1 Post Conflict Agricultural Development in Ethiopia: General Overview Jemal Yousuf, Haramaya University, Ethiopia
2 Context of conflict Ethiopia was engulfed with conflict all through the 1980s The conflict started in post-imperial period ( ) escalated as a response to unpopular brutal socialist military government of the Derg ( ) The conflict consists of war with neighboring Somalia, the Eritrean independent movement, and ethnically-based insurgent movement, first started in north-west of the country and later north-east, south-east, south-west of Ethiopia.
3 Context of conflict cont d The anti-derg force which started in northwest later united into a coalition of parties, Ethiopian People s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). In May 1991 the EPRDF brought end to the military dictatorship of Derg and ruling the country to date (Rhamato and Ayenew, 2004).
4 Context of conflict cont d Post conflict, Ethiopia is a federal state with 9 regional states & 2 city administrations. Since 1991, Ethiopia has embarked on transition from a centralized undemocratic nation to a democratic state with leadership of the current ruling party, the Ethiopian People s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)
5 Context of conflict cont d The present government of EPRDF inherited a devastated economy and massive levels of poverty and unemployment. Since then the government undertaken policy reforms whereby agriculture has been given a leading role in the country's economic development.
6 The role of agriculture in the economy, post/protracted reconstruction and development The Ethiopian economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for: a little over 40% of GDP, 90% of the total export revenue and employs about 85% of the country s labour force (Davis et al., 2010; FDRE, 2012).
7 Role of Agriculture.cont d However, Ethiopian agriculture is virtually small-scale, subsistence-oriented and crucially dependent on rainfall. About 90 % of the country s agricultural output is generated by subsistence farmers that use traditional tools and farming practices
8 Role of Agriculture.cont d About 11.7 million smallholder households account for approximately 95 % of agricultural GDP and 85 % of employment. About 25 % of rural households earn some income from non-farm enterprises, but less than 3% rely exclusively on income from such enterprises.
9 Role of Agriculture.cont d Ethiopia has tremendous potential for agricultural development. It has a total area of about 1.13 million km2 and about 51.3 million ha of arable land, However, only about 11.7 million ha of land are currently being cultivated (i.e. just over 20 % of the total arable area). Nearly 55 % of all smallholder farmers operate on one hectare or less. Cereals dominate Ethiopian agriculture, accounting for about 70 % of agricultural GDP. Livestock production accounts for about 32 % of agricultural GDP and draught animal power is critical for all farming systems.
10 Phases in the post/protracted-crisis reconstruction & dev t of agriculture Realizing the importance of agriculture in the national economy, the Ethiopian Government has embraced the Agricultural Development Led-Industrialization (ADLI) strategy to promote the economic development of the country since the early 1990s.
11 phases in post conflict con t Agriculture has been a central pillar of the successive development plans of the country that included: Sustainable Development & Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP), which covered the years 2002/ /05 and the Plan for Accelerated and Sustainable Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) which ran from 2005/ /10. During these plan periods the Government invested heavily in agriculture (Davis et al., 2010; FDRE, 2010)
12 Phases in post conflict con t On the basis of the experiences gained during the preceding plan periods and the national vision, the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) was prepared for the 2010/ /15 period. Like all the preceding plans, the GTP envisages that the agricultural sector will continue to be the major source of economic growth of the country.
13 Agricultural dev t in post conflict con t Phases in post conflict con t For example: Sustainable Economic Growth and Risk Reduction (SEGRR) is among the pillars of GTP. Under this pillar key areas considered include: natural resource management (including water resources, biodiversity, land productivity), climate change, community capacity to manage, food security,
14 Phases in post conflict con t private sector development access to markets and financial services, legal and institutional enabling environment, and extension services and research scaling-up best practices.
15 Phases in post conflict con t Among the expected outcome from the SEGRR includes by the end of 2015, agricultural producers increasingly use improved institutional services, efficient marketing system, and appropriate technology and practices for sustainable increase in agricultural production and productivity.
16 Phases in post conflict con t In general, in the GTP, the Government s strategic investment framework for agriculture emphasizes the intensification of marketable farm products both for the domestic and export markets by small and large farmers while protecting and sustainably developing the natural resource base.
17 Phases in post conflict con t The GTP also envisages differentiation among the three main agro-ecological zones. i) In the adequate moisture areas the focus will be on: scaling up best production and marketing practices to increase productivity by supplying agricultural inputs and providing training to development agents (DAs) and farmers. Particular attention will be given to soil fertility management using organic and inorganic fertilisers; improved rain-fed agronomic methods;
18 Phases in post conflict con t irrigation and improved water use efficiency; production and distribution of seed; natural resource conservation; livestock and forage development; capacity building, and strengthening research-extension-farmer linkages.
19 Phases in post conflict con t ii) In the moisture deficit areas the focus will be: on soil and water conservation, and watershed management using labour-based methods. Particular attention will be given to underground and surface water utilisation; development of small ruminants, poultry and apiculture; and productive safety net initiatives to underpin food security for vulnerable households. Steps will also be taken to strengthen Government implementation capacity in the moisture deficit areas.
20 Phases in post conflict con t In the pastoral areas the GTP will focus on: livestock development; water for people and livestock; forage development; irrigation; improving the livestock marketing system; and strengthening implementation capacity.
21 Post conflict capacity strengthening interventions & consequences on agril dv t The GoE has committed huge resources to strengthen the intervention capacity for agril dev t. Among its commitment includes high level of investment in improving extension advisory service, national research institution, opening-up of new regional agricultural/agro pastoral research institute, agricultural education Organizational reforms (IFPRI, 2010; MoARD, 2010).
22 Post conflict capacity strengthening intervention cont d The GOE appears committed to developing the largest agricultural extension system in sub-saharan Africa (SSA). In 2009, there were about 8,489 FTCs established at the kebele level, with roughly 2,500 of these FTCs reported to be fully functional by then. about 45,000 DAs were on duty at the kebele level, of whom about 12 to 22 % are women, depending on the region.
23 Post conflict capacity strengthening intervention cont d The number of Das was expected to increase to roughly 60,000 when all FTCs established and are fully functional. About 62,764 DAs have graduated from the Agricultural Technical and Vocational Education and Training (ATVETs) as of 2008, with 12 percent of them being female.
24 Post conflict capacity strengthening intervention cont d In collaboration with donors different extension system have undertaken For example, based on experience of SG-2000, PADETES has been underway FRG/ FREG with support of JICA, RCPB project (funded by world Bank)
25 Post conflict capacity strengthening intervention cont d OUTCOMES OF THE INTERVENTION The agricultural sector has shown substantial growth over most of the last two decades. Since 1996/97 the average growth rate of the agricultural GDP has been about 10 % per annum, and Since 2004/05 the sector has been reported to have expanded at around 13 % per annum, which easily surpasses the CAADP target of 6 %.
26 OUTCOMES OF THE INTERVENTION Over this period the food poverty head count decreased from 44 % in 1999/00 to 38 % in 2005/06, and was expected to be under 30 % by 2009/10. Per capita grain production increased from below 150kg in 2003/04 to 213kg in 2007/08, which is close to meeting the minimum 2,100 kcal/day nutritional standard. Ethiopia could also produce some milliner farmers although other farmers are still grappling with poverty (IFPRI, 2010)
27 Lessons for and future outlook on capacity strengthening for agricultural research and innovation Despite the importance of agriculture in Ethiopian economy low productivity characterizes its agriculture. This is in contrast to government investment in regional and federal research institutions and extension advisory services over the last two decades.
28 Lesson learned Cont d The absence of effective linkage between agricultural research and extension systems has repeatedly been reported as one of the major reasons for the low productivity of Ethiopian agriculture. There had been no forum where this linkage problem had not been raised as a result of which it has become a concern among policy makers, researchers, development practitioners and funding organizations (Task Force on Agricultural Extension, 1994; FDRE, 1999a; Davis et al., 2010; MoA, 2010).
29 Lesson learned Cont d Partly, as a solution to the weak researchextension linkage, in 1999, the GOE issued a policy document to establish Research-Extension Advisory Councils (REACs) at the federal, regional, and zonal levels. Realizing that the RELCs had not been institutionally anchored, that famers had not been represented in RELCs, the GOE decided to replace RECLCs with Agricultural Development Partners Linkage Advisory Councils (ADPLACs) in 2008.
30 Lesson learned Cont d The ADPLACs are multi-stakeholder platforms that are operational at federal, regional, zonal and woreda levels. The main changes that came with the establishment of ADPLACs include wider constituency and membership, institutionalization of the councils through the Bureaus of Agriculture and the establishment of councils at woreda level. The general performance of the ADPLACs platforms is found to be progressive.
31 Some challenges Low motivation of Das For example the overall total (60, 000) for DAs trained compared to DAs serving (45,000) in 2009 was indicated that some ATVET graduates have left the extension system since graduating from the ATVET system (IFPRI, 2010). Low level of skill of Das In areas of linking farmers to market In areas of value chain High production with low market support leading to subsequent low adoption of improved technologies (e.g. maize in some years)
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