Kopay North There are about 1808 households in the region predominantly dependent on farming The cattle population in the division is 5945 Most of the farmers rearing Jersey crosses breeds of cattle Jersey, sindhi, Ayrsire,local and Friesian breeds of cattle rearing together with these breeds. 7

8 Karaveddy veterinary division The range consists of one Divisional secretary division i.e.; Vadamaradchi (Karaveddy) The office is situated in Point Pedro Road, Karanavai North, Navalar madam There are about 1550 house holds in the region predominantly dependent on farming. The cattle population in the division is 5350 Most of the farmers rearing local breeds of cattle. Jersey, Sindhi, Thapakar, Jersey crosses and Friesian breeds 8 of cattle rearing together with these breeds.

9 Sampling procedure 10 % of the total AI adopting farmers were selected from Kopay and Karaveddy veterinary ranges A total number of 130 farmers were selected for the study using table of random numbers. The number of farmers selected from each veterinary division was 100 and 30, respectively. 9

10 Data collection A structured questionnaire was used to collect information through face to face interview from the selected farmers Personnel interview was conducted with each farmers to collect information. Questions were answered by head of the house hold or family member, whose ever was mainly responsible for the animals. 10

11 Stastical analyses After completion of the field study, data from the entire interview questionnaries were coded All data were entered in a computer application that was developed in micro soft excel The variety of stastical techniques like SAS (9.1) procedure and product movement correlation analysis were used to analyse the data. 11

12 Determination of conception rate of dairy cows in Kopay and Karaveddy veterinary ranges of Jaffna district Pregnancy diagnosis was used to detect whether the animal is pregnant or non pregnant. Conception determined through rectal palpation 30 to 60 days following insemination. The optimum time for pregnancy diagnosis is days after service 12

13 But in these veterinary surgeon s range, they were examined the pregnancy diagnosis about three months after insemination This delaying diagnosis beyond 60 days cause economic loss to the farmer Before this period the embryo is highly susceptible to damage by external pressure The data was collected from each veterinary surgeon s office. 13

14 Examination of pregnancy in cattle 14

15 Results and discussion CONCEPTION RATE TO FIRST AI SERVICE OF DAIRY COWS IN KOPAY VETERINARY RANGE IN YEAR 2011 Months AI PD P NP CR January February March April May June July August September October November December

16 AI PD Conception rate 0 January February March April May June Artificial insemination, Pregnancy diagnosis and Conception rate to first AI service of dairy cows in year 2011 in Kopay veterinary division July August September October November December 16

17 CONCEPTION RATE TO FIRST AI SERVICE OF DAIRY COWS IN KARAVEDDY VETERINARY OFFICE IN YEAR 2011 Months AI PD P NP CR (%) January February March April May June July August September October November December

18 AI PD CR(%) Artificial insemination, Pregnancy diagnosis and Conception rate to first AI service of dairy cows in year 2011 in Karaveddy veterinary division 18

19 Pearson product moment correlation (P value) between conception rate and independent variables Variables Kopay Karaveddy Overall Management 0.11(0.46) 0.981(0.06) 0.278(0.410) system Reproductive 0.87(0.17) 0.5(0.33) 0.79(0.21) disorders Number of insemination /conception (0.010) (0.007) (0.009) 19

20 Factors affecting the conception rate by AI of dairy cows SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT FOR CATTLE BY VETERINARY DIVISION (%) System of management Kopay Karaveddy Total Extensive 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) Intensive 89(89) 40(12) 77.69(101) Semi intensive 11(11) 60(18) 22.30(29) 20

21 Calving and post calving reproductive disorders by veterinary division (%) Reproductive disorders Kopay Karaveddy Total None (92)92 90(27) 91.54(119) Retained placenta 1(1) 3.33(1) 1.54(2) Difficult calving 1(1) 0(0) 0.77(1) Repeat breeding 6(6) 6.67(2) 6.15(8) Abortion 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) Uterine infection 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) Anoestus 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) Cystic ovarian disease 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) Embryonic motality 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) 21

22 Number of insemination per conception by veterinary division (%) Number of insemination/conception Kopay Karaveddy Total Once 50(50) 46.67(14) 49.23(64) Twice 32(32) 33.33(10) 32.31(42) Thrice 12(12) 13.34(4) 12.31(16) More than thrice 6(6) 6.66(2) 6.15(8) 22

23 60 Conception rate in Kopay vet.division 50 Conception rate in 40 Karaveddy vet.division Overall conception rate in 30 the study area Once Twice Thrice More than thrice Conception rates of cows decrease with order of insemination 23

24 CONCLUSION Management system and reproductive disorders were not show any significant effect on conception rate in both veterinary ranges Conception rate was significantly correlated with number of insemination/conception (p<0.05). Target conception rates by AI of dairy cows were achieved by these veterinary ranges 24

25 Hence, farmers from Kopay and Karaveddy veterinary divisions have Sufficient knowledge on heat detection AI technicians have adequate training The quality of semen that has been used for the insemination is in satisfactory level. 25

26 26

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