1 Testing, What is it Good For? Absolutely Everything! An overview of software testing and why it s an essential step in building a good product Beth Schechner Elementool The content of this ebook is provided to you for free by Elementool. You may distribute this ebook to anyone you know. If you quote or use the text in this ebook, we ask that you give us credit
2 Testing, what is it good for? Absolutely Everything! An overview of software testing and why it s an essential step in building a good product In August of 2006 a U.S. government student loan service erroneously made public the personal data of as many as 21,000 borrowers on its web site, due to a software error. The bug was fixed, eventually, and the government department subsequently offered to arrange for free credit monitoring services for those affected. i Could this error and the resulting cost to the U.S. government, have been prevented if proper software testing had taken place prior to the release of the system used by the U.S. Government student loan service? According to a 2008 research report conducted by the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) in North Carolina, on behalf of the Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), an estimated $22.2 billion could be saved annually in the US, by implementing improved testing infrastructure that enables earlier and more effective identification and removal of software defects. ii This example, and the cost incurred to the U.S. economy, should drive home the idea that software quality is essential to business success. For end users who are consuming and using the software application, success means that it delivers what they want, when they want it. For the development team tasked with creating the application, success is achieved when they ve addressed all of the factors that may somehow affect performance. These include, but are by no means limited to functionality, reliability, accuracy and usability.
3 What is Software Testing? Software Testing falls under the umbrella of Quality Assurance (QA), which is the monitoring and perpetual improvement of the entire software development process. QA is responsible for making sure that all standards, processes, and procedures are followed, and for ensuring that any problems, and potential problems, in the software system are found and adequately dealt with. Every software product or application has a specific target audience. If you re developing video games, financial management applications or hospital administration software, to name a few examples, your audiences are going to be vastly different. Gamers are going to be looking for an entertaining experience, while your bankers and nurses are going to be judging your applications based on very different criteria and may have an entirely other idea of success. When an organization develops or invests in a software application, it must judge whether the application will meet the needs and expectations of end users, target audience, purchasers and business partners. Software testing is the process in which you attempt to make this judgment. So software testing is a series of tests to judge the integrity of your application and its ability to function as planned and as marketed. Way back during the initial conception of your application, if you were using Application Lifecycle Management (ALM), you drew out a list of requirements which would ensure that the application you re building will meet your business and technical goals. Well software testing is
4 the process of systematically checking the application against those requirements, to verify whether or not each individual feature is working properly. Or rather, to see exactly how each individual feature is working: properly, improperly, or completely unexpectedly. Software testing also provides business management an unbiased view of the development process status. To start off the testing process, a tester will execute the program or application in question under controlled conditions, and evaluate the result. A Test Case is the set of conditions that the tester uses in their evaluation. The intent, of course, is finding software bugs or issues. The tester is trying to break the system here, to intentionally make things go wrong, so that he can see what things occur when they aren t supposed to and what doesn t happen when it should. The point of software testing is to detect issues or problems in your application that could cause a fatal error or potentially derail your entire project, before your application is released to the public. According to the NIST study, software bugs cost the U.S. economy $59.5 billion annually! The researchers at RTI concluded that more than a third of this cost could be avoided if better software testing was performed. Imagine what your company could save by improving software testing. What Causes Bugs, and How to Create an Effective Testing Environment Any number of factors can cause a software bug, including programming errors, miscommunication or lack of communication, changing requirements, redesign, rescheduling, and pressures of time and looming schedules. Overlooked or ignored requirements can result in software application bugs - time schedule limitations will occasionally cause development teams to leave out previously defined requirements. First off, programmers, like anyone else, can make mistakes. When requirements change mid-way through a project, it s not uncommon for there to be a miscommunication over what features are wanted and expected. Juggling the many moving pieces of a software project to figure out scheduling is difficult
5 under the best situations, but when deadlines are looming, it s almost inevitable that mistakes will be made. Setting solid requirements is the first step in ensuring a smooth testing process; defining complete and testable requirements that everyone has agreed upon makes it easy to know what needs to be tested and how to go about the testing. In Agile Development environments, ongoing coordination with your endusers or clients is necessary to ensure that all requirements, both old and new, are understood by everyone. Fighting for a realistic release schedule will let your team devote adequate time to each step of the Software Development Lifecycle (SLDC), including planning and design, coding, testing, and bug fixing. If your team isn t under unrealistic demands, they re less likely to overlook a serious issue or bug because they re rushing. This scheduling applies not just to the overall project, but for testing as an individual process as well. If you start testing early on in the SDLC, then you know that there will be enough time to re-test features after fixes and changes have been made. Sticking to your initial requirements, as much as possible, will make testing easier. Testing an application is difficult enough, but if you change the requirements too often then no one is going to know what needs to be done! Your goal as a manager is to make it easy for your testers to do their jobs! Encourage questions, and provide the channels for them to be asked both of management and of team members. Use the tools that you have to make it easy for your QA team to communicate forums, instant messenger programs, , web-conferences, internet, , etc. If your QA team is working together and talking, then they re going to notice things like duplicate bugs or similar issues and your team is more likely to complete the project within the set timeframe.
6 How Software Testing Works, and Why it s Necessary As we ve already discussed earlier in this ebook, the primary purpose for testing is to detect software failures so that the defects causing the failures can be found and fixed. Testing won t determine whether a product always functions properly under all conditions, what it will do though is determine whether the application doesn t function properly under specific conditions. Software testing is definitely a negative practice you are looking to find out and highlight which functions in your application DO NOT work, not the functions which do. Information that you discover while testing, such as why a function isn t working, can (and should) be used during development and coding for fixing issues. With mobile phones, netbooks, tablet computers and social networking taking a larger role in how we consume technology, new platforms, new opportunities and new competitors are constantly emerging in the field of software development. As a result, developers are under pressure to quickly release new, interesting and useful software applications. This means that development managers need to know what their teams are working on, what bugs have been found during testing and what stage these bugs are currently in, and what (if any) feedback is coming in from clients. We ve moved way beyond the days when a basic spreadsheet (or !) was sufficient for tracking software testing. The testing or QA manager is the one responsible for finding bugs or issues in your product before it s released. The responsibility is on their shoulders, because no one will remember the hundreds or thousands of bugs that were found DURING the development process. What your target audience, and the media, will always remember is that one critical bug found by the customer AFTER your product has been released. To cover his back, the testing manager should design a seamless testing process that covers everything that needs to be covered, and leaves nothing for chance. Creating test case lists that cover all aspects of each feature that need to be tested, and then assigning them to testers, ensures the test results are tracked, analyzed and reported to the project manager and development team.
7 These test lists should be dynamic, and change along with product development. When a new feature is introduced or changed, this lets the testing manager change the test case list accordingly. Testing Managers are human too, and occasionally during the testing process, he ll realize that aspects of the product that should be tested have been overlooked. Dynamic lists let him easily make the necessary changes in the test plan, so that every detail is covered. A testing manager needs to be in near constant communication with everyone involved in the testing process. Ideally, a test case (the conditions or variables set by the tester) should be analyzed by the tester as well as his testing manager. Details and information on past test results, previous testers, and the processes that were used to generate past test results are highly important in comparing functionality of the feature in all its iterations (past, present and future). Once you find a bug or an issue, you re going to need a separate method for tracking and fixing that issue. Keeping track of these issues and their current statuses is necessary for completing the testing process. In an ideal world, any tools used for bug tracking and test case tracking would be integrated, allowing easy transfer of information from one data set to the other looking briefly at the larger picture, the same statement could be made in reference to all Application Lifecycle Management tools. If your developers and testers are able to easily communicate and view results from their team members, they can quickly incorporate feedback and issue fixes. Testing managers should want to do everything they can, and use every tool at their disposal, to facilitate communication between and within teams. According to a study by the French computer manufacturer BULL, 40% of project managers cited poor communication as the leading cause of IT project failures. iii Ongoing feedback on the status of bugs and issues and individual test case steps, during the testing process, can significantly reduce the amount of time a software application spends in development, and as the saying goes, Time is Money!
8 We ve talked about what testing is and why it s important, but what sort of data should you have on hand to help things run smoothly? For a detailed and organized test case scenario, it s useful to have the test case ID and description, expected output, actual output, results, remarks, steps, related requirements, test category, author, and time spent easily available. Since listing the detail of input, expected output, preconditions and post conditions is a time consuming process, testing managers can increase efficiency, and decrease frustration, by having a method or system in place to preserve this information for future and related tests. Software defaults tend to follow a set process: a programmer makes an error or a mistake, which results in a defect (issue or bug) in the code. If this defect is then executed in the script, it will result in an undesired action, causing a failure. Not every defect will always result in a failure though, and a dormant defect can turn into a failure if you change the environment. Opening a website in Internet Explorer rather than Firefox, for example, or integrating your product with an application from a different vendor can cause an issue where there wasn t one before. However, a bug isn t always caused by a programmer error. Issues can also be caused by incomplete requirements, or situations that haven t been taken into account. For example: your system might crash if a tester submits an alphabetic character in a numeric or date field on a product form. In this case, the requirements should have defined that numeric fields may only accept numeric characters. Theoretically, test cases can be tracked by keeping a detailed and constantly updated spreadsheet with test case methods, statuses and results. While this is fine for small scale projects, it isn't a reasonable or even feasible method for most development teams. is also often used as a more proactive, albeit less organized, method of tracking test cases. Have you ever had to sort through 60 s just to find the ONE that had the piece of information you were looking for? While both of these methods utilize existing infrastructure and in many cases don t require any additional cost, once the time spent by developers and testers in looking for files and searching for data has been analyzed, it's obvious that they are inefficient. Since these methods don't allow proper management of the testing process, they aren t recommended.
9 A solution for managing software testing that offers a detailed and organized test case scenario, easy archiving and reporting, and fluid communication between groups would obviously offer the most value. Particularly for companies and development teams that can have multiple projects in different phases at various times, with developers and managers spread throughout the globe, a management tool can save precious time and therefore increase the company s bottom line. Depending on the company, there can be vastly different policies for assigning responsibility for QA and testing. Sometimes one person or group will be solely responsible for QA and testing. In other companies you will find project teams which include a mix of testers and developers working closely together this mix is something that each company has to figure out depending on your organization s size and structure. Where Software Testing Fits in ALM Application Lifecycle Management is the process of managing conception, development and deployment of your software application. ALM links business management (looking out for time, money, function, market and practicality) with software development (developing, testing, tracking and fixing). This is all made possible by a suite of tools, applications and processes that facilitate and integrate the two groups. A common collection of ALM tools include requirements management, testing, issue tracking, and time tracking. ALM tools, including perhaps most importantly your testing tools, should encourage communication between all teams involved in both the business and the software development sides.
10 Testing is the stage where you need to manage and track individual test cases. This is where tools really come in handy. As it can take several tests to determine whether or not your application is working as planned, a Test Case Management tool can be particularly useful in tracking and managing your future, ongoing and completed test cases. A Test Case, as defined above, is a set of conditions under which the tester can determine whether or not the application is working as originally planned, or conceived. Testing is traditionally handled by a quality assurance team, whose job is to make sure that the best possible product is deployed at the end of the SDLC, and can take place at any point in ALM and the development process. However, in a traditional development environment testing will start after the initial requirements have been defined and the original coding has been completed. Newer software development methods (models), like Agile, employ test driven development and place a large portion of the testing in the hands of the developer, before it has reached a formal team of testers. By using a Test Case Management tool, you can keep track of your completed tests, current tests and all the tests that you need to run sometime in the future or delegate to someone else. Reporting functions help tie testing back to business processes, keeping everyone up-to-date on whether or not your application is on track to meet the scheduled release date. i Story quoted from the Software QA Test Resource Center: ii Software Errors Cost the U.S. Economy $59.5 Billion Annually: iii The BULL Survey, 1998: cortex.com/stat_failure_cause.htm#the%20bull%20survey%20(1998)
Faster, Easier and Cheaper Software Development: Is It Possible? Using Application Lifecycle Management to improve your software development process By Beth Schechner Elementool The content of this ebook
What is Application Lifecycle Management? David Chappell Sponsored by Microsoft Corporation Copyright 2014 Chappell & Associates Defining application lifecycle management (ALM) isn t easy. Different people
WHAT IS APPLICATION LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT? DAVID CHAPPELL DECEMBER 2008 SPONSORED BY MICROSOFT CORPORATION COPYRIGHT 2008 CHAPPELL & ASSOCIATES Defining application lifecycle management (ALM) isn t easy.
How to Build an Enterprise App in 5 Days 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STAGES OF TRADITIONAL APP DEVELOPMENT 3 STAGE 1: DEFINE 4 STAGE 2: BUILD & TEST 4 STAGE 3: ROLLOUT 6 STAGE 4: MANAGEMENT 7 BUILDING AN ENTERPRISE
SPECIFICATION BY EXAMPLE How successful teams deliver the right software Gojko Adzic MANNING Shelter Island Brief Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Preface xiii Acknowledgments xxii
Successful Projects Begin with Well-Defined Requirements Defining requirements clearly and accurately at the outset speeds software development processes and leads to dramatic savings. Executive Summary
Agile Power Tools Best Practices of Agile Tool Users Author: Damon Poole, Chief Technology Officer Best Practices of Agile Tool Users You ve decided to transition to Agile development. Everybody has been
WHY BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANS FAIL 12 COMMON CAUSES AND HOW TO PREVENT THEM By Keith Erwood The ProtectEr, CEO and Principal Consultant The Continuity Co., LLC All material in this report is the property
P P W H I T E A E R Mistakes Companies make when Outsourcing Software Testing By: Sofía Palamarchuk @sopalamarchuk Abstracta 01.12.2016 abstracta www.abstracta.us ABSTRACT When it comes to completing software
Copyright (c) 2015 Christopher Small and The Art of Lawyering. All rights reserved. 1 In this special report, I ll be sharing with you the ten biggest mistakes that lawyers make when marketing their law
Automated Testing Best Practices This document includes best practices to consider before implementing automated software testing. These best practices are strategic and are applicable regardless of the
Signs You Need to Buy a New Phone System Contents Introduction... 3 Sign #1: Your Phone System is Becoming Technically Obsolete... 3 Sign #2: Your Office is Moving... 4 Moving an Old System... 4 Buying
Session No. 515 New Perspectives on Accident/Incident Investigation Larry Wilson Belleville, Ontario Canada Introduction Most accident/incident investigations tend to look at the injury or incident from
Performance testing in Agile environments Deliver quality software in less time Business white paper Table of contents Executive summary... 2 Why Agile? And, why now?... 2 Incorporating performance testing
SPECIAL REPORT: 4 BIG REASONS YOU CAN T AFFORD TO IGNORE BUSINESS CREDIT! 4 BIG REASONS YOU CAN T AFFORD TO IGNORE BUSINESS CREDIT! Provided compliments of: FIRSTUSA DATA SERVICES, LLC 877-857-5045 SUPPORT@FIRSTUSADATA.COM
Profit Strategies for Small Businesses Tackling the Challenges of Internet Marketing If you re a small business owner, your goal is profitability. And marketing is the key to big profits. But small business
16 Questions Sales Managers Must Ask Here are 16 critical questions sales managers should learn to ask their salespeople about any pending sale. If managers make a habit of asking these questions during
COMP209 Object Oriented Programming System Design Mark Hall Introduction So far we ve looked at techniques that aid in designing quality classes To implement a software system successfully requires planning,
What Lawyers Don t Tell You The Realities of Record Keeping Welcome to the Power of Attorney Podcast which is part of our Conversations that Matter Podcasts. My name is Mary Bart, Chair of Caregiving Matters.
1 How Not to Nurture Your Leads Ten Mistakes Manufacturers Make in Marketing Automation Contents What is Marketing Automation?... 3 Why Do You Need Marketing Automation?... 4 Marketing Automation Technology
Choosing an LMS FOR EMPLOYEE TRAINING As organizations grow it becomes more challenging to scale your internal learning culture. You must be certain that your staff is trained in the entire organizational
WITH A NEW THE BEST APPROACH TO INBOUND AGENCY GETTING STARTED INBOUND 1 BIGSHOT'S ALL-INCLUSIVE MARKETING SOLUTION...can provide you with the right content, expert design work, and marketing automation,
Test What You ve Built About Your Presenter IBM i Professional for 16 Years. Primary Focus is IBM i Engineering / Programming Well Versed in 2E. Well Versed in RPG (All Flavors) Well Versed in CM Products
Best practice guide for reporting PAYE information on or before paying an employee Advice from employers, payroll professionals and agents on how to successfully report on or before paying an employee.
are often billed as simple, easy-to-use solutions, so many organizations leverage them as a tool for tracking and managing their data and processes. Unfortunately, spreadsheets have some limitations that
Top 10 Ways Operational Software Can Boost a Contractor s Bottom Line Top 10 Ways Operational Software Can Boost a Contractor s Bottom Line Switching to a new operational software solution is a big step
Reducing Customer Churn A Love Story smarter customer contact Breaking up is hard to do The old adage that it s cheaper (and better) to hold onto an existing customer than to acquire a new one isn t just
Mistakes that Traders Make during Online Trading INTRODUCTION Online trading is one of the fastest growing and developing spheres of activities in the world. Each day it becomes more and more appetizing
Using Logistics to Grow Your Business USING LOGISTICS TO GROW YOUR BUSINESS Y ou want your business to grow and logistics can help you achieve your objective. I ve put together this short guide for you
Nova Software Quality Assurance Process White Paper Atlantic International Building 15F No.2 Ke Yuan Yi Road, Shiqiaopu, Chongqing, P.R.C. 400039 Tel: 86-23- 68795169 Fax: 86-23- 68795169 Quality Assurance
how 140 characters can ruin your reputation essential reading for retailers ebook it only takes 140 characters to ruin your reputation The empowered consumer has you in the palm of their hand. Most ecommerce
How to Start Your Own Hosting Company for Free! Starting your own hosting company for free is nice, but it gets even better. Imagine that your hosting company only takes a couple hours to set up. Imagine
Why Do Software Selection Projects Fail? 2012 Solutions All rights reserved Charles C. Chewning, Jr. email@example.com http://www.accountinglibrary.com/ Why Do Software Selection Projects
Benefits of Test Automation for Agile Testing Manu GV 1, Namratha M 2, Pradeep 3 1 Technical Lead-Testing Calsoft Labs, Bangalore, India 2 Assistant Professor, BMSCE, Bangalore, India 3 Software Engineer,
Faxing: A Healthcare Disaster 10 Ways Faxing is Holding Back Your Business December 2015 We Need A Fax Revolution Faxing is one of the most common forms of communication in healthcare. It s a point-to-point
Supplier Invoice Inefficiency: The truth behind the AP process and how automation can fix it 01 Picture this: Scenario 1: Your supplier emails their invoice directly to your online invoice system. It s
CONTENT MARKETING AND SEO How to Use Content Marketing and SEO to Reach Customers and Business Goals What do you consider the most essential ingredient for your business s marketing success? In today s
N CYCLES software solutions Development Methodologies Compared Why different projects require different development methodologies. December 2002 Dan Marks 65 Germantown Court 1616 West Gate Circle Suite
Critical analysis Be more critical! More analysis needed! That s what my tutors say about my essays. I m not really sure what they mean. I thought I had written a really good assignment this time. I did
Getting Started with Kanban Paul Klipp kanbanery 2 Contents 3/ Getting Started with Kanban 4/ What is Kanban? 7/ Using Kanban Does kanban apply to me? How can it help me? What will I have to change? 10/
Agile. Integrated. Simplified One Trusted Platform For all your software projects Requirements Innoeye Technologies brought to you the most Defects and Change Requests Test planning / execution Iterations
Software Process for QA Basic approaches & alternatives CIS 610, W98 / M Young 1/7/98 1 This introduction and overview is intended to provide some basic background on software process (sometimes called
Sell Your House in DAYS Instead of Months No Agents No Fees No Commissions No Hassle Learn the secret of selling your house in days instead of months If you re trying to sell your house, you may not have
E-Guide How to Successfully Achieve Application Lifecycle Management Application lifecycle management (ALM) seems to have an identity crisis. The constant state of flux around the various tools and components
Presented by: Heather J. Donnelly HDI Certified Instructor Telephone Skills Objectives Recall the key principles for dealing with an irate caller Apply specific techniques effective in providing excellent
Planning a Responsive Website Planning a website is important for both web designers and website owners. Planning your website before you start building it can save you time, keep your site code more accurate
BEST PRACTICES: Ten Steps to Selecting the Right Human Resources Software The Ten Steps for Human Resources Software Selection In this brief guide, we ll review a ten-step process that will help you select
BUSINESS ADVISOR REPORT Provided as an educational service by: Rick Reynolds, General Manager Read this guide and you ll discover: What remote, offsite, or managed backups are, and why EVERY business should
It s about Customer Experience not Customer Service By Phil Gerbyshak As companies have improved processes and gained greater efficiencies, one key area has suffered: customer experience. Customer experience
The Importance of Continuous Integration for Quality Assurance Teams Without proper implementation, a continuous integration system will go from a competitive advantage for a software quality assurance
Attention is a Currency We earn it, we spend it, and sometimes we lose it. Why now is the time to invest in digital experiences that matter. Table of Contents 1 5 6 7 8 15 16 20 21 23 24 28 29 30-31 32
Proven Best Practices for a Successful Credit Portfolio Conversion 2011 First Data Corporation. All trademarks, service marks and trade names referenced in this material are the property of their respective
Developing & Confirming Effective Business Requirements (Virtual Classroom Edition) Eliminate Costly Changes and Save Time by Nailing Down the Project Requirements the First Time! Pre-Workshop Preparation
5 steps to a better school website A Webanywhere Free Guide In the last five years, there has been a big change in the way schools are run. Now, more than ever, schools are essentially businesses, with
create tax advantaged retirement income you can t outlive 1 Table Of Contents Insurance Companies Don t Just Sell Insurance... 4 Life Insurance Investing... 5 Guarantees... 7 Tax Strategy How to Get Tax-Free
ProExtra eclaiming User Guide Welcome to ProExtra eclaiming. You can use this system to submit claims to ProCare, for the services you have provided to patients referred to you by their GPs. You will need
Dynamics CRM for Outlook Basics Microsoft Dynamics CRM April, 2015 Contents Welcome to the CRM for Outlook Basics guide... 1 Meet CRM for Outlook.... 2 A new, but comfortably familiar face................................................................
SIMPLE FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FOR A SMALL FISH PROCESSING PLANT by Gunnar Knapp Professor of Economics Institute of Social and Economic Research University of Alaska Anchorage 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage,
Lab 2.1 Tracking Down the Bugs Chapter 7 (To Err is Human ) discusses strategies for debugging finding and fixing problems with IT systems. In this lab, we focus on the early stages of debugging, where
Rob Davis Everyone wants a good process. Our businesses would be more profitable if we had them. But do we know what a good process is? Would we recognized one if we saw it? And how do we ensure we can
SharePoint as a Business Application, Not Just a Collaboration Tool Products, Projects, Services and Work in One System Published March, 2013 http://epmlive.com Contents Introduction...2 Common Uses of
BEST PRACTICES: Ten Steps To Selecting the Right Practice Management Software The Ten Steps For Medical Software Selection In this brief guide, we ll review a ten-step process that will help you select
How to Start Growing Your Business Online The Basics of Promoting and Marketing Online Revision v1.0 Website Services and Web Consulting Where do you see your business? We see it in the cloud How to Start
A White Paper Three Ways IT Performance Monitoring Can Save You Money And Time Page 1 Introduction Companies rely on IT systems to help employees do their work efficiently, as a means to go-to-market faster
Quick Start 2008 2 What is ScrumDesk ScrumDesk is project management tool supporting Scrum agile project management method. ScrumDesk demo is provided as hosted application where user has ScrumDesk installed
Developing for the App Store (Legacy) Contents About the Application Development Process 5 At a Glance 5 Developing for Apple s Platforms Is a Mix of Administrative and Coding Tasks 5 Apps Published on
Agile Development for Application Security Managers www.quotium.com When examining the agile development methodology many organizations are uncertain whether it is possible to introduce application security
How to Avoid The Five Biggest First-time Homebuyer Mistakes Mistake #1 Failure To Examine And Repair Any Credit Problems Prior To Applying For Your Loan Many potential new home buyers have no idea what
Software Engineering Prof. N. L. Sarda Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture - 2 Introduction to Software Engineering Challenges, Process Models etc (Part 2) This
The Infinite Banking Concept (aka Becoming Your Own Banker ): One Actuary s Commentary Advisors sometimes call LLIS because their clients have been approached by an insurance salesperson pitching a concept
How to Choose a CRM System. Contents How to Choose a CRM System... 3 Understanding CRM... 4 Getting Started... 5 Understanding the Core Components of CRM... 6 Involve the Right People... 7 Select a System
6 Terri Lane, Suite 700, Burlington, NJ 08016 O: 800.525.5256 F: 609.747.8801 7 Ways To REDUCE COSTS & DOWNTIME While there is no magic to managing a fleet, there are certain low-hanging fruit items which
WHITE PAPER A Guide to Web Content Management System Evaluation By Lance Merker, President and CEO, OmniUpdate Introduction Purchasing a web content management system (CMS) can be a lengthy process and
1.0 Introduction In today s fast-paced lifestyle with programmers churning out code in order to make impending deadlines, it is imperative that management receives the appropriate information to make project
Software Testing Rajat Kumar Bal Introduction In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch
Mortgage Secrets What the banks don t want you to know. Copyright Notice: Copyright 2006 - All Rights Reserved Contents may not be shared or transmitted in any form, so don t even think about it. Trust
> Driving Sales Full Cycle sm White Paper Understanding the Difference Between an Inquiry and a Lead The key to shortening your sales cycle and generating revenue By Jeanne Lambert, President and CEO Cerida
Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity What Every Executive Needs to Know Bruce Campbell & Sandra Evans Contents Why you need DR and BC What constitutes a Disaster? The difference between disaster recovery
Social Business Plan Template Your one page plan... 3 Your service from your customer s point of view... 3 Market research... 3 Vision, mission and objectives... 6 What will you do? (your activities)...
Application Performance Testing Basics ABSTRACT Todays the web is playing a critical role in all the business domains such as entertainment, finance, healthcare etc. It is much important to ensure hassle-free