# If it's in the 2nd NF and there are no non-key fields that depend on attributes in the table other than the Primary Key.

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "If it's in the 2nd NF and there are no non-key fields that depend on attributes in the table other than the Primary Key."

## Transcription

5 BCNF A table is in BCNF if it's in 3rd NF and every determinant can be used as a Primary Key. In our example Advisor attribute determines Major but is not a possible Primary Key. StudentId and Advisor together is a possible (candidate) Primary Key. Normalized: STUDENTS StudentId Advisor 100 Hilbert 150 Jung 200 Courant 300 Ruth 300 Vasilaky ADVISORS Advisor Courant Vasilaky Ruth Hibert Jung Major Math Comp Sci Psychology Math Psychology Page 5

6 Fourth Normal Form A table is in the 4NF if it's in BCNF and has no attribute with mutivalued dependencies. Suppose a Student can have more than one major and more than one activity. For example: StudentId Major Activity 100 Music Swimming 100 Accounting Swimming 100 Music Tennis 100 Accounting Tennis 150 Math Jogging Note that all three attributes make up the Primary Key. Note that StudentId can be associated with many major as well as many activities (multivalued dependency). Multivalued dependency lead to modification anomalies. Suppose student 100 signs up for skiing. Then we would insert (100, Music, Skiing) This row implies that student 100 skies as Music major but not as an accounting major, so in order to keep the data consistent we must add one more row (100, Accounting, Skiing). This is an insertion anomaly. Here are the tables Normalized: Student-Major StudentId Major 100 Music 100 Accounting 100 Math Page 6

7 Student-Activity StudentId Activity 100 Skiing 100 Swimming 100 Tennis 150 Jogging Page 7

### Normalization of Database

Normalization of Database UNIT-4 Database Normalisation is a technique of organizing the data in the database. Normalization is a systematic approach of decomposing tables to eliminate data redundancy

### Introduction to normalization. Introduction to normalization

Introduction to normalization Lecture 4 Instructor Anna Sidorova Agenda Presentation Review of relational models, in class exersise Introduction to normalization In-class exercises Discussion of HW2 1

### Normalization. Functional Dependence. Normalization. Normalization. GIS Applications. Spring 2011

Normalization Normalization Normalization is a foundation for relational database design Systematic approach to efficiently organize data in a database GIS Applications Spring 2011 Objectives Minimize

### Part 6. Normalization

Part 6 Normalization Normal Form Overview Universe of All Data Relations (normalized / unnormalized 1st Normal Form 2nd Normal Form 3rd Normal Form Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF) 4th Normal Form 5th Normal

### Chapter 5: Logical Database Design and the Relational Model Part 2: Normalization. Introduction to Normalization. Normal Forms.

Chapter 5: Logical Database Design and the Relational Model Part 2: Normalization Modern Database Management 6 th Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Mary B. Prescott, Fred R. McFadden Robert C. Nickerson ISYS

### Normalization. CIS 3730 Designing and Managing Data. J.G. Zheng Fall 2010

Normalization CIS 3730 Designing and Managing Data J.G. Zheng Fall 2010 1 Overview What is normalization? What are the normal forms? How to normalize relations? 2 Two Basic Ways To Design Tables Bottom-up:

### Database Normalization. Mohua Sarkar, Ph.D Software Engineer California Pacific Medical Center 415-600-7003 sarkarm@sutterhealth.

Database Normalization Mohua Sarkar, Ph.D Software Engineer California Pacific Medical Center 415-600-7003 sarkarm@sutterhealth.org Definition A database is an organized collection of data whose content

### A. TRUE-FALSE: GROUP 2 PRACTICE EXAMPLES FOR THE REVIEW QUIZ:

GROUP 2 PRACTICE EXAMPLES FOR THE REVIEW QUIZ: Review Quiz will contain very similar question as below. Some questions may even be repeated. The order of the questions are random and are not in order of

### Normalisation to 3NF. Database Systems Lecture 11 Natasha Alechina

Normalisation to 3NF Database Systems Lecture 11 Natasha Alechina In This Lecture Normalisation to 3NF Data redundancy Functional dependencies Normal forms First, Second, and Third Normal Forms For more

### LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN

MODULE 8 LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS There are 4 alternative answers to each question. One of them is correct. Pick the correct answer. Do not guess. A key is given at the end of the module

### DATABASE SYSTEMS. Chapter 7 Normalisation

DATABASE SYSTEMS DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL EDITION ROB CORONEL CROCKETT Chapter 7 Normalisation 1 (Rob, Coronel & Crockett 978184480731) In this chapter, you will learn: What normalization

### RELATIONAL DATABASE DESIGN

RELATIONAL DATABASE DESIGN g Good database design - Avoiding anomalies g Functional Dependencies g Normalization & Decomposition Using Functional Dependencies g 1NF - Atomic Domains and First Normal Form

### DATABASE NORMALIZATION

DATABASE NORMALIZATION Normalization: process of efficiently organizing data in the DB. RELATIONS (attributes grouped together) Accurate representation of data, relationships and constraints. Goal: - Eliminate

### DBMS. Normalization. Module Title?

Normalization Database Normalization Database normalization is the process of removing redundant data from your tables in to improve storage efficiency, data integrity (accuracy and consistency), and scalability

### Chapter 6. Database Tables & Normalization. The Need for Normalization. Database Tables & Normalization

Chapter 6 Database Tables & Normalization Objectives: to learn What normalization is and what role it plays in the database design process About the normal forms 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF, and 4NF How normal

### Announcements. SQL is hot! Facebook. Goal. Database Design Process. IT420: Database Management and Organization. Normalization (Chapter 3)

Announcements IT0: Database Management and Organization Normalization (Chapter 3) Department coin design contest deadline - February -week exam Monday, February 1 Lab SQL SQL Server: ALTER TABLE tname

### Normalization in Database Design

in Database Design Marek Rychly mrychly@strathmore.edu Strathmore University, @ilabafrica & Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Information Technology Advanced Databases and Enterprise Systems 14

### MCQs~Databases~Relational Model and Normalization http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/database_normalization

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/database_normalization Database normalization is the process of organizing the fields and tables of a relational database to minimize redundancy. Normalization usually involves

### C# Cname Ccity.. P1# Date1 Qnt1 P2# Date2 P9# Date9 1 Codd London.. 1 21.01 20 2 23.01 2 Martin Paris.. 1 26.10 25 3 Deen London.. 2 29.

4. Normalisation 4.1 Introduction Suppose we are now given the task of designing and creating a database. How do we produce a good design? What relations should we have in the database? What attributes

### Chapter 5: FUNCTIONAL DEPENDENCIES AND NORMALIZATION FOR RELATIONAL DATABASES

1 Chapter 5: FUNCTIONAL DEPENDENCIES AND NORMALIZATION FOR RELATIONAL DATABASES INFORMAL DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR RELATION SCHEMAS We discuss four informal measures of quality for relation schema design in

Database design 1 The Database Design Process: Before you build the tables and other objects that will make up your system, it is important to take time to design it. A good design is the keystone to creating

### Database Design Basics

Database Design Basics Table of Contents SOME DATABASE TERMS TO KNOW... 1 WHAT IS GOOD DATABASE DESIGN?... 2 THE DESIGN PROCESS... 2 DETERMINING THE PURPOSE OF YOUR DATABASE... 3 FINDING AND ORGANIZING

### DATABASE DESIGN: Normalization Exercises & Answers

DATABASE DESIGN: Normalization Exercises & Answers (a) The table shown in Figure 1 is susceptible to update anomalies. Provide examples of insertion, deletion, and modification anomalies. Answers: This

### Institutional Research Database Study

Institutional Research Database Study The Office of Institutional Research uses data provided by Administrative Computing to perform reporting requirements to SCHEV and other state government agencies.

### Normalization in OODB Design

Normalization in OODB Design Byung S. Lee Graduate Programs in Software University of St. Thomas St. Paul, Minnesota bslee@stthomas.edu Abstract When we design an object-oriented database schema, we need

### Normalization. Reduces the liklihood of anomolies

Normalization Normalization Tables are important, but properly designing them is even more important so the DBMS can do its job Normalization the process for evaluating and correcting table structures

### Lecture 2 Normalization

MIT 533 ระบบฐานข อม ล 2 Lecture 2 Normalization Walailuk University Lecture 2: Normalization 1 Objectives The purpose of normalization The identification of various types of update anomalies The concept

### 1.264 Lecture 10. Data normalization

1.264 Lecture 10 Data normalization Next class: Read Murach chapters 1-3. Exercises due after class Make sure you ve downloaded and run the.sql file to create the database we ll be using in the next two

### MODULE 8 LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN. Contents. 2. LEARNING UNIT 1 Entity-relationship(E-R) modelling of data elements of an application.

MODULE 8 LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN Contents 1. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING GOALS 2. LEARNING UNIT 1 Entity-relationship(E-R) modelling of data elements of an application. 3. LEARNING UNIT 2 Organization of data

### RELATIONAL DATABASE DESIGN. Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts a database is an collection of logically related records a relational database stores its data in 2-dimensional tables a table is a two-dimensional structure made up of rows (tuples, records)

### Functional Dependency and Normalization for Relational Databases

Functional Dependency and Normalization for Relational Databases Introduction: Relational database design ultimately produces a set of relations. The implicit goals of the design activity are: information

### CS 377 Database Systems. Database Design Theory and Normalization. Li Xiong Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Emory University

CS 377 Database Systems Database Design Theory and Normalization Li Xiong Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Emory University 1 Relational database design So far Conceptual database design

### The process of database development. Logical model: relational DBMS. Relation

The process of database development Reality (Universe of Discourse) Relational Databases and SQL Basic Concepts The 3rd normal form Structured Query Language (SQL) Conceptual model (e.g. Entity-Relationship

### Chapter 15 Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases

Chapter 15 Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Chapter 15 Outline Informal Design Guidelines

Topic Normalisation 6 LEARNING OUTCOMES When you have completed this Topic you should be able to: 1. Discuss importance of the normalisation in the database design. 2. Discuss the problems related to data

### COSC344 Database Theory and Applications. Lecture 9 Normalisation. COSC344 Lecture 9 1

COSC344 Database Theory and Applications Lecture 9 Normalisation COSC344 Lecture 9 1 Overview Last Lecture Functional Dependencies This Lecture Normalisation Introduction 1NF 2NF 3NF BCNF Source: Section

### 6.830 Lecture 3 9.16.2015 PS1 Due Next Time (Tuesday!) Lab 1 Out today start early! Relational Model Continued, and Schema Design and Normalization

6.830 Lecture 3 9.16.2015 PS1 Due Next Time (Tuesday!) Lab 1 Out today start early! Relational Model Continued, and Schema Design and Normalization Animals(name,age,species,cageno,keptby,feedtime) Keeper(id,name)

### COMPUTING PRACTICES ASlMPLE GUIDE TO FIVE NORMAL FORMS IN RELATIONAL DATABASE THEORY

COMPUTING PRACTICES ASlMPLE GUIDE TO FIVE NORMAL FORMS IN RELATIONAL DATABASE THEORY W LL AM KErr International Business Machines Corporation Author's Present Address: William Kent, International Business

### Databases -Normalization III. (N Spadaccini 2010 and W Liu 2012) Databases - Normalization III 1 / 31

Databases -Normalization III (N Spadaccini 2010 and W Liu 2012) Databases - Normalization III 1 / 31 This lecture This lecture describes 3rd normal form. (N Spadaccini 2010 and W Liu 2012) Databases -

### CSCI-GA.2433-001 Database Systems Lecture 7: Schema Refinement and Normalization

CSCI-GA.2433-001 Database Systems Lecture 7: Schema Refinement and Normalization Mohamed Zahran (aka Z) mzahran@cs.nyu.edu http://www.mzahran.com View 1 View 2 View 3 Conceptual Schema At that point we

### Topic 5.1: Database Tables and Normalization

Topic 5.1: Database Tables and Normalization What is Normalization? Normalization is a process for evaluating and correcting table structures to minimize data redundancies, thereby helping to eliminate

### Fundamentals of Database System

Fundamentals of Database System Chapter 4 Normalization Fundamentals of Database Systems (Chapter 4) Page 1 Introduction To Normalization In general, the goal of a relational database design is to generate

### DATABASE DESIGN: NORMALIZATION NOTE & EXERCISES (Up to 3NF)

DATABASE DESIGN: NORMALIZATION NOTE & EXERCISES (Up to 3NF) Tables that contain redundant data can suffer from update anomalies, which can introduce inconsistencies into a database. The rules associated

### Chapter 9: Normalization

Chapter 9: Normalization Part 1: A Simple Example Part 2: Another Example & The Formal Stuff A Problem: Keeping Track of Invoices (cont d) Suppose we have some invoices that we may or may not want to refer

### Carnegie Mellon Univ. Dept. of Computer Science 15-415 - Database Applications. Overview - detailed. Goal. Faloutsos CMU SCS 15-415

Faloutsos 15-415 Carnegie Mellon Univ. Dept. of Computer Science 15-415 - Database Applications Lecture #17: Schema Refinement & Normalization - Normal Forms (R&G, ch. 19) Overview - detailed DB design

### Database Design and Normalization

Database Design and Normalization CPS352: Database Systems Simon Miner Gordon College Last Revised: 9/27/12 Agenda Check-in Functional Dependencies (continued) Design Project E-R Diagram Presentations

### Database Management System

UNIT -6 Database Design Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas; Functional Dependencies; Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys; General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms; Boyce-Codd Normal

### 1.204 Lecture 2. Keys

1.204 Lecture 2 Data models, concluded Normalizati tion Keys Primary key: one or more attributes that uniquely identify a record Name or identifying number, often system generated Composite keys are made

### Normalization. Normalization. Normalization. Data Redundancy

Normalization Normalization o Main objective in developing a logical data model for relational database systems is to create an accurate representation of the data, its relationships, and constraints.

### CST221, Dr. Zhen Jiang Normalization & design (see Appendix pages 42-55)

CST221, Dr. Zhen Jiang Normalization & design (see Appendix pages 42-55) Normalization is a process for determining what attributes go into what tables. In order to understand this process, we need to

### Normalisation 1. Chapter 4.1 V4.0. Copyright @ Napier University

Normalisation 1 Chapter 4.1 V4.0 Copyright @ Napier University Normalisation Overview discuss entity integrity and referential integrity describe functional dependency normalise a relation to first formal

### Database Design and Normal Forms

Database Design and Normal Forms Database Design coming up with a good schema is very important How do we characterize the goodness of a schema? If two or more alternative schemas are available how do

### Unit 3.1. Normalisation 1 - V2.0 1. Normalisation 1. Dr Gordon Russell, Copyright @ Napier University

Normalisation 1 Unit 3.1 Normalisation 1 - V2.0 1 Normalisation Overview discuss entity integrity and referential integrity describe functional dependency normalise a relation to first formal form (1NF)

### Database Design. Marta Jakubowska-Sobczak IT/ADC based on slides prepared by Paula Figueiredo, IT/DB

Marta Jakubowska-Sobczak IT/ADC based on slides prepared by Paula Figueiredo, IT/DB Outline Database concepts Conceptual Design Logical Design Communicating with the RDBMS 2 Some concepts Database: an

### Chapter 10. Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases. Copyright 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B.

Chapter 10 Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases Copyright 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Chapter Outline 1 Informal Design Guidelines for Relational Databases

### Normalization NORMALIZATION. Primary keys (contd.) Primary keys

Normalization NORMALIZATION R L A Ellis Primary keys and foreign keys Functional dependencies Anomalies and their causes First, second, and third normal forms Examples: sitter database Hardware store database

### - Eliminating redundant data - Ensuring data dependencies makes sense. ie:- data is stored logically

Normalization of databases Database normalization is a technique of organizing the data in the database. Normalization is a systematic approach of decomposing tables to eliminate data redundancy and undesirable

### Design of Relational Database Schemas

Design of Relational Database Schemas T. M. Murali October 27, November 1, 2010 Plan Till Thanksgiving What are the typical problems or anomalies in relational designs? Introduce the idea of decomposing

### Tutorial on Relational Database Design

Tutorial on Relational Database Design Introduction Relational database was proposed by Edgar Codd (of IBM Research) around 1969. It has since become the dominant database model for commercial applications

### Designing Databases. Introduction

Designing Databases C Introduction Businesses rely on databases for accurate, up-to-date information. Without access to mission critical data, most businesses are unable to perform their normal daily functions,

### Normalization. Normalization. First goal: to eliminate redundant data. for example, don t storing the same data in more than one table

Normalization Normalization Purpose Redundancy and Data Anomalies 1FN: First Normal Form 2FN: Second Normal Form 3FN: Thrird Normal Form Examples 1 Normalization Normalization is the process of efficiently

### An Algorithmic Approach to Database Normalization

An Algorithmic Approach to Database Normalization M. Demba College of Computer Science and Information Aljouf University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia bah.demba@ju.edu.sa ABSTRACT When an attempt is made to

### Normalisation. Royal Museum for Central Africa 5 June 2013. Edward Vanden Berghe

Normalisation Royal Museum for Central Africa 5 June 2013 Edward Vanden Berghe What is Normalisation? Theoretical: satisfying the requirements of the different Normal Forms, as spelled out by (mainly)

### Chapter 10. Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases

Chapter 10 Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases Chapter Outline 1 Informal Design Guidelines for Relational Databases 1.1Semantics of the Relation Attributes 1.2 Redundant

### Module 5: Normalization of database tables

Module 5: Normalization of database tables Normalization is a process for evaluating and correcting table structures to minimize data redundancies, thereby reducing the likelihood of data anomalies. The

### Elena Baralis, Silvia Chiusano Politecnico di Torino. Pag. 1. Physical Design. Phases of database design. Physical design: Inputs.

Phases of database design Application requirements Conceptual design Database Management Systems Conceptual schema Logical design ER or UML Physical Design Relational tables Logical schema Physical design

### Teaching Database Modeling and Design: Areas of Confusion and Helpful Hints

Journal of Information Technology Education Volume 6, 2007 Teaching Database Modeling and Design: Areas of Confusion and Helpful Hints George C. Philip, Ph. D. College of Business, The University of Wisconsin

### C HAPTER 4 INTRODUCTION. Relational Databases FILE VS. DATABASES FILE VS. DATABASES

INRODUCION C HAPER 4 Relational Databases Questions to be addressed in this chapter: How are s different than file-based legacy systems? Why are s important and what is their advantage? What is the difference

### EXTENDED LEARNING MODULE A

EXTENDED LEARNING MODULE A DESIGNING DATABASES AND ENTITY- RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAMMING Student Learning Outcomes 1. Identify how databases and spreadsheets are both similar and different. 2. List and describe

### Database Design and the Reality of Normalisation

Proceedings of the NACCQ 2000 Wellington NZ www.naccq.ac.nz Database Design and the Reality of Normalisation Dave Kennedy ABSTRACT Institute of Technology Christchurch Polytechnic Te Whare Runanga O Otautahi

### Data Model ing Essentials

Data Model ing Essentials Third Edition Graeme C. Simsion and Graham C. Witt MORGAN KAUFMANN PUBLISHERS AN IMPRINT OF ELSEVIER AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE

### B.1 Database Design and Definition

Appendix B Database Design B.1 Database Design and Definition Throughout the SQL chapter we connected to and queried the IMDB database. This database was set up by IMDB and available for us to use. But

### Optimum Database Design: Using Normal Forms and Ensuring Data Integrity. by Patrick Crever, Relational Database Programmer, Synergex

Optimum Database Design: Using Normal Forms and Ensuring Data Integrity by Patrick Crever, Relational Database Programmer, Synergex Printed: April 2007 The information contained in this document is subject

### Normalization Summary

Normalization Summary A User View Creating the Unnormalized Table The figure above is a report (a user view) that might be produced by a database system for which the table represented by the report needs

### Schema Refinement, Functional Dependencies, Normalization

Schema Refinement, Functional Dependencies, Normalization MSCI 346: Database Systems Güneş Aluç, University of Waterloo Spring 2015 MSCI 346: Database Systems Chapter 19 1 / 42 Outline 1 Introduction Design

### A Simple Guide to Five Normal Forms in Relational Database Theory

William Kent, "A Simple Guide to Five Normal Forms in Relational Database Theory", Communications of the ACM 26(2), Feb. 1983, 120-125. Also IBM Technical Report TR03.159, Aug. 1981. Also presented at

### Schema Design and Normal Forms Sid Name Level Rating Wage Hours

Entity-Relationship Diagram Schema Design and Sid Name Level Rating Wage Hours Database Management Systems, 2 nd Edition. R. Ramakrishnan and J. Gehrke 1 Database Management Systems, 2 nd Edition. R. Ramakrishnan

### Data Hierarchy. Traditional File based Approach. Hierarchy of Data for a Computer-Based File

Management Information Systems Data and Knowledge Management Dr. Shankar Sundaresan (Adapted from Introduction to IS, Rainer and Turban) LEARNING OBJECTIVES Recognize the importance of data, issues involved

### Foundations of Information Management

Foundations of Information Management - WS 2012/13 - Juniorprofessor Alexander Markowetz Bonn Aachen International Center for Information Technology (B-IT) Data & Databases Data: Simple information Database:

### Normalization. CIS 331: Introduction to Database Systems

Normalization CIS 331: Introduction to Database Systems Normalization: Reminder Why do we need to normalize? To avoid redundancy (less storage space needed, and data is consistent) To avoid update/delete

### ISM 318: Database Systems. Objectives. Database. Dr. Hamid R. Nemati

ISM 318: Database Systems Dr. Hamid R. Nemati Department of Information Systems Operations Management Bryan School of Business Economics Objectives Underst the basics of data databases Underst characteristics

### Duplication Problem. Duplicating Columns

The amount of data required to perform our work today can be staggering. A fundamental question is, How should data be stored? Many people will use spreadsheets for data storage. Creating a spreadsheet

### SULLIVAN COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE FALL 2006 COLLEGE CATALOG PART 5 OF 8 NURSING

SULLIVAN COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE FALL 2006 COLLEGE CATALOG PART 5 OF 8 NURSING This is the fifth of a group of documents which comprise the Sullivan County Community College official College Catalog:

### Relational Data Analysis I

Relational Data Analysis I Relational Data Analysis Prepares Business data for representation using the relational model The relational model is implemented in a number of popular database systems Access

### RELATIONAL DATABASE DESIGN Good Database Design Principles

Good Database Design Principles 1. no redundancy a field is stored in only one table, unless it happens to be a foreign key replication of foreign keys is permissible, because they allow two tables to

### CS143 Notes: Normalization Theory

CS143 Notes: Normalization Theory Book Chapters (4th) Chapters 7.1-6, 7.8, 7.10 (5th) Chapters 7.1-6, 7.8 (6th) Chapters 8.1-6, 8.8 INTRODUCTION Main question How do we design good tables for a relational

### Participant Tracking Functionality

Participant Tracking Functionality Opening a visit schedule to enrollment Before you are able to enroll a participant to a trial you must open the visit schedule to enrollment. Click on the visit schedule

### What is a database? The parts of an Access database

What is a database? Any database is a tool to organize and store pieces of information. A Rolodex is a database. So is a phone book. The main goals of a database designer are to: 1. Make sure the data

### Franchise Candidate Application

Hard Exercise Works 10190 Riverside Dr. #101, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, 33410 Franchise Candidate Application Date: Name: Address: City, State, Zip: Email: Business #: Home #: Cell #: Preferred Method

### The Relational Database Model

The Relational Database Model 1 Describing how to tune a relational database model would not be complete without a description of normalization. I have attempted to simplify normalization. When I attended

### Understanding the Database Design Process

67232976x_ch15.qxd 4/1/8 4:3 PM Page 1 15 Understanding the Database Design Process In this chapter, you ll learn the thought processes behind designing a relational database. After this theory-focused

### Normal forms and normalization

Normal forms and normalization An example of normalization using normal forms We assume we have an enterprise that buys products from different supplying companies, and we would like to keep track of our

### THE BCS PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATION Diploma October 2014 EXAMINERS REPORT Systems Analysis and Design

THE BCS PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATION Diploma October 2014 EXAMINERS REPORT Systems Analysis and Design Section A General Comments Many candidates lack the skill of being able to apply theoretical knowledge

### DATABASE INTRODUCTION

Introduction The history of database system research is one of exceptional productivity and startling economic impact. We have learnt that from the days of file-based systems there are better ways to handle

### Normalisation and Data Storage Devices

Unit 4 Normalisation and Data Storage Devices Structure 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Functional Dependency 4.3 Normalisation 4.3.1 Why do we Normalize a Relation? 4.3.2 Second Normal Form Relation 4.3.3 Third

### BCA. Database Management System

BCA IV Sem Database Management System Multiple choice questions 1. A Database Management System (DBMS) is A. Collection of interrelated data B. Collection of programs to access data C. Collection of data

### Relational Database Design

Relational Database Design To generate a set of relation schemas that allows - to store information without unnecessary redundancy - to retrieve desired information easily Approach - design schema in appropriate

### Database Concepts Using Microsoft Access

Database Concepts Using Microsoft Access lab 9 Objectives: Upon successful completion of Lab 9, you will be able to Understand fundamental concepts including database, table, record, field, field name,