# Accounting 1. Lesson Plan. Topic: Accounting for Inventory Unit: 4 Chapter 23

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1 Accounting 1 Lesson Plan Name: Terry Wilhelmi Day/Date: Topic: Accounting for Inventory Unit: 4 Chapter 23 I. Objective(s): By the end of today s lesson, the student will be able to: define accounting terms related to inventory. identify accounting concepts and practices related to inventory. determine the cost of merchandise inventory using the fifo, lifo, and weighted-average inventory costing methods. estimate the cost of merchandise inventory using the gross profit method of estimating inventory. II. Materials: Textbook Workbook Transparencies III. Anticipatory Set: Merchandise inventory on had is typically the largest asset of a merchandising business. Successful businesses must have merchandise available for sale that customers want. A business, therefore, needs controls that assist managers in maintaining a merchandise inventory of sufficient quantity, variety, and price. The cost of merchandise inventory is reported on both the balance sheet and the income statement. IV. Learning Activities:

2 2 CONTROLLING the QUANTITY of MERCHANDISE INVENTORY To determine the most efficient size of inventory, a business makes frequent analysis of purchases, sales, and inventory records. Many businesses fail because too much or too little merchandise inventory is kept on hand. Two principal methods are used to determine the quantity of each item of merchandise on hand: Periodic inventory - a merchandise inventory determined by counting, weighing, or measuring items of merchandise on hand. (Also known as a physical inventory). Perpetual inventory - a merchandise inventory determined by keeping a continuous record of increases, decreases, and balance on hand. Periodic Inventory Usually taken when merchandise is at its lowest point (after the Christmas season). Inventory record- a form used during a periodic inventory to record information about each item of merchandise on hand. Illustration 23-1, pg. 627 Includes stock number, unit description, units on hand, unit price, and total cost. Perpetual Inventory Provides day-to-day information about the quantity of merchandise on hand. Stock record- a form used to show the kind of merchandise, quantity received, quantity sold, and balance on hand. Illustration 23-2, pg. 627 A separate stock record is prepared for each kind of merchandise on hand. Shows quantity but usually not the cost of the merchandise. Minimum balance - the quantity of merchandise that will typically last until the ordered merchandise can be received from the vendors. Increase, decrease, and balance section.

3 3 Stock ledger - a file of stock records for all merchandise on hand. Mistakes may be made in recording or calculating amounts. A customary practice is to take a periodic inventory at least once a fiscal period. The perpetual records are corrected to reflect the actual quantity on hand as determined by the periodic inventory. Perpetual Inventory Using a Computer Special cash registers and checkout counters are used that have devices to read the Universal Product Codes (UPC codes) marked on products. Illustration 23-3, pg. 628 A stock register for all merchandise on hand is stored in the computer. Each time a UPC code is read at the checkout counter, the computer reduces the units on hand to reflect the item sold. DETERMINING the COST of MERCHANDISE INVENTORY Total costs are calculated using purchase invoices to find merchandise unit prices and the quantities arrived from the inventory. Most businesses use one of three inventory costing methods to calculate the cost of merchandise inventory: First-in, first-out (FIFO) Last-in, first-out (LIFO) Weighted-average

4 4 First-In, First-Out Inventory Costing Method Using the price of merchandise purchased first to calculate the cost of merchandise sold. The cost of the ending inventory, therefore, consists of the most recent cost of merchandise purchased. Read the example on pages 629 & 630. Last-In, First-Out Inventory Costing Method Using the price of merchandise purchased last to calculate the cost of merchandise sold first. Based on the idea that the most recent costs of merchandise should be charged against current revenue. Read the example on pages 630. Weighted-Average Inventory Costing Method Using the average cost of beginning inventory plus merchandise purchased during a fiscal period to calculate the cost of merchandise sold. The average unit price of the total inventory available is calculated. This average unit price is used to calculate both ending inventory and cost of merchandise sold. The average cost of merchandise is then charged against current revenue. Read the example on pages 630 & 631.

5 5 A business should choose the inventory costing method that provides its managers with the best accounting information. Comparison of the three methods - Illustration 23-4, pg. 632 FIFO - gives the highest possible ending inventory cost and the lowest cost of merchandise sold. LIFO - gives the lowest possible ending inventory cost and the highest cost of merchandise sold. Weighted-average - gives ending inventory cost and cost of merchandise sold between fifo and lifo. As the cost of merchandise sold increases, gross profit and net income decrease. Net income is highest under the fifo method, lowest under the lifo method, and intermediate under the weighted-average method. To provide financial statements that can be analyzed and compared wit statements of other fiscal periods, the same inventory costing method should be used each fiscal period. ESTIMATING the COST of MERCHANDISE INVENTORY Gross Profit method of estimating inventory - estimating inventory by using the previous years percentage of gross profit on operations. Often used to estimate the cost of the monthly ending inventory and is used to prepare monthly financial statements. Provides businesses with a method of calculating inventory costs that is less expensive than taking a periodic inventory or maintaining a perpetual inventory system.

6 6 To estimate the ending merchandise inventory, the following information is obtained: Beginning inventory Net purchases for period Net sales for period Gross profit on operations (based on records from previous year s operations) Four steps are followed to estimate the ending merchandise inventory for period: 1) Determine the cost of merchandise available for sale Beginning inventory + net purchases for period 2) Estimate the gross profit on operations Net sales for period x previous year s gross profit percentage 3) Estimate the cost of merchandise sold Net sales for period - estimated gross profit on operations 4) Estimate the cost of ending merchandise inventory Cost of merchandise available for sale - estimated cost of merchandise sold The estimated ending merchandise inventory for the period is used on that period s income statement. Illustration 23-5, pg. 634 Summary Illustration 23-6, pg. 636

7 7 Assignment: Be sure you know and understand: the meaning of terms 1-9, pg the answers to questions 1-15, pg answer Case 1 & 2, pg do Problem 23-1 & 23-2, pg Assignment: Problem 23-M, pg V. Closure: To review for test do Study Guide 23 and Problem 23-M. VI. Evaluation of Student Learning: Students will be evaluated using Problem 23-M, and Chapter 23 test.

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