THE STORY OF THE WESTLAND CAULDRONS IN EUROPE

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1 THE STORY OF THE WESTLAND CAULDRONS IN EUROPE TRACE ELEMENT CRITERIA FOR THEIR ORIGIN Haldis Johanne Bollingberg Ulla Lund Hansen ABSTRACT When examining the importance of the distribution of trace elements in metal objects, for example that a Scandinavian analytical project on 500 metal artefacts from the Roman Iron Age has shown that the relationship between selected trace elements are characteristic of the different groups of artefacts - they might even be typical of different Eggers types within the same group. For instance, a ladle/strainer set from the Late Roman Iron Age (LRI), E 161, may have a significantly higher lead/antimony ratio than the older types, E 162. The verification of this principle has, firstly, shown that the scrap metal content of an artefact alloy affects the interpretation of chemical analyses much less than has hitherto been supposed. Secondly, it has shown that elemental alloy composition for the artefacts are more closely related to the raw materials. For example, the ores used have a characteristic content that is a consequence of their geochemistry. While there are always small amounts of silver, antimony and bismuth in galena, the amounts are a function of the location and geological formation of the ore. These facts are well recognized in lead isotope research where the ratio between the lead isotopes is used. The results from the interdisciplinary analytical projects mentioned above are the basis for a continuing examination of relevant artefacts from Nordic and European collections. Initially it was not expected that permission to collect foreign collections would be granted but, in the event, personal contact and a careful sampling protocol opened the doors to international cooperation. Comparative projects are currently proceeding with the Vatican Museum, the Musée Royaux d Art et d Histoire, Brus- sels and Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz and Goethe University, Frankfurt a. Main among others. Glass and metal samples from the excavation of Corway Kloster have been analysed by OES in cooperation with German Universities, with financial support from Volkswagenstiftung over many years. Finally, it is important that all kind of treatment of the artefacts during the study is described in detail and following the artefacts for later scientific work. Elemental analyses are a fingerprint of the alloy content. It has been possible to distinguish the various cauldron alloys from the Roman and the Migration Period. The composition of the alloy characterizes the Westland cauldron compared to other artefacts from the Roman period. The similarity between the alloy in the Scandinavian and some French and Belgian Westland cauldrons is documented, which could point to a common provenance. The alloy composition changes according to form and age. The trace element pattern and the lead isotope relations point to an origin in the Maas valley. The use of scrap metal in the alloy seems avoided for the body of the cauldrons - probably because of the complicated production of the thin walls and bottoms of the cauldrons. In conclusion, one can say that detailed studies of the alloys the ancient smiths have used are providing new knowledge of the expertise and cultural achievements of former ages. One can also assert that the chemical and metallurgical constitution of archaeological treasures is as important as their stylistic description in revealing important aspects of our cultural history.

2 132 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 1. Types of Westland cauldrons used in the article and their possible typological development (Hauken 2005, 28 Fig. 25). HISTORY In our childhood in the forties and fifties, the huge shiny copper cauldrons were standing in the sun at the summer farm in the Norwegian mountains. They were used for cheese production. In this area the cattle and sheep were sent up to an altitude of above 800 m as soon as the snow had melted and given way to the early green grass. A female member of the family would live with them all summer long, working hard milking the cows, separating the cream from the milk, churning cream to butter and making cheese. The copper cauldrons were used in the cheese production and thoroughly scrubbed after use with the finest sand from the nearby lake. Similar cauldrons were found in Scandinavian peat and graves from the late Roman Iron Age (150/ AD) and the Migration Period ( /530 AD). DEFINITION The early Westland cauldrons are defined generally thus: cauldrons with an outward turned rim, a marked corner point and a rounded base. They have riveted iron lugs, rather than the triangular ears found on the true Westland cauldrons. They may have an iron band on or under the rim. They may also have an iron band with rings for sus- pension. This class is designated 1 and divided into the types 1A-1D (Hauken 2005, 25). The true Westland cauldrons, class 2, are characterized by their triangular ears integrated into the outward turned rim. The class include Norling-Christensen s Filzen- and Kvissleby types, even if these are not found in Norway (Hauken 2005, 26) (Fig. 1). In addition to these types, there are two more types found in Continental Europe outside Scandinavia. One is the type E 12, belonging to class 1, with riveted iron lugs, and one belonging to class 2. The only difference between these two is the ears; the profile seems to be exactly the same, characterized by a straight neck, a marked corner point and a shoulder that is convex convergent. These types could be labelled 1E and 2E respectively (Hauken 2005, 27). The form is probably a result of the procedure where optimal strength is combined with least material consumption. One can only admire the perfection with which the smith in the older days shaped these delicate cauldrons with the extremely thin walls and bottoms (Fig. 2a from Svebestad, Norway and Fig. 2b from Västland, Sweden) (Otto & Witter 1952).

3 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 133 Fig. 2a & 2b. Type 1 (Svebestad, Norway, h: 36cm) & Type 2 (Västland, Sweden, h: 17cm) Two types of Westland cauldrons (Hauken 2005). INTRODUCTION Most of the cauldrons are smaller than those mentioned above except for the particularly large one from Bjarkøy, northern Norway, which had a maximum volume of 245 litres (Straume & Bollingberg 1995). Similarly sized cauldrons are present in many German collections. At Speyer, for instance, Dr. J. Engell kindly showed me some large Westland cauldrons from private collections. The Neupotz find is even more spectacular. Here four huge cauldrons filled with perfectly preserved silver, copper and bronze artefacts and smaller cauldrons dated to before 277 AD were found in the gravel of an old Rhine bed (Künzl 1993) and are now displayed in the museum at Rheinzabern. The form and alloy composition of these Westland cauldrons make it interesting to investigate their relation to the Scandinavian cauldrons. Previous publications of the elemental composition of some Scandinavian Westland cauldrons in this study have documented how they differ in their major and trace elemental composition from other artefacts from the Roman import in Scandinavia. The major elements are presented for all Scandinavian Westland cauldrons analysed in this project (Fig. 3a) and for a few other pieces of kitchenware from the Roman import (Fig. 3b, Bollingberg 1995b). The ternary diagram below shows three trace elements (Au, Bi and Ni) analysed in two types of pure copper cauldrons from the LRI (Fig. 7, Bollingberg 1995). This shows different element patterns for these artefact types although they are both made in a pure copper alloy and some even from the same period. The contents of the trace element gold are demonstrated in histograms of some kitchenware from the same import showing the higher gold content especially in the Westland cauldrons (Fig. 4), (Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1993a; Lund Hansen 1995; Straume & Bollingberg 1995). The background for the treatment of the alloys analysed in the present study is the age and definition of the different forms of the Norwegian Westland cauldrons given by Hauken (Hauken 2005). She separated the cauldrons into two main groups depending on the suspension of the cauldrons. The older cauldron has either an iron ring beneath the rim formed with two lugs or only two small triangular ears riveted to the cauldron. This is defined as type 1 (Fig. 2a). Later on, two more solid triangular ears were integrated as part of the rim. This is defined as type 2 and often called the original Westland cauldron in most of Europe (Fig. 2b). (The detailed form description A, B, C and D of the cauldrons introduced by Hauken is in this manuscript marked with (DH) not to be mixed with age-capitals). Many cauldrons analysed for comparison in this project are from outside Scandinavia, for instance the Pompeian vessels and other early cauldron forms. Many of the oldest types never arrived in Scandinavia, but were analysed in this project to observe possible differences in the copper-based alloys used at different places from time to time (Schalles 1993). The Westland cauldrons are described in the literature as copper, bronze or brass artefacts by means of a visual look. Of 54 Scandinavian cauldrons analysed in this project, only one of them was made of brass (Fig. 5b). This is in good agreement with other European Westland cauldrons from the same period analysed in this study. Type 1 is often named the forerunner of the original Westland cauldron type 2 (Eggers 1951).

4 134 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 3a. Ternary diagram of copper (Cu), tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) contents in relative weight percent (wt. % rel.). (Cu corner: 70% enlarged, inset: 100%). Note the concentration of alloys used show that the smiths knew exactly what alloy they wanted. Fig. 3b. Ternary diagram (70%) of copper (Cu), tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) from different Roman kitchenware (Eastland cauldron, ladle/strainer pair and saucepan). The diagram illustrate the exact alloys that were wanted for the different types of kitchenware.

5 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 135 Archaeological observations of the Scandinavian finds are carefully described elsewhere and are the background for the chemical research in this study (Bjørn 1929; Behn 1936; Eggers 1951; Norling-Christensen 1953; Ekholm 1956; Lund Hansen 1987; Straume 1987; Künzl 1993; Hauken 2005). When this project started in 1990, many analytical data from archaeological material were available, but important trace elements were missing since no one had been interested in the geological pattern of the trace elements. The quantitative elemental composition of the artefacts from the Neupotz find were published in 1993 and gave a valuable comparison to the Scandinavian import in the Late Roman Iron Age (Riederer 1980; Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1993a; Hauken 2005). The most important systematic element studies by optical emission spectrography (OES) were made on 22,000 artefacts from the Bronze Age by Junghans et al. (1974) and from the Late Roman Iron Age by den Boesterd & Hoekstra, The G.M. Kam Museum, Nijmegen, Holland (1966). Fig. 4. Histograms of the gold (Au) content in the alloy of different kitchenware from the Roman import into Denmark, Sweden and Norway (Ladle/strainer pair,(bottom), basin, Westland cauldron, Gewellte eimer, Hemmoor bucket, saucepan, Eastland bucket and bar (top) (Bollingberg et al. 1993a, 40 Fig.13; 1993b; Bollingberg 1995a; Straume & Bollingberg 1995). Diagram scale, Y axes: n: number of artefacts analysed, x axes: gold content (ppm). Note the gold content in Westland cauldrons and in some basins (Perlrandbecken). DISTRIBUTION AND DATING Westland cauldrons without ears (Eggers type 8 and 11) and Westland cauldrons with triangular ears (Eggers type 24-26, 30, 37) are after Hauken 1984 named type 1 A-D and type 2 A-D. Not all types are distributed to Scandinavia (Fig. 1). Westland cauldrons are not so often found in Scandinavia and the whole Germania Libera in the Late Roman Iron Age they are more common on Roman territory (Lund Hansen 1993, 469). In Germania Libera and in the Roman Empire one often finds Westland cauldrons in Late Antique finds from 4 th century AD or later. In Scandinavia, one meets the earliest dated Westland cauldrons at the end of Late Roman Iron Age phase C1b, which means the middle of the 3 rd century AD. In the later part of the Late Roman Iron Age (phase C2 and C3) and in Early Germanic Iron Age, the Westland cauldrons are getting numerous especially in Norway and Sweden (Lund Hansen 1987, 84 ff.; 1993, 469). Hauken has in 2005 published the latest overview of the numbers of Westland cauldrons (Fig. 6, Fig. 7a + Fig. 7b). After 2005 Westland cauldrons have been excavated in whole Europe, but the precise total is not known. The numbers given in the text below is from the registration

6 136 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 5a. Ternary diagram showing major element contents of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and tin (Sn) in 54 Danish, Swedish and Norwegian Westland cauldrons (wt. % rel., see also Fig. 3a). Fig. 5b. Lead (Pb), zinc, (Zn) and tin (Sn) contents (wt. % rel.) in Westland cauldrons from Denmark, Sweden and Norway (east and north Norway. Cauldrons from west Norway, see Fig. 5a). The alloys in the cauldrons from Denmark, Sweden and Norway are showing a remarkable difference from Fig. 5a.

7 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 137 Fig. 6. The names of topographical units in Scandinavia and Southern Schleswig (Lund Hansen 1987, 291 Karte 1).

8 138 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 7a Fig. 7a-7b. Norway the geographical counties and the Norwegian finds of Westland cauldrons (in alphabetical order with catalogue number after Hauken 2005 (Hauken 2005, 97 f.). See next page.

9 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 139 Fig. 7a. See previous page.

10 140 Acta Archaeologica by Hauken In Scandinavia, the greatest amount of Westland cauldrons are found in Norway and especially in the western part of the country (112 cauldrons) (Hauken 2005, 11, 71 ff. Appendix I) (Fig. 8). Outside Norway, Westland cauldrons are found in Sweden (15 cauldrons) and Denmark (4 cauldrons) though in smaller numbers than in Norway (Hauken 2005, 11, 92 ff. Appendix III) (Fig. 8). Westland cauldrons are also known from the Continent (Germany (35 cauldrons), The Netherlands (11 cauldrons), Belgium (3 cauldrons), France (7 cauldrons), Switzerland (2 cauldrons), Austria (1 cauldron), England and Wales (10 cauldrons)) (Hauken 2005, 11 ff., 14, Fig. 5, 92 ff. Appendix III) (Fig. 9). Italy is not mapped by Hauken. In the article are analysed 47 cauldrons from Norway, 5 from Sweden, 4 from Denmark, 34 from Germany, 2 from Belgium, 10 from France and 5 from Italy. Methodology Quantitave multielement analyses of drillings from the artefacts have been made by Optical Emission Spectrography (OES) using DC arc or laser exitation (Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1993a; Bollingberg & Straume 2003). This is mainly a trace element method, but has sufficient accuracy (10% rel.) to confirm the major elements (tin, zinc and lead) of the alloys of bronze and brass in the one analysis. Cu is determined by subtraction. The samples were taken by drilling (0.8 mm diam., Günther type A 1212) from the rim of the artefact at two or three sites on the rear side and carefully inspected for impurities from dust, corrosion or conservation treatments with a stereo microscope. The rim is specially worked and this might give a small systematic difference in the element content compared with the wall (Table 1, C 3302). Polished sections from small wall fragments were studied by reflected light microscopy. Single phases were analysed by electron microprobe to evaluate the homogeneity, corrosion and structure of the alloy. Lead in the tin brass has evolved as lamellae during cooling of the melt and these are uniformly distributed in the alloy, which itself is homogeneous. In consequence the sampling was sufficiently representative for the lead determination although only 4.5 mg sample were used (Bollingberg & Straume 2003). Some repair patches are also shown. Variation in the trace element content is dependent on the major element composition in accordance with geochemical laws and this could be helpful in identifying the ore minerals used. This could also indicate the raw material and the workshops used for the alloy production. The orthogonal diagrams demonstrate the correlation between the elements involved, mostly a major element and a related trace element. The concentrations of the elements (wt. %) are trace elements. The concentrations of the elements (wt. %) are plotted along the abscissa and the ordinate (x- and y- axes). The spider diagram can be regarded as a fingerprint for the artefact and is very useful in identifying artefacts derived from similar alloys. The content of the elements are listed along horizontal axes with the four possible major elements, copper (Cu), tin (Sn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in the first columns, followed by the trace elements. Iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and cobalt (Co) are often associated with zinc and arsenic. Antimon (Sb) and bismuth (Bi) are often associated with lead and tin. The noble metals silver (Ag) and gold (Au) are in the same group of the Periodic Table as copper and are placed at the end of the abscissa. The ordinate shows the concentration (%) of the elements in logarithmic scale. Silver, antimony and bismuth are trace elements in galena (PbS) in the same way as the gold content might be characteristic of the copper source. It is useful to remember that the Romans, for example, used cupellation to remove both gold and silver from the ore and thus produced copperbased alloys with extremely low silver and gold contents (Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1995b). Compared with two similar Westland cauldrons and one Perlrandbecken from Samson cemetery (234 & lab. No ) (black squares) and 2329 (white triangles), Musée d Archeologie Namur (Bollingberg 2005, 502, Fig ), the trace element pattern suggests that these alloys might have been produced at the same place. The comparison between Norwegian and Belgian Perlrandbecken points to a common production where different workshops are involved. The connection with the Maas Valley area seems possible because the zinc ore together with copper and to some extent tin are available. The sampling After a careful demonstration of the sampling method to the archaeologists of the museums, the sampling could start. The sampling drill has a diameter of 0.7 mm or 1.0 mm and the material used for the drill is carefully selected

11 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 141 Fig. 8. The distribution of Westland cauldrons in Norway. The numbers refer to the catalogue in Hauken 2005, 74 ff. Appendix II (Hauken 2005, 10, Fig. 2).

12 142 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 9. The Distribution of Westland cauldrons in Europe (outside Norway). The numbers refer to the find list in Hauken 2005, 92 ff. Appendix III (Hauken 2005, 14, Fig. 5). to prevent contamination of the sample. The cauldron alloy is not homogeneous. Lead separates out and solidifies as worm-like bodies (exsolutions) when the melt cools down below 300 o C. The exsolutions are extremely small (1-20 micrometre, μm) and are distributed quite regularly as shown in the cross section of the wall (Fig. 10, left and Fig. 11b). Therefore, when several lead analyses from the same artefact are compared, they have a low standard deviation (STD). Corrosion and coating can change the chemistry of the surface layer if precautions are not taken, especially in micro- and surface analyses. Therefore, the sampling area of the artefact is lightly polished (ca. 2 x 2 mm 2 ). To avoid a sampling effect, 2-5 samples are taken at the rim, dependent on the size of the artefact. No sample is analysed without a purity check on the drillings by a stereo-microscope before the analysis. With this in mind, OES is very convenient as one obtains important trace elements and major elements in a single analysis from the cauldron of 4.5 mg drillings or even less. Analytical problems for lead contents above 15% lead by OES are well known, but are less important than those resulting from inhomogeneity in the samples. DC arc and laser excitation were used. The element concentrations are determined by microphotometry. In our study, the elements involved are tin (Sn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), silver (Ag) and gold (Au). The relative analytical uncertainty is + 5/-10 per cent relative (% rel.) dependent on the element; the high copper content is calculated by subtraction (Bollingberg 1993). An international bronze reference alloy from the Metals Technology Centre, Eng-

13 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 143 Fig. 10. Wall fragment, hammered (left) and recrystallized (cross section, X 500. Inv. No. B 1862; photo P. Northover, Oxford Univ.). A B C Fig. 11a. A recrystallized bottom fragment, cross section (Westland cauldron, Inv. No. B 3358). Fig. 11b. Droplets and elongated lead inclusions in a bronze fragment (Westland cauldron, cross section of the wall, scale: 100 micron). Fig. 11c. Wall fragment of an Eastland bucket (cross section, recrystallized copper alloy (x 500), demonstrating the lack of lead in this alloy compared to the Westland cauldron (Fig. 10).

14 144 Acta Archaeologica 3358, Historical Museum, Bergen Univ.) gives an example of a common micro-structure of the equiaxial recrystallized alpha grains with glowing twins. The pinola marks and the horizontal stripes demonstrate that a cauldron has been driven up to the actual form and then hammered. The thickness of the wall was mm and some rims could be 5 mm thick. Thirty wall fragments from the cauldrons (3 x 4 mm 2, cross section and horizontal) were studied by reflected light microscopy. Single phases have been analysed qualitatively by laser OES and electron microprobe to evaluate the homogeneity, impurities, corrosion and structure of the alloy. For meaningful trace element analyses, it is of great importance to obtain representative samples and microscopy is helpful in assessing the homogeneity. The Pb content (1-5%) in tin bronze has exsolved as lamellae and droplets (1-20 μm) during cooling of the melt from 300 C, but the Pb in these samples was finely divided and mostly uniformly distributed as seen above (Fig. 11b). In consequence the sampling was sufficiently representative in spite of the fact that only 4.5 mg drillings were used. Various compositions of tin/copper phases are examined. Lead occurs as pure metal and very seldom as sulphide. In some samples copper sulphide (Cu 2 S) is identified. Malachite and cuprite are typical corrosion products and especially rims and cracks show the extent of the corrosion. Seven fragments were kindly studied by V. Buchwald, Copenhagen, and three of these Westland cauldrons are published (Buchwald 2005). Wall fragments about 3 x 5 mm 2 were bent in two parts and the quality (toughness, brittleness, stiffness etc.) of the alloy was noted. Polished sections of the two pieces were prepared (horizontal and vertical). Vickers hardness under 100 g weight was determined on the vertical part and the structure was studied on an etched surface. Buchwald also recognised the repeated forming by hammering and heating until the final form and strength of the cauldron occurred. The few copper sulphide inclusions (Cu 2 S) are deformed like the elongated lead exsolutions described above. Buchwald concluded that the artefacts had been formed by warm and cold forging and frequently reheated. By this process, the wall thickness becomes extremely thin. The alloy is re-crystallized many times and after the last hammering and heating it achieved the final grain size as seen in the cross sections. The grains are now uniaxial with crystal twins and the earlier deforland, is analysed and published with the results as reference for new analyses and methods later on (BNF C ). A strict definition of the analysed part of the artefact is important. The element composition at opening (mouth), wall or bottom might be slightly different and only spoons from un-corroded metal were sampled and analysed. The background analyses Many different modern analytical methods were used in this study. Very small wall fragments were polished and studied by reflection microscopy (HJB) where the structure and recrystallization were identified as well as the elongated exsolutions of lead, demonstrating the hammering (Fig. 10, right and left picture, respectively and Fig. 11b). Some fragments were analysed by the electron microprobe (SMS, Dept. of Geography and Geology, Copenhagen) as a supplement to some classical major element analyses and to control the concentration of sulphur which cannot be determined by OES. The different inclusions (exsolutions) found could be tin/copper phases or lead and copper sulphide. This was also found in fragments analysed semi quantitatively by laser emission spectroscopy with the laser as excitation unit for the OES. The OES-DC arc was used for the quantitative multi-element analyses (Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen by H.J. Bollingberg, Table 1). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used for some supplementary trace element analyses (The Material Research Institute, University of Oxford, Dr. P. Northover). Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used to verify the absolute values of the copper content and to compare with other in house analyses at the start of this project (Dr. J. Riederer, Rathgens Forschungslabor, Berlin). The laboratory practise is described in detail elsewhere (Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1993a). The laboratory has been involved in testing reference materials through 50 years e.g. Northover & Rychner (1998). METALLURGY The alloy has been worked by hammering and reheated many times until the one-piece cauldron had reached its form and strength (Fig. 10, cross section of the wall (B 1862, Northover, Oxford Univ.). A back scatter photo of a bottom fragment of a Westland cauldron (Fig. 11a: B

15 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 145 mation of the alloy is hardly seen any longer (Buchwald 2005, 60). The formation by hammering has increased the hardness. The metallographic studies show that none of the artefacts were cast in a finished form. They are heavily cold worked. Buchwald exempts the small fragments from these generalizations. The solid structure, the elongated lead inclusions, and the hardness of the alloy demonstrate that the cauldrons have been worked after the casting. The colour print (Fig. 11c, B 1861 (cross section)) shows the pure copper alloy in the wall of an Eastland (Østland) bucket analysed during the present study. Especially the lack of lead in the alloy marks the difference between the Westland and Eastland bucket (Fig. 11c, Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1993b). The quality of the bronze cauldron is normally better than the copper ones although the thickness of the bronze wall can also be quite thin (Straume & Bollingberg 1995). The Norwegian and Swedish finds showed that the production of the cauldrons became more professional with time (Hauken 2005). FROM ORE TO ALLOY In Scandinavia no workshops or signs of copper mining (Røros, Norway or Falun, Sweden) from this period are known. It is expected that the artefacts are part of the Roman import into Scandinavia (Bjørn 1929; Lund Hansen 1987; Hauken 2005). Earlier in this study analyses of a few tin and copper ingots, brass bars and calamine ore minerals were published (Bollingberg 1995a, 311 ff.; 1995b, 625 ff.; 2002, 79 ff.). The Roman mining in Europe has been described by many authors but few elemental analyses are available (Davies 1935; Otto & Witter 1952; Forbes 1971; Tylecote 1976; Shepherd 1980; Beagrie 1985; Penhallurick 1986). The copper alloys are made from ore minerals. In early prehistoric time, secondary minerals like carbonates, sulphates, silicates, oxides and native elements (gold and silver) often with bright oxidation colours were mostly used. These ores were easier to work than primary sulphide ores from underground (Tylecote 1974; Bollingberg 1995b; 2002). The Romans exploited a lot of mines for their great bronze production, including the one in Capua. Pliny mentioned that copper ore from Spain, Cyprus and different places in Italy was used. The latter is verified in a recent study from Pompeii (Wagner 2000). The trace elements in a copper cake (Inv. no. RMX ) from RömerMuseum Xanten and six native copper samples from different places in the world are published in this study. The silver contents vary from ppm Ag and traces of gold lie above the detection limit (d. l.) at 2 ppm. The large copper cake (RMX) has a characteristic 1% lead (Pb) content, 0.1% antimony (Sb), 0.07% silver (Ag) and traces of gold in 98% Cu. These contents could very well be a part of the original copper ore and do not necessarily prove that scrap metal had been added. Anyhow this high content of minor elements in the copper ingot would be traced in the alloys of the artefacts produced (Bollingberg 1995b). Two droplets of highly pure copper from the Roman Apliki mine, Cyprus (kindly handed over to H.B. by Professor F. Vokes, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway) were analysed in this project. The trace element pattern in the analysed ore minerals is distinctly low and might be neglected in the production of the alloys. This means that the Cyprus copper from the Apliki mine is very pure and would give low trace element contents to the alloy which would not necessarily point to extraction by cupellation in this case. Recently Professor Dr. H. Urban and his students made an interesting chemical research on the Marsberg copper and synthetic copper ore to look for relations to the finds in the Corvey Kloster, Höxter, Germany (Zientek et al. 1994). The tin ore, cassiterite (tin oxide, SnO 2 ), is the other main component of the bronze together with copper. This ore arrived from Cornwall, Spain/Portugal and Erzgebirge. When these black crystals are heated (reduced), the tin metal appears and mixes completely with copper when melted together in the alloy called bronze (< 15% Sn). Tin minerals together with nine tin ingots from Truro County Museum, Cornwall were analysed and partly published (Bollingberg 1995a, 311). The tin ingots are distinctly pure and contain between % Pb, 0.002%-0.023% Sb, % Bi, % Ag and % Fe. This tin ore, therefore, gives little contribution to the element pattern in the bronze alloys studied. One undated tin ingot contains 24% lead and 9% antimony and is unique compared to finds found

16 146 Acta Archaeologica ore minerals from Aachen (see photo Fig. 12), Harz and Rammelsberg were kindly put at our disposal by Professor Dr. H. Urban, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main. The zinc carbonates and silicates (hemimorphite, willemite and smithsonite) were identified by X-ray diffraction (Fig. 12, Dr. E. Leonardsen, Geological Institute, Univ. Copenhagen). The trace element contents were 0.03% Ni and 0.09% Mn; iron is a major element (2-4% Fe). The cobalt content was below detection limit (dl. < %). The find of 55 brass bars from Ingelsheim near Mainz, analysed by OES in this study, show that cobalt, manganese and partially iron and nickel, which are geochemically associated with the zinc ore, are higher in the brass bars compared to bronzes. It is known that some of these trace elements could be partly removed from the smelt by the slag, but still the remaining contents are giving a fingerprint for the zinc ore used (Tylecote 1976; Bollingberg 2002). The trace element content in the bars pointed at a use other than cauldron production. The zinc ore with a high cobalt and nickel content could have been used for some of the German Perlrandbecken but probably mostly for Roman coin production. The brass bars from Engelsheim did not show any connection to the trace element pattern of the alloy from the Perlrandbecken (Bollingberg 2002). Lead is a characteristic element in the Westland cauldrons in contrast to other - especially older - bronze cauldrons from the Roman period. It was certainly convenient in the melting process to lower the melting point and make the bronze easier to form. The lead ore, galena (PbS) was commonly used and is found all over Europe. The lead mine at Laurion, Greece, was used back in antiquity (Pliny 79 AD). The high silver content, normally associated with the lead ore, was extracted by means of cupellation by the Romans as mentioned above. In this research, the mines exploited in western Germany and Belgium are particularly relevant. The Swedish and Norwegian ore bodies are also in focus since the Westland cauldrons are common in grave finds from Northern Europe and Scandinavia. The large Swedish and Norwegian copper ore bodies were famous quite early (Falun, Sweden and Røros, Norway (comments, see Bollingberg & Sundblad 2010)). Traces after mining can be widely seen in these areas in Belgium. The mining activity was demonstrated in an interesting exhibition at the Museum House of Metallurin the Thames of stamped tin/lead ingots (pewter) analysed (Hughes 1980). The higher trace element level published by Hughes is obviously related to the higher lead content in the pewter and the Pb/Ag ratio shows a positive correlation as also found in the alloys analysed in this study. This positive correlation also shows that the silver content was not extracted from the lead ore at this point. (Pliny, Nat. Hist. XXXIV. 139; Agricola, G. (1958)). The zinc minerals are a main ore component used in the copper-based brass production from this period (brass) (Pollard & Heron 2008, 198 ff.). Pure zinc element as a metal does not occur in nature. Its compounds are commonly distributed as calamine, a secondary mineral, which is a mixture of zinc silicate and carbonate (Fig. 12, X- ray diffraction diagram). Another important ore mineral is sphalerite (ZnS), often occurring together with copper and lead ores. Pure zinc element was first produced in the 19 th century because of its vaporizing effect. But the Romans produced brass and found this nice gold-looking alloy more valuable than gold. They therefore saved the brass alloy for the mint production in the first century AD. The zinc content lowers the melting point of copper to 800 o C. The brass alloy might have been casually noticed when heating crushed copper ore and calamine with charcoal (Forbes 1971, 266). The knowledge of the trace elements in zinc ore such as calamine and sphalerite is important for the element study of copper-based artefacts. The tin brass is a commonly used alloy during the period studied. It is less important in the early production of the Westland cauldrons where zinc is normally a trace element in the alloy but the zinc content increases from the LRI and into the MP (Migration Period) (dl.-6%), probably because of the sources in the great mining area of the Meuse (Maas) valley. The important lead and zinc ores near Aachen, Germany and La Vielle Morsenet, Belgium could explain the increased amount of lead and zinc in the alloys used in the Westland cauldrons from the end of the LRI and during the MP. The well-known calamine mines were opened about 75 AD by the Romans (Peltzer 1907; Forbes 1971). The mining activity had a maximum from AD and then again from 400 AD and onwards demonstrating that mining went on even through the chaotic period with the many attacks on the borders of the Roman empire especially by the Franks. The calamine

17 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 147 Fig. 12. X-ray diffraction diagram of calamine ore (Altenberg, Aachen, Germany, analysed by E. Leonardsen, GGI, Copenhagen Univ.). Inset: calamine, zinc-ore mineral (photo: J. Lautrup, GEUS, Denmark).

18 148 Acta Archaeologica gy and Industry in Liège. The local ore was an important source also for the surrounding countries. The lead content in archaeological artefacts has often been used to try to identify the provenance by means of published lead isotope data from different ore bodies. The lead isotope relation in 10 Westland cauldrons was compared with published lead isotope data from different European ore bodies. The isotope study points at a coincidence with the Belgian ore body near Vielle Montagne (Bollingberg & Sundblad 2010). Pliny (79 AD) stated that scrap metal was used in copper production. But it is a question whether scrap metal was used in the production of cauldrons as the knowledge of the elements in the alloy was important for a successful result in the formation of these delicate cauldrons. The stable composition of these alloys did not generally reveal any casual variation which would have been expected if scrap metal had been used. THE SCANDINAVIAN COLLECTIONS (54 CAULDRONS ANALYSED) The sampling started at the Historical Museum, University of Bergen, Norway, where the largest Scandinavian collection of Westland cauldrons is stored. The archaeologist Sigrid Kalland opened the collection with great confidence. Such trust gave a tremendous responsibility! The project was met with the same trust outside Scandinavia for which we are extremely grateful. Most of the cauldrons were nicely hammered and had decoration stripes on the outside wall and concentric circles in the bottom as seen on the ones from Leikanger, Norway and Kvissleby, Sweden (B 8983 & SHM respectively). Another cauldron had parallel, horizontal stripes also on the inside wall and a hexagonal star pattern on the inside bottom. These were from the MP and were found in graves from the fjord area in western Norway (Sognefjord B 8983 & B 317, B 3358 (Schetelig 1912)). The pinola mark was quite common and demonstrates the production method combined with the hammering (Straume & Bollingberg 1995; Hauken 2005). The cauldrons sometimes had traces of coal on the outside - maybe coal from the last period it was in use about 1600 years ago. Carbon 14 isotope dating of the coal from a cauldron found in south western Norway (B 1862, Jæren) showed an age from 125 BC - 40 AD (Dr. Possnert, pers. comm., Uppsala Univ., Sweden). This is probably the age of the peat material used at the time the meal was prepared! The bog could certainly have been 1000 years old when burned but it was not coal from new contemporary bushes (Bollingberg 1996, 41). The two oldest Scandinavian Westland cauldrons analysed date back to the early part of the LRI (Sanderumgaard and Slettebjerggaard, Denmark (NM I DXXVIII, phase C1b & NM I C 25771, phase C2 respectively, Lund Hansen 1987)), but the majority of the cauldrons are from the last part of the 4 th century (C3) and from the MP ( /530 AD). Of the 54 Scandinavian finds analysed in this study, 29 artefacts are from the LRI, 21 from the MP and 4 artefacts from the period C3-D (Hauken, 2005). The Scandinavian finds are listed in Lund Hansen (1987), Straume & Bollingberg (1995) and Hauken (2005). In the Medelpad area in Sweden two Westland cauldrons were found recently (Sundsvall Museum, 2004). They were not analysed in this project. The Scandinavian cauldrons were sampled at Bergen Historical Museum, Univ. Bergen (B), Kulturhistorisk Museum, Univ. Oslo (C), Arkeologisk Museum, Stavanger (S), Vitenskapsmuseet, Trondheim (NTNM, [T]), Statens Historiska Museer, Stockholm (SHM) and Nationalmuseet, Copenhagen (NM), Thisted Museum (THY) and Haderslev Museum (HAM, E) Denmark (Table 1). RESULTS Major and trace elements have been studied since the 1920s in geological science with great success. Might especially the trace element research be as useful in the study of the Westland cauldrons as seen for many artefacts from the Roman import in Scandinavia? Both for the knowledge of the exact chemical composition of the artefact and for the handwork itself this investigation is important. Oddy (1991) suspected that a study of the trace elements in the alloys would be of great importance for the understanding of the artefacts of the Roman Period. In this study the published data of the Westland cauldrons have shown a difference in the chemical composition compared with older Roman artefacts; it is seen here in the triangle of the major elements in different artefacts (Fig. 3b). One would at least expect a similar alloy for similar large cauldrons at the time! (Bollingberg 1995a).

19 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 149 Are the analysed samples representative of the import? Before discussing the element relation in the alloy of the Westland cauldrons, it is necessary to evaluate the results in relation to the approximate import to the different regions (Appendix II, Hauken 2005). About 135 Norwegian Westland cauldrons have been found. One hundred and twelve are registered by Hauken and are used in this study. Of the recorded cauldrons, 87 (79%) were found in the west Norwegian area (26% LRI, 58% MP & 17% LRI/MP) and 18 artefacts (16%) in the east Norwegian area (55% LRI, 28% MP & 17% LRI/MP) and six artefacts (5%) in the northern part of the west coast of Norway (Trondheim and Tromsø). From the northern district, four cauldrons were from LRI and one from MP and one C3-D. The border between east and west Norway is here drawn between West- and East Agder (Hauken, 2005, 7, Fig. 1). From the import to western Norway, 29 cauldrons were analysed (13 cauldrons from LRI and 16 cauldrons from MP). From eastern Norway, five cauldrons (33%) were analysed (four cauldrons from LRI and 1 from MP) and from the Trondheim/Tromsø district three cauldrons from LRI were analysed. Four of the analysed Norwegian cauldrons were difficult to date from the grave finds according to Hauken and were marked LRI /MP. One analysed Westland cauldron from the Historical Museum, Bergen was without an inventory number and the laboratory no. was used (Sp. No ( 312 ), Table 1). The analysed samples seem to be quite representative for the imported cauldrons. The imported cauldrons found in Sweden and Denmark were quite sparse 15 Swedish and 5 Danish cauldrons. Recently two more Swedish cauldrons from Medelpad were found (Slomann 2004). Of this import, six Swedish and five Danish Westland cauldrons were analysed in this project. All Westland cauldrons found in Denmark were dated to the LRI and the Swedish cauldrons were partly from LRI and MP (Table 1). Two beautiful cauldrons from Sweden and western Norway are shown in Fig. 2a & b when the production was close to perfection. Some Swedish cauldrons from Medelpad, studied by W. Slomann, Oslo, were proposed to have arrived from south-western Norway by immigrants because of the special grave context (Slomann 1950). Elemental composition of the Scandinavian alloys (Major elements) The Scandinavian finds are grouped after alloy, type and age in the diagrams. The great Norwegian collection described and photographed by Hauken (1984; 2005) are added as cat. No. in Table 1 in this manuscript as a relevant supplement to this study. The triangular diagrams demonstrate the major elements in the analysed Scandinavian alloys (Fig. 6a, 13a & 13b). Fig.6a shows that they are all copper-based cauldrons with minimum 80% Cu (the inset is 100% rel. the same results as in the enlarged triangle, demonstrating the dense area for the alloys used). The relative contents of the three other possible major elements (> 1%) added to the copper melt (Sn, Pb and Zn) are demonstrated in Fig. 5a & 5b and define each different alloy analysed. (The only brass alloy found is located in the zinc apex (Inv. No. C 11092: 78% rel. Zn &18% rel. Sn & 5% rel. Pb). The cauldrons from MP (+, see Fig. 5a, legend) made of quaternary alloys are displayed in the middle of the triangle because of the Zn content in the alloy. The ternary alloys from the MP are found on the Sn/ Pb side of the triangle together with the ternary cauldron from the LRI. (The copper cauldrons are found in the lead corner because some of them have a low content of lead but undetected tin and zinc). The Swedish and Danish Westland cauldrons are located together with the cauldrons from eastern and northern Norway (Fig. 5b). A difference in the alloy composition compared to Fig. 5a is demonstrated. From Fig. 5b, it is seen that only a few quaternary alloys occur although five of them were from the MP (+: SHM 13477, SHM 19535, SHM & Oslo C 15596). Two copper cauldrons are placed close to the lead corner as lead is the only detected component in these copper alloys (X: NTNM 483 and C 961; see Table 1). In the following, the cauldrons from the LRI and the MP are studied in relation to age and type. Westland cauldrons from the Late Roman Iron Age Westland cauldrons type 1 17 Scandinavian Westland cauldrons type 1 were analysed from the LRI. Ten were made of copper (> 97% Cu - < 1% Sn), two binary, three ternary and two quaternary

20 150 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 13. The oldest Westland cauldrons from Danish finds are shown in a fingerprint diagram (X-axes: Major and trace elements analysed and Y-axes: Element concentration, log scale, wt. %, Inv. No. NM I DXXVIII & NM I C 25771). tin bronze alloys. Two of the copper cauldrons have a lead content of % Pb (S 2246 & T 483). Two other Norwegian copper cauldrons have alloys of a high purity with less than 0.06% Sn. The two largest Westland cauldrons of this type were produced in a ternary and a quaternary tin bronze. They were found in peat bogs in northern and western Norway (C & S 2988 resp., Straume & Bollingberg 1995). The oldest cauldrons are from Denmark and were made of a binary tin bronze (Table 1, Fig. 13: NM I C 22771, type 2C, NM C1 & NM I DXXVIII, type 1D, phase C1b ( AD), Timrå type, Lund Hansen 1987). Lead and tin contents seem generally too low to indicate the use of scrap metal in the production of these cauldrons, type 1. Westland cauldrons type 2 From the same period, 11 Westland cauldrons type 2 was analysed (Fig. 3a). One was made of a binary tin bronze, eight of a ternary and one of a quaternary tin bronze alloy. The ninth ternary alloy was made of tin brass - the only brass alloy found in the project (Table 1). The brass cauldron plots near the Zn corner (C 11092, Evje, Norway, Fig. 5b #) and the other alloys (ternary and quaternary) plot along the Sn/Pb line or in the middle of the triangle, depending on the relative amount of zinc. Also in this group, a Danish cauldron is among the oldest. It is made of a similar tin bronze like NM I DXX- VIII mentioned above. The fingerprint diagram demonstrates similar alloys used although the types are different (Fig. 13): (Z) NM I C 25771, type 2C (DH) (C2/C3). Westland cauldrons from the Migration Period From this period, 20 cauldrons were analysed. They were all type 2, none of pure copper and only one binary tin bronze (11% Sn, C 15596, Norway). 12 Westland cauldrons were made of a ternary tin bronze and seven of a quaternary bronze (Table 1, Fig. 5a). The diagrams demonstrate the increase in the ternary and especially quaternary alloys used during the LRI and MP. The amount of

21 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 151 quaternary alloys increased from one in LRI to seven in the MP. The commonly used binary tin bronze seems to be nearly out of production about the last part of the LRI (C3). The five cauldrons dated C3/D in Table 1 are marked with? in all figures (Inv. No s B 318, B sp. no , B 11546, S 6399 & S 3572a). Two are produced in a ternary alloy and three in a quaternary alloy. The elemental content of these alloys points at a production in the last part of the LRI. Hauken underlines that the last buried Westland cauldron of the youngest type 2D was buried in the late MP ( /530 AD) (Hauken 2005, 45). The earlier published data on the Westland cauldrons in this project show the variety of copper-based alloys. The extended material in this study did not add any new alloys. Pure copper alloys have been used (> 97% Cu), as well as binary tin bronzes (90-95% Cu & 5-10% Sn), ternary lead-tin bronze (70-89% Cu, 1-20% Sn & 1-5% Pb), ternary tin brass (77% Cu, 3.5% Sn & 18% Zn) and quaternary lead-zinc-tin bronze (85-97% Cu, 1-7% Sn, 1-5 % Pb & 1-5% Zn). Seven different copper-based alloys were used in the production of these cauldrons when handles and pads are counted as well (Table 1, Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1993a). Is there an elemental variation in the cauldrons imported to different regions in Norway, Sweden and Denmark? The answer to this question is partly dependent on the age of the finds analysed as seen above. The majority of the analysed Westland cauldrons from eastern Norway are from LRI and this is also the case for most of the Danish and Swedish import (Fig. 5b). This diagram demonstrates that the alloys are mostly made of tin bronze with a low lead content and zinc is practically lacking. The quaternary alloys are rare and binary and ternary alloys were dominant. The lead and zinc contents are generally higher in the cauldrons from western Norway as seen when compared with Fig. 5a (+). This makes a difference in the trace element contents as well. The tin bronze used in the two old cauldrons from Denmark dates most likely back to 210 AD (Fig. 13) (Lund Hansen 1987; Bollingberg 1995a). The number of imported cauldrons was increasing at the end of the LRI and during the MP in the coastal western Norway. Often the form and alloy composition have changed. The import to Denmark, Medelpad (Sweden) and Trøndelag and Troms in Norway decreased in the same period and the alloys are coming from different areas in Europe. This might illustrate a change in foreign relations between Scandinavia and the Continent and at the same time a change in production at the Continent, a change which also can be documented by other import objects as e.g. glass. These tin bronze and copper cauldrons were common in the Neupotz hoard (Table 1: Germany). Without knowing how many years they had been in use they must have been older than the dating of the find from before 277 AD (Künzl 1993). Hauken argues that the Neupotz hoard has no Westland cauldrons of the youngest type 2D, a type which is only found in the grave finds from the MP in Scandinavia so far. The type 2C cauldrons were made of both ternary and quaternary alloys whereas the majority of type 2D (DH) cauldrons were made of a quaternary alloy. The 2C cauldrons were produced over a long period from the LRI and the MP, and the younger 2D form seems to have been produced at the end of MP as mentioned above (Hauken 2005). The change in the alloy composition supports this theory. It can be concluded that the cauldron import to Scandinavia seems to have come from different areas during the LRI and MP. The alloy composition indicates that the raw material and the origin of the alloys changed during the last part of the LRI. The increasing use of quaternary alloys for the artefacts and especially the higher lead amount used demonstrates this change. The huge European rivers could be the trade route from the Maas valley, where the ore was available and both Perlrandbecken and Westland cauldrons in quaternary alloys were found. The trace element content of the alloys of the Westland cauldron The alloy composition of the Westland cauldron is described above and gives a varying picture of the materials used for the production. What about the important trace elements which are not added to the melt according to the decisions of the smith but are a geochemical part of the major ore minerals used? Professor V.M. Goldschmidt founded the science of geochemistry during the early s by means of OES. The main rules for the distribution of the elements

22 152 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 14. Important trace element variation in PbS crystals found in different geological environments (Bollingberg, Theses, Oslo Univ. Norway 1961) (Photo: O. Johnsen, Geological Museum, Copenhagen Univ.) in nature - especially in minerals and rocks - were established. From geochemistry, it is possible to predict the distribution of the trace elements in the minerals as well as which trace elements can be expected in certain ore minerals. The same mineral might have different trace element contents according to where and how it was formed in nature. This is demonstrated in the ternary diagram (Fig. 14) which depicts the three most important trace elements of galena (PbS) from two different but similar geological environments (X: PbS from a syenite contact & O: PbS from a granite contact, Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1993a). Analysed samples of galena from a relatively limited area fall into two distinct groups: one along the silver/bismuth side and one along the silver/antimony side of the diagram. The different trace element compositions are here related to ore formation at the contact of two different groups of igneous rocks, e.g. two types of geological environments (Bollingberg 1961). A trace element study was started on archaeological artefacts hopefully to find some differences in the alloys due to dependence on the ore used. To follow the trace elements from the original ore to the bronze artefact is, of course, more difficult than the study of the ore minerals themselves. However, many archaeologists have succeeded and Oddy (1991) supposed in 1988 that the trace element study would be of great Fig. 15. Ternary diagram showing the trace elements (Au, Bi and Ni) analysed in two types of pure copper cauldrons from the LRI. Note the difference in the trace elements in the alloy between the Eastland cauldrons and Westland cauldrons both made in copper. importance to the understanding of provenance (Nordahl 1961; Forbes 1971; Tylecote 1976; Werner 1977; Riederer 1980; Northover 1982; Beck et al. 1985; Rabeisen & Menu 1985; Oddy 1991 to mention a few). The mean value is not necessarily representative for the trace element contents in the alloys. The cauldrons are individuals and could have come from many places in Europe at different times. Therefore similar alloys are compared individually to see if a systematic similarity can be found by means of the element content. This would probably point to a common production. The study of the trace elements is important since they characterize the major elements in the ore minerals used. From this study, it has already been published that especially gold and silver are important trace elements in the Westland cauldrons and reveal a characteristic difference from the early Roman alloys (Fig. 4) (Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1993a, 40 Fig. 4, 7 & 13). The histograms show that the gold contents are highest in the Westland cauldrons. Some of the other artefacts in the figure were produced already from the Early Roman Iron Age and onwards (e.g. ladle/strainer). The younger Eastland buckets were produced in the same period as the Westland cauldrons (some older forms were also found in Pompeii, Tassinari 1975). This artefact also looks like a cauldron similar to the Westland

23 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 153 Fig. 16. Major and trace elements in Norwegian copper cauldrons (type 1b (DH), Inv. No. T 483, B 4877, B 2246 & C 23256). cauldrons and could have been produced in a similar alloy. However, this study shows that this it not the case (see above). Whether they are made of pure copper or a low-tin bronze alloy, they have a different trace element pattern compared to the Westland cauldrons of copper (Fig. 15). The diagram demonstrates that Eastland and Westland cauldrons made of copper have quite a different trace element pattern concerning lead as well as gold. Generally, lead is not found in the bucket alloy or any Roman artefacts from this early period although lead has been used back to Etruscan era. In the early Westland cauldrons (forerunners), lead is a persistent trace element (Bollingberg 1993b). The trace elements antimony, bismuth and silver coexist in galena crystals (PbS) as demonstrated above and have therefore a positive correlation to lead in the cauldrons when this ore has been used. The people who made the Westland cauldrons have probably not known the cupellation technique at least it was forgotten about the end of the LRI and onwards since both silver and gold are found in the alloys of the Westland cauldrons and the Perlrandbecken. The diagrams below demonstrate the relation between the analysed elements in the individual Scandinavian cauldrons (Table1). Copper cauldrons from the Late Roman Iron Age in Scandinavia Westland cauldrons without triangular lugs (type 1) The form and element content make a common origin possible also for this type of cauldrons. Four nearly pure copper cauldrons are compared in the fingerprint diagram (Fig. 16, Cu > 97 % & < 1% Sn). The diagram demonstrates the major and trace elements in the alloy. Two of the cauldrons have 1.5% and 2.6% Pb (S 2246 & NTM 483, resp.). This lead content might have been a contaminant in the copper ore itself and was not necessarily added to the smelt to produce a copper-low lead alloy. The two other Norwegian copper cauldrons have a similar relation between the elements and the alloys have a very high purity with less than 0.06% tin (Fig. 16: C & B 2246). Four similar copper cauldrons from Sweden and western Norway are shown in Fig. 17 (SHM 10940, SHM 6772 & B 312, B 5856). The trace element relations are similar and the normal high silver and gold contents are demonstrated. Three cauldrons are type 1B (DH). The lead and tin contents seem generally too low to indicate the use of scrap metal in the production of the cauldrons.

24 154 Acta Archaeologica Table 1. Major and trace elements in Westland cauldrons (conc. Wt. %) (Scandinavia, Belgium, France, Germany and Italia) and Handles and repairpatch (Scandinavia, Belgian (Namur), Germany (Neupotz) and France (Alesia). B: Belgium, b: Bergen, S: Stavanger, t:tromsø, O: Oslo, F: Alesia). Sp.No.: Laboratory No. Cat.No.: see Å.D. Hauken Quick Reference Guide (Finds in alphabetical order with catalogue number) (Hauken 2005, 97 f.). ID1 ID2 Type Date Cu Sn Pb Zn Fe Ni Mn Co As Sb Bi Ag Au Cat. No. Scandinavia Bwr 1c C Bwr 2 C3/D Bwr 2c D Bwr 2c D Bwr 2c D Bwr 2c D Bwr 2d D Bwr 2c D Swr 2c D Swr 2d D a Swr 2c D Swr 2c C3/D Swr 2c D a Swr 2d D Bwr 1 C Bwr 2c C Bwr 2 C3/D Bwr 2c C * Bwr 2c C Bwr 2c D bvh k2 d Bwr 2c D Bwr 1a C Bwr 1b C Bwr 1c C Swr 2c D Swr 1b C Swr 1a C a Swr 2c C3/D Swr 1d C Twr 2c C Twr 1b C Cwr 1a C Cwr 2 D Cwr 2 D Cwr 2d D Cwr 1c C Cwr 2d D Cwr 1 C Cwr 2c C :85 Cwr 2c C Cwr 2c C Cwr 1b C Cwr 1d C NMwr 2c C NMwr 1d C1b DXXVIII NMwr 1 C1b THY3786 TMwr 2 C E17639 Ewr 2c C SHMwr 1 C SHMwr 2 C SHMwr 2c D SHMwr 2c D SHMwr 2c D SHMwr 1 C Inv. No. Belgium (sp.) Bwr 2 C3/D Bwr 2 C3/D France 101 Fwr xx 2 C3/D Fwr 2 C3/D

25 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 155 ID1 ID2 Type Date Cu Sn Pb Zn Fe Ni Mn Co As Sb Bi Ag Au Fwr 2 C Fwr 1 C1? Fwr 2c C3/D S.No Fwr 2 C3/D (sp.) Fwr 1 Celtic Italia 8329 Pwr 1 B Pwr 1 B Pww 1 B Pww 1 B Pww 1 B Handles & repairpatch Scandinavia SHM17062 handle 2c D B3358 handle 2c D C3302 handle 2 D C3302 handle 2 D C3302 patch 2 D C8433:36 handle 2c C B317 handle 2d D C18174 patch 1d C Belgian (Namur) 12009(sp.) handle 2 C3/D handle 2 C3/D Germany 91, Dwr 1 B Dwr 1c C R80,487 Dwr 1 C F67 Dwr 2 D R4666C Dwr 2 C R102,46 Dwr 1 C /134a Dwr 1 C Dwr 7 C /171b Dwr 1 C /171a Dwb 1 C Dwr? 1 C Dwr 2c C Dwr 0 C Dwr 1 C Dwe 2? /25 I 18 Dwr 1d C /40 I 29 Dwr 1d C /40 III 11 Dwr 1d C /26-46 Dwr 2 C /3-3 Dwr 2c C /25 II-7 Dwr 2c C /25-I 8* Dwr 2b C /25-I 9 Dwr 2 C /26-48 Dwr 2 C /26-60 Dwr 1 C /40 I 25 Dwr 1c C /40 I 27 Dwr 1c C E91/89-5 Dwr 2c C E91/89-6 Dwr 2c C E91/89-10 Dwr 1 C E90/89-4 Dwr 2c C E90/89-2 Dwr 2c C /10- Dwr 2 C XXI R4666b Dwe 2 C Germany (Neupotz) 81/26-46 handle 2 C /25-II 7 handle 2c C F91/89 (5) handle 2c C2 1941/10- XXI handle* 2 C

26 156 Acta Archaeologica ID1 ID2 Type Date Cu Sn Pb Zn Fe Ni Mn Co As Sb Bi Ag Au France (Alesia) S.No. handle (1) rivet (2) rivet B: Belgium b: Bergen S: Stavanger t: Tromsø O: Oslo F: Alesia Relation between trace elements in type 1 and 2 cauldrons in LRI Westland cauldrons type 1 made of tin bronze Two tin bronze cauldrons from the northern west coast of Norway show similar trace element contents and could because of this have a common origin. They were probably made in different workshops since they have different forms (T 28 & C 18174, Fig. 18: Z: type 2, X: type 1, resp. LRI). The relation between lead and antimony for the Westland cauldrons from LRI (X: type 1, Z: type 2) and MP (+) is demonstrated in Fig. 19. The pure copper cauldrons (Pb < 1%) are grouped in the lower left corner, representing the copper cauldrons with traces of lead. The majority of the type 1 cauldrons are displayed to the right of the stippled line in the diagram with a high antimony content as seen in the upper right corner (X: S 2988 and B 5869). Two cauldrons are displayed to the left near the Y-axes at 2.6% Pb and 1.5% Pb, respectively (X: T 483 and C 18174, see above). This indicates a different origin of the type 1 cauldrons. The Pb/Sb coefficient (solid line) for type 2 cauldrons from LRI (Z) demonstrates a positive correlation to the left in the diagram together with four cauldrons marked? (= LRI/MP). The only Westland cauldron type 2 (Z), displayed in the upper right corner together with the type 1 cauldrons, is the one from Avaldsnes, western Norway (B 605, type 2C (DH), LRI). Is there any difference in the trace element content in bronze cauldrons from the LRI and MP? The cauldrons from the MP (+ the mark of the period on all figures) have a positive correlation between lead and antimony as seen in Fig. 19 (left). The diagram shows that the cauldrons, type 2 from the LRI (Z) and the MP (+), have a similar Pb/Sb coefficient. This could point to a common origin for many cauldrons with triangular lugs from both periods. This point also to a different origin for type 1 and 2 cauldrons in LRI but type 2 cauldrons from MP and LRI could have a common production. More data from European Westland cauldrons must be assembled to verify this statement. Ten quaternary alloys from the MP are plotted in a fingerprint diagram (Fig. 20). This diagram demonstrates the similarity in this type of alloy from MP. The two cauldrons from Snartemo V and Naustdal, western Norway have almost identical trace element patterns (Fig. 21, C 26001, type 2D (DH) & B 4259, type 2C (DH). The relation between the trace elements gold, bismuth and nickel are demonstrated in triangular diagrams below. The relative contents of the trace elements (Au/Bi/Ni) in the cauldrons analysed from western Norway are plotted in Fig. 22a (LRI: X, Z and MP: +). The Westland cauldrons have relatively higher bismuth contents (< 33% rel. Bi) compared to the import in Denmark, Sweden and northern and eastern Norway (< 21% rel. Bi) demonstrated in Fig. 22b. The gold content is varying (8-48% rel. Au, Fig. 22a). 20 Westland cauldrons from Denmark, Sweden and east and northern Norway are shown in Fig. 22b. The majority of the cauldrons seem to represent the LRI and they are located near the Ni/Au side of the triangle. Three copper cauldrons of type 1 are plotted in the gold (Au) corner (see also Fig. 15). From these regions, even the cauldrons representing the MP (+) are found near the Ni/Au side of the diagram. The number of cauldrons displayed in Fig. 22b is too small for a statistically significant evaluation but a difference in the trace elements from different regions is demonstrated. Gold probably adhered to the copper ore used.

27 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 157 Fig. 17. Copper cauldrons (type 1) from Sweden and Norway (Inv. No. SHM 10940, SHM 6772, B 312 & B 5856). Two similar Westland cauldrons from the MP (Kvissleby II, Njurunda, Medelpad, Sweden and Snartemo II, Agder, Norway (2C & 2D resp.) are shown in Fig. 23. Generally many similarities are seen in form and alloy composition of the Westland cauldrons from finds in Medelpad, Sweden, South western Norway and Trøndelag. Slomann (1950) postulated that the northern Swedish grave finds pointed at a connection to southwestern Norway and Trøndelag in the LRI and the beginning of the MP as mentioned above. Major and trace element analyses of some European Westland cauldrons found outside Scandinavia From where did the Scandinavian cauldrons come? The Norwegian cauldrons seem to have come directly to Norway from the continent. During the Roman Period, many artefacts have come from trade centres in Denmark and Sweden (Lund Hansen 1987) but probably not the Westland cauldrons from the end of the LRI and during the MP (Straume & Bollingberg 1995). The analyses of European alloys used in each period are important since it might throw light on the origin of the Scandinavian import. For this purpose, Westland cauldrons from more countries were sampled by the first author with kind permission and assistance from museum leaders. The cauldrons analysed in this project are certainly not representative for the large amount of Westland cauldrons found in Europe. The majority of the 35 German cauldrons analysed are from the LRI. The MP is hardly represented except for one from Danzdorf (5 th c. WLM). The five French and two Belgian cauldrons are from the 4 th -5 th c. AD like half of the Scandinavian finds analysed. Finally a few forerunners from Pompeii are analysed. This form is not found in Scandinavia but they show the element contents in the alloy used for the cauldrons probably made in Capua before 79 AD (Natural History no. XXXIII, Pliny AD). Scandinavian and other European results from this project are compared below. Westland cauldrons from Germany 34 Westland cauldrons from German finds (including Neupotz) are analysed in this project. The Neupotz find - containing 41 Westland cauldrons - represents the largest group of Westland cauldrons found outside Scandinavia. Westland cauldrons of both type 1 and 2 were found and show that type 2 had also been in production before 277

28 158 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 18. Two Norwegian Westland cauldrons, finds from northern Norway (see legend Fig. 5b). Fig. 19. X Y plot showing the relation between lead (Pb) versus antimony (Sb) in Danish, Swedish and Norwegian Westland cauldrons, wt. %). The broken line: Pb/Sb coefficient in alloys (+: MP) and the solid line: Pb/Sb in (Z: type 2, LRI). Note the difference in alloy between Westland cauldrons from LRI and MG.

29 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 159 Fig. 20. Comparison of 10 Scandinavian (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian) alloys from MP. The similar composition suggests that these cauldrons could have the same provenance. Fig. 21. Comparison of two Norwegian Westland cauldrons reveals a similar composition. They could originate from the same workshop (quaternary alloys, same as Fig. 20).

30 160 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 22a. Relative contents of the trace elements (Au/Bi/Ni, wt. % rel.) in 37 alloys found in western Norway, see also Fig. 5a). Fig. 22b. Triangular diagram shows the trace elements in 20 Westland cauldrons from Denmark, Sweden and Norway (east and north, see Fig. 5b & above). Fig. 23. Two similar Westland cauldrons (West Agder, Southwestern Norway and Medelpad, Sweden.

31 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 161 Fig. 24a. Relative content of major elements ((> 1%): Pb, Sn and Cu) in Westland cauldrons found in Germany (Cu corner 70% enlarged, wt. % rel., LRI). AD (Künzl 1993). This spectacular find is published and the alloy composition gives a valuable comparison from LRI (Künzl 1993, 458). The analytical results of 14 Neupotz cauldrons, sampled and analysed by the first author, are used in this study for comparison (Künzl 1993, 458). The majority of the alloys are made of tin bronze - the common alloy used in this period - and the copper cauldrons are displayed in the Cu corner (Fig. 24a, Cu: 70% enlarged). 30 Westland cauldrons excavated in Germany are demonstrated in a tin/lead/zinc diagram (Fig. 24b). One cauldron is made of a quaternary alloy (placed in the centre of the diagram (O: 81/25-I-9) and the brass cauldron from Danzdorf is displayed in the zinc corner (G). The majority are grouped along the Sn/Pb side of the triangle close to the tin (Sn) corner ( F & B are discussed below). Three quaternary alloys from Neupotz and western Norway are compared in a spider diagram (Fig. 25a, Norwegian: (?) [Bergen Museum] & Neupotz: o). Major elements in the alloy are identical but the different trace element pattern is evident and marks a difference in the raw material used. The diagram demonstrates clearly how the gold content separates the German cauldrons from the Scandinavian ones. Pit finds from forts along Limes (Saalburg & Zugmantel) were also a valuable guide to the composition of the alloys from this period. Four cauldrons were sampled with kind assistance from B. Beckmann, Saalburg Kastell (Sp. no. 5007, ZM 35/134a, & ZM 36/171a, b). Dr. H.-J. Fig. 24b. Relative contents of major elements in 30 Westland cauldrons (excavated in Germany (1 & 0) with a few finds from Belgium (B) and France (F). Eggers has dated the Saalburg finds to 250 AD and 270 AD, respectively (Eggers 1955, Tafel 3, 6). Six cauldrons from the same period were also sampled with the kind assistance from H. Engel (Department for Denkmalpflege, Speyer). One alloy of pure copper, type 1, three of binary tin bronze and two of a ternary tin bronze alloy, type 2, were analysed (E 91/89-10, E 91/89-6, E 91/89-5, E 90/89-4, E 90/89-2 & 1941/10-XXI). Two similar bronze cauldrons have identical compositions and might have come from the same workshop (E 91/89-5 & -6, Fig. 25b). From Württembergisches Landesmuseum, (WLM), Stuttgart and Kastell Aalen, three Westland cauldrons were sampled (R , R , F 67 /119). The find is described by Nuber (1988). From Worms (Museum in Andreasstift), one Westland cauldron was sampled (R4666c, Table 1). The late Roman Westland cauldrons from a Rhine find near Filzen, displayed at Trierer Landesmuseum (TLM), were published earlier in this study. Two copper cauldrons type 1 (TLM 26,126 & 26,127), two binary tin bronzes (TLM 26,128 & (ear fragment)) and two ternary bronze cauldrons were analysed. One cauldron had a ternary tin bronze alloy similar to two Norwegian cauldrons type 1 (TLM 26,129 & TLM 26,128, C 18174, Oslo, Table 1). The cauldrons from the Filzen find have a similar trace element pattern with high silver and gold contents like the Scandinavian ones (Straume & Bollingberg 1995, 137, Fig. 18). Four similar copper cauldrons, type 1 from LRI two

32 162 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 25a. Major and trace element contents from three quaternary Westland cauldrons are compared in a fingerprint diagram. Finds from Neupotz, Germany (0) and western Norway (? : C3/D). The low gold content in the German find is demonstrated. Fig. 25b. Two German Westland cauldrons (type 2) with similar element contents are compared (Dep. for Denkmalpflege, Speyer (Dr. Engel).

33 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 163 Fig. 26. Major and trace element contents in four pure copper cauldrons found in Germany and Norway, see legend. Fig. 27. Fingerprint diagram shows the major and trace elements (wt. %) of the so-called forerunners : two bronze cauldrons from Pompeii (P) and one Rhine find (1), Xanten-Wardt, Germany.

34 164 Acta Archaeologica Fig. 28a. Relative contents of arsenic, antimony and silver (As, Sb and Ag, wt. % rel.). German (0, brown), type 2, LRI) and Scandinavian Westland cauldron (Z, +,?: type 2), see legend & Table 1. Fig. 28b. Trace elements gold (Au), bismuth (Bi) and nickel (Ni) plotted in a ternary diagram demonstrate the difference between German and Scandinavian alloys (Filzen find (dark brown), Neupotz (light brown), see above).

35 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 165 Norwegian (B 5856 & C 6320) and two German cauldrons (TLM & TLM , Filzen) are plotted in Fig. 26. They have similar major and trace element contents. The cauldron collection from the Filzen find exhibited in the Trier Landesmuseum revealed that this grave find had the only Westland cauldrons analysed from Germany that had an alloy similar to the Scandinavian ones - especially concerning the trace element pattern. The Rhine find, displayed at the RömerMuseum, Xanten (RMX 91, ), and analysed in this study, had an alloy composition similar to the ones from Pompeii (Fig. 27, 1). The trace element pattern and the alloy composition are typical Roman binary tin bronze with a low content of silver (0.04%) and gold (< d. l.: % Au) (Tassinari 1975; Bollingberg 2016). The Rhine find was probably made in Italy in the 1 st c. AD, as proposed by Schalles (1993). Some cauldrons (type 1) found in Saalburg Kastell were called forerunners for the Westland cauldron by Eggers (1955). He mentioned that this form was found for the first time in Pompeii. In this research, it is only the cauldrons displayed in the RömerMuseum Xanten and Rijksmuseum G. M. Kam, Nijmegen (159, Inv. No. Be V 56, den Boesterd & Hoekstra 1966) which look like copies of the ones displayed in Pompeii (G 2350, see below). The trace element pattern in the alloys from Saalburg (35/134a, 5000, 36/171a & b) is similar to the ones from the Neupotz find. The Westland cauldrons type 1 found in Saalburg and Zugmantel have a different form from the Italian ones and could be an early provincial Roman production. They have a nearly flat bottom and a more cylindrical form (an old form, Lund Hansen, pers. com.). The tin content in the alloys of the Saalburg cauldrons is low (< 3.5%). The gold and silver contents are low and the antimony content is high. Five cauldrons were made of copper and they have a similar form as the copper cauldrons from Scandinavia (type 1). The trace elements, as seen in the gold content, fit better with the composition of the Eastland buckets in this area (Künzl 1993, Teil 1, 462 f, Fig. 3 & 5). The German and Scandinavian cauldrons with lugs (type 2) are plotted in triangular diagrams (Fig. 28a). The relative contents of the trace elements arsenic, antimony and silver are displayed. The majority of the German cauldrons have a relatively higher antimony content and lower silver content and they are located towards the an- timony corner (light brown). The four German cauldrons from Trier marked o in Fig. 28a (dark brown) are located in the Scandinavian group of the diagram together with one cauldron from Speyer (1941/10-XX1). Two Westland cauldrons from Norway and Denmark are found in the antimony corner (Z: NM I C 25771, 45% rel. Sb and B 1862, 50% rel. Sb). The Scandinavian cauldrons generally show a lower proportion of antimony (< 18% rel.) in the LRI than in the MP. This is also marked in Fig. 19. Westland cauldrons (type 1, LRI) from Germany and Scandinavia show a similar distribution of the trace elements as seen in type 2 (Fig. 28a). Type 1 is not plotted. The German Westland cauldrons are relatively close to the Sb corner and the Scandinavian cauldrons are found in the middle of the diagram (oblong figure). The relative contents of Au, Bi and Ni in German and Scandinavian cauldrons type 2, LRI and MP show the same distribution as above (Fig. 28b). The German cauldrons are located close to the Ni/Bi side near the nickel corner and the Scandinavian cauldrons are displayed near the Ni/Au side towards the gold corner. Two Scandinavian cauldrons are located near the Ni/Bi side among the German cauldrons that reveal a low gold content (B 605, LRI: Z and B 8983, MP: +). The Westland cauldrons from Trier are displayed in the Scandinavian group (Fig. 28a). The gold content in the German alloys is low (< 10% rel.) except for the three samples from Trier and one cauldron from Worms (R 4666c, LRI, Museum for Andreasstift) which have the same pattern as the Scandinavian cauldrons (> 8-45% rel. Au). The German cauldrons have the same trace element pattern in both type 1 and 2. The gold content is generally quite low and the cauldrons from Xanten, Aalen, Saalburg and one from Neupotz have a gold content below detection limit. The pattern is different in the Scandinavian alloys. Only one Norwegian cauldron from the LRI fits the German type 2 cauldrons (B 605, Avaldsnes, Norway). This demonstrates different gold (Au) contents dependent on the origin (Fig. 25a). The difference has already been published for the Neupotz find (Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1993b) and the results are supported in this study. The gold content in the alloy seems to be an important key to the origin of the Westland cauldrons and the copper ore used.

36 166 Acta Archaeologica One Westland cauldron from Germany from the 5th c. is analysed in this study (Danzdorf, F67/119, WLM). It is made of brass like the one from Evje, Norway (C 11092). The trace element content points to a different production for the two brass cauldrons which could be expected since they are from different periods (Table 1). More data on the younger German cauldrons are needed as also underlined by Hauken (2005). The handles were normally made of a quaternary alloy (Table 1). The repair laps had a bronze alloy quite like the ones used for the bodies of the cauldrons. It seems to be a common procedure that the cauldrons were repaired again and again and were not re-melted. When they were totally worn out, their alloys were used for laps for other cauldrons (see also Rabeisen s comment above). One cauldron (C 3302, Table 1) was analysed by laser OES to study a nice repair on the wall (Fig. 29). The analysis showed that the alloy used for the lap was a ternary tin brass with ca. 0.5 % silver and 0.9 % lead. The body (cauldron) was made of a quaternary tin bronze. It is evident that old material has been used for the repair and probably a piece from a destroyed Westland cauldron, type 2. Conclusion: Cauldrons from Filzen (TLM) vs. Neupotz/Speyer demonstrate the use of different raw materials (Au/Bi/Ni). The use of quaternary alloys is rare for both finds and is only found in the production of one Neupotz cauldron (No. 81/25 I-9). The Saalburg material has the same pattern as the cauldrons from Neupotz. The Filzen cauldrons plot together with the Scandinavian samples as does the one from Worms (R 4666c). The latter is similar to the Scandinavian type 2 cauldrons from LRI. When Scandinavian and German results are compared, it is seen that the trace elements lead, bismuth, silver and gold contents are significantly higher in the Scandinavian cauldrons and zinc, manganese, cobalt, arsenic and antimony are generally higher in the German ones. The other trace elements are similar. The majority of the German Westland cauldrons are made of tin bronze. A few of them are made of a ternary alloy with about % Pb and a single one from Neupotz (81/25 I-9) had a quaternary alloy. The handles are commonly made of a quaternary bronze alloy (Table 1). The production before 277 AD involved a well-defined copper and bronze alloy and the trace element pattern points to a different origin for the German and Scandinavian ones when the Trier find is omitted. The pure copper cauldrons in Scandinavia show a positive correlation between gold and copper and a negative correlation between gold and arsenic (Bollingberg 1995). The German copper cauldrons show a positive correlation between gold and arsenic and this suggests that different ore bodies were used. The Norwegian Westland cauldrons type 2 did not show any relationship between gold and arsenic. The gold and silver contents are generally higher in the Scandinavian cauldrons than in the German ones, but these trace element features make a characteristic difference from the pure alloys used in the early Roman artefacts from the first century. The difference between Scandinavian Eastland and Westland cauldrons made of copper (LRI) is revealed in their different trace element patterns, particularly concerning the trace element gold. This indicates a different origin for these quite similar copper cauldrons produced in the Early and Late Roman Iron Age (Bollingberg & Lund Hansen 1993a, Fig. 3 & 6a). The same trace element feature in the Westland cauldrons of copper alloy found in Neupotz demonstrate that these particular Westland cauldrons have a different gold/ nickel/bismuth relation compared with the Scandinavian Westland cauldrons. The Eastland buckets on the other hand have the same pattern as the Scandinavian Westland cauldrons of copper. There might have been a common production for these two types of copper cauldrons from Scandinavia and Neupotz whereas the German Westland cauldrons had another origin over a short time interval during the beginning of the LRI. This is also seen in the different arsenic/gold pattern for the Westland cauldrons of copper alloy from Scandinavia versus Neupotz. Alloy composition of Belgian and French cauldrons Two Belgian Westland cauldrons were also sampled and analysed. Those from the Namur area were finds from cemeteries (Samson, Inv. No. 234 & Lab. No , Musée Archéologique, Namur (Dasnoy 1968)). One Westland cauldron found in a soldier s coffin might have been buried after a battle in the area at the end of the 4 th c. AD (Plumier, pers. com.). This age is also reported by Dr. D. Kennett on behalf of the coins found in the coffin ( AD, Kennett 1971) (Eggers 1966, 129, Fig.

37 The Story of the Westland Cauldrons in Europe 167 Fig. 29. A large patch on the body (wall) of a Norwegian Westland cauldron (C 3302) is analysed by laser OES. Small fragments of the wall are seen on the rim of the patch. The results show that the alloy used for the patch was a ternary tin brass with about 0.5% silver and 0.9 % lead. The body is made of a quaternary tin bronze. It is evident that old material is used for the repair. Photo: Historical Museum, University of Bergen, Norway. 24). Both Belgian cauldrons have triangular ears and are made of quaternary tin bronze. They are similar to the Scandinavian cauldrons in form and probably also age (400 AD). One Gallo-Roman Westland cauldron type 1 (Stadheim type) from Givre, Hainaut, was published by Moisin & Vandael (1954). This was made of a pure tin bronze (2.6% Sn) with a characteristic high silver and gold content. It is dated to the 3rd c. AD and is similar to the original Westland cauldrons analysed in this project (type 1A (DH)). Seven Westland cauldrons from the MP made in a quaternary alloy are shown in Fig. 30. (Belgian (B: MAN 234, Sp. No (Inv. No. 62)); French (F: CA 446-1, see below) and Norwegian (+: B 4259, B 4207, C 3302, C 26001)). This fingerprint diagram demonstrates the similarity in the major elements and the characteristic high silver, gold and bismuth contents. The other element relations are also similar. The Belgian quaternary alloys are plotted in a triangular diagram (Pb, Zn, Sn) together with the German and French cauldrons and show the various alloy contents (Fig. 24b: B); the trace elements gold, bismuth and nickel are plotted in a triangular diagram and show the relatively higher gold content in the Belgian and also the two French Westland cauldrons in relation to the 0% Au-line (identical with the Ni/Bi side of the diagram (~ 20% rel. Au, Fig. 31). These fingerprints point to a possible Belgian-GalloProvincial Roman production. Three French Westland cauldrons and one Celtic cauldron from Musée Alise-Sainte-Reine Fouilles GalloRomaines were analysed (Inv. No. 3, 101 & S. No (= without number), E 14, 4-5th c. AD and Sp. No , (Celtic), Fig. 32 (F & f) & Fig. 31 (F). The French cauldrons were found in pits often near Roman villas. Three ternary bronze alloys were used in the production. The Celtic cauldron (f) was also made of a ternary bronze and is compared with the younger French Westland cauldrons. The Celtic cauldron has an identical alloy as Inv. No. 101 (ca. 10% tin and 1.3% lead). The large Celtic cauldron was found in a pond in Alesia as were the other cauldrons; they were hidden around 270 AD but the Celtic was made about 100 BC (E. Rabeisen, pers. com.). The large Celtic cauldron was made from a thin bronze plate and repairs were made with laps fixed with small copper rivets (analysed in this study, Table 1). Some walls of these Westland cauldrons have parallel horizontal spinning lines which probably also had a decorative effect as generally seen. The triangular lugs

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